Summary: The Path To Slavery

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Summary: The Path To Slavery



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Why Did Europeans Enslave Africans?

Hill, the Confederates paraded the Union survivors through the streets of Petersburg to the slurs and jeers of the southern crowd. Lee never discouraged such behavior. After the war, Lee did advise defeated southerners not to rise up against the North. Lee might have become a rebel once more, and urged the South to resume fighting—as many of his former comrades wanted him to. The war was not about slavery, Lee insisted later, but if it were about slavery, it was only out of Christian devotion that white southerners fought to keep black people enslaved. And it is only this consideration that has led the wisdom, intelligence and Christianity of the South to support and defend the institution up to this time.

Lee had beaten or ordered his own slaves to be beaten for the crime of wanting to be free; he fought for the preservation of slavery; his army kidnapped free black people at gunpoint and made them unfree—but all of this, he insisted, had occurred only because of the great Christian love the South held for black Americans. I wish them no evil in the world—on the contrary, will do them every good in my power, and know that they are misled by those to whom they have given their confidence; but our material, social, and political interests are naturally with the whites. Publicly, Lee argued against the enfranchisement of black Americans, and raged against Republican efforts to enforce racial equality in the South.

Lee is not remembered as an educator, but his life as president of Washington College later Washington and Lee is tainted as well. Lee died in , as Democrats and ex-Confederates were commencing a wave of terrorist violence that would ultimately reimpose their domination over the southern states. The KKK was founded in ; there is no evidence Lee ever spoke up against it. On the contrary, he darkly intimated in his interview with the Herald that the South might be moved to violence again if peace did not proceed on its terms.

That was prescient. Some of the Anglicans, called Puritans, thought that there should be more distinction between their Church of England and the Catholic Church. Some Puritans, called the Separatists, didn't want to belong to the Church of England at all anymore. King James, who was the head of the Church of England, would not allow the Separatists to practice religion on their own. To escape the situation in England, a small group of Separatists left Europe on the Mayflower ship. In , the ship landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, carrying passengers. Many were Separatists, who became known as the Pilgrims.

They established Plymouth Colony. After the Pilgrims, many more people flocked to the new colonies for religious reasons: About , Puritans emigrated from England during the years to After the Pilgrims, many other immigrants came to America for the religious freedom it offered. The colony of Maryland was founded in as a refuge for Catholics, who were persecuted in England in the 17th century. In , William Penn began a Quaker colony in the land that was later named after him: Pennsylvania.

The main settlement was Philadelphia, which prospered through farming and commerce. In , 14, Huguenots who were persecuted in France also joined the growing English colonies. Early immigrants to America settled up and down the East Coast. Farming was difficult in the rocky soil of New England, so people grew only enough food for their families to live on. This is called subsistence farming. They also became fishermen, fishing cod in the Atlantic Ocean and selling it to the European markets.

As they needed good ships for fishing, they started making them, becoming successful shipbuilders. In the South, where farming was easier, colonists started large plantations to grow crops, such as tobacco, rice, and indigo. Indigo was a rich blue dye, mainly used for dyeing textiles. Plantations depended on the free labor of the slaves. Many more slaves were forced to come to America to meet the demand for labor. By the time of the Revolutionary War, about 2. As the colonies grew, people began to look past the natural barrier of the Appalachian Mountains. They moved west into the frontier lands, in what is now Ohio, and beyond.

The colonies grew prosperous and the population increased. Between the time of the first settlements and the Revolutionary War, about seven generations of people were born in America. Many of them no longer wanted to be ruled by the English throne. And they didn't want to pay taxes to the English government when they had no colonial representation in the Parliament. The Loyalists were colonists who wanted to remain part of England. The Patriots and Loyalists were bitterly divided on the issue. In , the Continental Congress, a group of leaders from each of the 13 colonies, issued the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration stated that the United States of America was its own country. The Patriots fought England in the Revolutionary War to gain independence for the colonies.

In , with the help of the French, who had joined their side, the colonists won the war. The United States of America was a new nation. The new government conducted a census, or count, of everyone living in the United States. At the time of the first census in , nearly ,00 Africans and 3 million Europeans lived in the new United States. In the decades after the Revolutionary War, the 13 original colonies grew to include states stretching from Maine in the north to Louisiana in the south; from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to Illinois in the west.

As a new nation, the United States of America thrived. By , the population had grown to nearly 10 million people. The quality of life for ordinary people was improving. People were moving west, creating towns along the route of the Transcontinental Railroad, which connected the entire country by rail, east to west, for the first time. The prosperous young country lured Europeans who were struggling with population growth, land redistribution, and industrialization, which had changed the traditional way of life for peasants. These people wanted to escape poverty and hardship in their home countries. More than 8 million would come to the United States from to At the turn of the 19th century, more than 1 million African Americans lived in the United States.

As slaves, they were not considered citizens. Large farms and plantations depended on the free labor they provided in fields and homes. It was difficult, backbreaking work. In , the United States government banned the importation of enslaved people into the country, although the practice did continue illegally. Slavery, however, was not abolished for nearly 60 more years. In the early and midth century, nearly all of the immigrants coming to the United States arrived from northern and western Europe. In , seven out of 10 foreign-born people in the United States were Irish or German.

Most of the Irish were coming from poor circumstances. With little money to travel any further, they stayed in the cities where they arrived, such as Boston and New York City. More than 2,, Irish arrived between and The Germans who came during the time period were often better off than the Irish were. They had enough money to journey to the Midwestern cities, such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, or to claim farmland. More than 2,, Germans arrived between and In , a famine began in Ireland. A potato fungus, also called blight, ruined the potato crop for several years in a row. Potatoes were a central part of the Irish diet, so hundreds of thousands of people now didn't have enough to eat.

At the same time of the famine, diseases, such as cholera, were spreading. Starvation and disease killed more than a million people. These extreme conditions caused mass immigration of Irish people to the United States. Between and , more than a million Irish are estimated to have arrived in America. The men found jobs building railroads, digging canals, and working in factories; they also became policemen and firemen. Irish women often worked as domestic servants.

Even after the famine ended, Irish people continued to come to America in search of a better life. More than 3. In the early s, the United States was in crisis. The Northern states and Southern states could not agree on the issue of slavery. Most people in the Northern states thought slavery was wrong. People in South, where the plantations depended on slavery, wanted to continue the practice. In , the Civil War began between the North and South. It would be an extremely bloody war; over , people would die in the fighting.

Many immigrants fought in the war. Since immigrants had settled mostly in the North, where factories provided jobs and small farms were available, hundreds of thousands of foreign-born men fought for the Union. In , President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that all the slaves in the rebelling Southern states were free. It was the beginning of the end of slavery. To ensure that the abolishment of slavery was permanent, Congress passed the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, which outlawed slavery throughout the United States.

The 14th Amendment, adopted in , declared that African Americans were citizens of the United States. In , African Americans numbered almost 5 million and made up In the late 19th century, America was looking west. People began moving away from the now crowded Eastern cities. Some were motivated by the Homestead Act of , which offered free land from the government. The government offered to give acres of land—considered a good size for a single family to farm—in areas including Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska. Homesteaders were required to stay on the land, build a home, and farm the land for five years. The offer attracted migrants from inside the country—and waves of more immigrants from Europe. For example, many people from Sweden, where land was extremely scarce, were drawn to come to the United States.

These brave settlers worked hard to start a new life on the frontier. Though life was difficult, many succeeded. The Transcontinental Railroad was a massive construction project that linked the country by rail from east to west. The railway was built entirely by hand during a six-year period, with construction often continuing around the clock. Chinese and Irish immigrants were vital to the project. In , Chinese immigrants made up about 80 percent of the workforce of the Central Pacific Railroad, one of the companies building the railway. The workers of the Union Pacific Railroad, another company that built the railroad, were mostly Irish immigrants.

These railroad workers labored under dangerous conditions, often risking their lives. After the Transatlantic Railroad was completed, cities and towns sprung up all along its path, and immigrants moved to these new communities. In the early days of British colonialism in North America, land was granted to individuals or corporations via charters, which were given by the king himself. However, even kings can make mistakes, and when Charles II granted William Penn a charter for land in America, he gave him territory that he had already granted to both Maryland and Delaware!

What an idiot!? He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed. Philadelphia was planned out to be grid-like with its streets and be very easy to navigate, unlike London where Penn was from. The streets are named with numbers and tree names. But in his defense, the map he was using was inaccurate, and this threw everything out of whack. But as all the colonies grew in population and sought to expand westward , the matter of the unresolved border became a much more prominent in mid-Atlantic politics.

In colonial times, as in modern times, too, borders and boundaries were critical. Lord Baltimore was an English nobleman who was the first Proprietor of the Province of Maryland, ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and second of the colony of Province of Avalon to its southeast. A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania in Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in As a result, solving this border dispute became a major issue, and it became an even bigger deal when violent conflict broke out in the mids over land claimed by both people from Pennsylvania and Maryland.

To stop this madness, the Penns, who controlled Pennsylvania, and the Calverts, who were in charge of Maryland, hired Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to survey the territory and draw a boundary line to which everyone could agree. But Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon only did this because the Maryland governor had agreed to a border with Delaware.

He later argued the terms he signed to were not the ones he had agreed to in person, but the courts made him stick to what was on paper. Always read the fine print! This agreement made it easier to settle the dispute between Pennsylvania and Maryland because they could use the now established boundary between Maryland and Delaware as a reference. All they had to do was extend a line west from the southern boundary of Philadelphia, and…. Limestone markers measuring up to 5ft 1. Later, in , Pennsylvania and Virginia agreed to extend the Mason-Dixon Line west by five degrees of longitude to create the border between the two colines-turned-states By , the American Revolution was underway and the colonies were no longer colonies. In , surveyors David Rittenhouse and Andrew Ellicott and their crew completed the survey of the Mason—Dixon line to the southwest corner of Pennsylvania, five degrees from the Delaware River.

Other surveyors continued west to the Ohio River. The section of the line between the southwestern corner of Pennsylvania and the river is the county line between Marshall and Wetzel counties, West Virginia. In , during the American Civil War , West Virginia separated from Virginia and rejoined the Union, but the line remained as the border with Pennsylvania. The Mason—Dixon line along the southern Pennsylvania border later became informally known as the boundary between the free Northern states and the slave Southern states. The official report on the survey, issued in , did not even mention their names.

It Examples Of Capital Crime become the first English colony to succeed in America, but its beginning was exceptionally Examples Of Capital Crime. This language—also found frequently in On So Called Spanglish Analysis actions without agents, slavery without enslavers, Personal Narrative Essay On Senior Quest without choice. Received 19 Jul