Benefits Of Lowering The Voting Age
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Should the voting age be lowered to 16? - Outburst
The accompanying map is an example. It maps the results of the United States presidential election. These maps might be considered "thematic maps" while the election is in progress and while the results are in the news. However, shortly thereafter they might be considered as "reference maps" of historical significance. Physical Map: This physical map of Eurasia shows the topography of the land in a color-gradient relief. Dark greens are used for near-sea-level elevations, and the green grades to tan and brown as elevation increases.
The highest elevations are shown in shades of gray. If you are familiar with the physical features of Eurasia, you can probably recognize the Himalaya Mountain Range, the Tibetan Plateau, the Alps, and the more subtle Ural Mountains. Lake Baikal, the world's largest freshwater lake by volume, can be seen in central Asia. Physical maps are designed to show the natural landscape features of Earth. They are best known for showing topography, either by colors or as shaded relief. Physical maps often have a green to brown to gray color scheme for showing the elevation of the land. Darker greens are used for near-sea-level elevations, with the color grading into tans and browns as elevations increase.
The color gradient often terminates in shades of gray for the highest elevations. Rivers, lakes, seas and oceans are usually shown in blue, often with a light blue color for the most shallow areas and darkening in a gradient or by intervals for areas of deeper water. Glaciers and ice caps are shown in white colors. Physical maps usually show the most important political boundaries, such as state and country boundaries. Major cities and major roads are often shown. This cultural information is not the focus of a physical map, but it is often included for geographic reference and to increase the utility of the map for many users.
Google Map of Washington, D. It superbly presents road and street maps. It is also the world's favorite route planning and street view service. The service has been specifically designed for those tasks. Google Maps also has special tools that enable you to query "nearby" restaurants, hotels, bars and pubs, museums, pizza, bike shops, schools, attorneys, etc. If you allow Google Maps to use your current GPS location, you can use the "add destination" tool to plot a car, walking, bike, or public transportation route. Google Maps will even estimate the amount of time required for your trip. The author uses this feature of Google Maps more than any other mapping tool. The digital mapping revolution caused an explosion of map creation in the s.
In , MapQuest , the first popular online mapping service, allowed anyone with internet access the ability to create customized maps of almost any location in the United States. Within a few months, millions of people had become "cartographers". They were soon producing more unique maps in a single day than had been created during the entire history of paper cartography! Today, Google Maps is the world's most popular online mapping system. In addition to maps, the service also provides travel route directions.
It can create directions for people who are driving, taking public transportation, walking, cycling or taking a plane. Billions of unique maps, millions of travel routes, and millions of street views are created each day with Google Maps. It is the first place millions of people go to plan any type of travel. Google has another product named " Google Earth " that allows people to view streets, roads and satellite images within a single interface.
Google Earth is a free download - the software installs on your computer and fetches the image directly from the Google Earth server. The maps present a combination of road, topography, cultural and recreational information. These "hybrid maps" are a favorite of people who work and play outdoors in rural areas. This map shows Earth's topography using brown contour lines with a contour interval of 20 feet.
Roads, place names, streams and other features are also shown. Areas on the map where the brown contour lines are close together have steep slopes. Areas where the contour lines are spaced far apart have gentler slopes. If you would like to view the full 7. This map is a very large file over 30 megabytes and will take a few minutes to download on some desktop computers and mobile phones. They usually do this with lines of equal elevation known as "contour lines", but elevation can also be shown using colors second map , color gradients , shaded relief and a number of other methods. Topographic maps are frequently used by hunters, hikers, skiers, and others seeking outdoor recreation. They are also essential tools of the trade for geologists, surveyors, engineers, construction workers, landscape planners, architects, biologists and many other professions - especially people in the military.
Topographic maps also show other important natural features such as lakes, rivers and streams. Their locations are determined by topography, making them important natural elements of topographic maps. Important cultural features are also shown on topographic maps. These include roads, trails, buildings, place names, bench marks, cemeteries, churches, schools and much more. A standardized set of special symbols has been developed for this use. Topographic maps have traditionally been printed on large sheets of paper with their four boundaries being lines of longitude and latitude.
The United States Geological Survey is the most widely known organization for producing them. They produce a series of 7. These maps and maps of many other scales are available from USGS in both print and digital form. Commercial publishers of topographic maps include the DeLorme Atlas paper maps in books with state-wide coverage and MyTopo a source of digital and paper maps in traditional topographic and topophoto formats - we are affiliates of MyTopo and receive a commission on referred sales.
World Time Zone Map: On this map, the world's 24 time zones are shown as colored bands. By looking at the numbers along the top and bottom of the map, you can determine the time difference between two locations. Time zones do not follow lines of longitude. Instead they mostly follow political boundaries, with many variations made for social and commercial convenience. Click to enlarge this time zone map compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency. Time zones are regions of the world where people set their clocks to display the same time of day. This synchronization of time has many commercial, navigational, and social benefits.
By international agreement there are 24 time zones around the world. These 24 zones are shown in the accompanying time zone map. In each of these zones, noon occurs at the approximate time of the solar mid-day. The actual solar noon occurs a little earlier in the east side of the time zone and a little later in the west. This variation is caused by Earth's rotation. Time zone maps are reference maps that people use to determine the time in different parts of the world.
For example if a person in New York City wants to phone a person in Los Angeles, he can look at a time zone map and determine that New York City time is three hours ahead of Los Angeles time. This helps people to avoid placing calls outside of business hours and helps people in different time zones schedule meetings and phone calls at mutually agreeable times. Time zones are usually superimposed on a political map of the world or a map of a large single country such as the United States. The roads and city streets can faintly be seen through the translucent colors of the geologic units.
The western portion of the map is underlain by Quaternary sediments, while the eastern portion is underlain by folded and intensely faulted bedrock. Dotted lines show the probable traces of faults buried below the Quaternary sediments. Geologic maps of this area can be important first tools in conducting an earthquake hazard assessment. Graymer, U. Geologic maps show the types of rocks and sediments present immediately below the surface of a geographic area. Sediment cover is shown in shades of yellow, and rock units are shown in a variety of colors, often based upon their lithology. Rock unit contacts, faults, folds, and strike and dip measurements are plotted in black. Geologic maps are important data sources for many types of work.
Certain types of rock are used for construction materials, and a geologic map shows where they are located at the surface. Other types of rock might contain valuable minerals , and a geologic map can be used as a preliminary tool for deciding where to drill or prospect. Areas near volcanoes might be underlain by lava flows, lahar deposits, pyroclastic flows or other volcanic products. Geologic maps can be used to conduct a preliminary volcanic hazard assessment of an area.
Construction projects require good foundation materials and sources of crushed stone and other materials. Geologic maps can be used for the preliminary work of identifying potentially stable sites near economic sources of suitable construction materials. Geologic Cross-Section illustrating the subsurface structure of rocks in the map area above. One of the most important benefits of education is how it improves personal lives and helps societies run smoothly. We live longer, fuller, and happier lives as learned and knowledgeable individuals. Education - the accumulated knowledge and abilities attained over years of learning - makes people aware of what they are capable of, allowing them to enhance their lives and contribute to the world at large.
After spending many years learning, people tend to feel happier and more content as they lead educated lives. The knowledge students gather and skills they develop that stem from their education allow them to participate in cultural and societal events and activities. Consequently, education promotes fulfilling, fuller lifestyles. Aside from improving day-by-day living, educated individuals tend to live longer lives than their uneducated counterparts. Education is essential in improving our lifestyles and overall well-being because it makes us aware of what we know and what we can do.
We lead happier lives with the knowledge we accumulate and the skills we acquire throughout our educational years. Happier people are healthier people; the life expectancy of those who are educated is longer, on average, than those who are lacking in their education. Improved mental, physical and emotional health can all be attributed to education.. According to Michael Kruger and Ernest Abel in the Psychological Reports journal, the rates of suicide for educated individuals is far lower than their uneducated counterparts.
Learned people lead fuller, more meaningful lives and consequently have greater inspiration to keep on living and to fulfill their life goals and dreams. Society as a whole benefits as a result of education. An educated community is a united community. Anne Bert Dijkstra, a professor at the Arizona State University, writes that in order for a society to grow, it must share common goals and values while simultaneously promoting variance and uniqueness.
Education helps to promote an awareness of these practices and how we should perform or observe them. When considering the potential benefits of pursuing an education, the idea of a stable and successful career generally comes to mind: individuals who pursue higher education are generally wealthier than those who do not. The Section c formula encompasses jurisdictions where the following conditions exist:. Section b defines "limited-English proficient" as being "unable to speak or understand English adequately enough to participate in the electoral process".
Additionally, under Section d , a jurisdiction may "bail out" of Section c coverage by proving in federal court that no language minority group within the jurisdiction has an English illiteracy rate that is higher than the national illiteracy rate. After its enactment in , the law immediately decreased racial discrimination in voting. The suspension of literacy tests and the assignments of federal examiners and observers allowed for high numbers of racial minorities to register to vote. In , the percent of Hispanics registered to vote was The number of Asian Americans registered to vote in increased 58 percent by After the Act's initial success in combating tactics designed to deny minorities access to the polls, the Act became predominately used as a tool to challenge racial vote dilution.
In the s, 60 percent of Section 2 lawsuits challenged at-large election systems; in the s, Overall, plaintiffs succeeded in By enfranchising racial minorities, the Act facilitated a political realignment of the Democratic and Republican parties. Between and , minority disenfranchisement allowed conservative Southern Democrats to dominate Southern politics. After Johnson signed the Act into law, newly enfranchised racial minorities began to vote for liberal Democratic candidates throughout the South, and Southern white conservatives began to switch their party registration from Democrat to Republican en masse. By packing liberal-leaning racial minorities into small numbers of majority-minority districts, large numbers of surrounding districts became more solidly white, conservative, and Republican.
While this increased the elected representation of racial minorities as intended, it also decreased white Democratic representation and increased the representation of Republicans overall. Research shows that the Act successfully and massively increased voter turnout and voter registration, in particular among blacks. Additional results for Democratic vote share suggest that some of this overall increase in turnout may have come from reactionary whites. Early in the Act's enforcement history, the Supreme Court addressed the constitutionality of several provisions relating to voter qualifications and prerequisites to voting. In Katzenbach v. Morgan , the court upheld the constitutionality of Section 4 e. This section prohibits jurisdictions from administering literacy tests to citizens who attain a sixth-grade education in an American school in which the predominant language was Spanish, such as schools in Puerto Rico.
Northampton County Board of Elections that literacy tests did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment,  in Morgan the court held that Congress could enforce Fourteenth Amendment rights—such as the right to vote—by prohibiting conduct it deemed to interfere with such rights, even if that conduct may not be independently unconstitutional. Mitchell Also in Oregon v. Mitchell , the Supreme Court addressed the constitutionality of various other provisions relating to voter qualifications and prerequisites to voting. The court upheld Section , which prohibits every state and local government from requiring people to live in their borders for longer than 30 days before allowing them to vote in a presidential election.
Additionally, the court upheld the provision lowering the minimum voting age to 18 in federal elections, but it held that Congress exceeded its power by lowering the voting age to 18 in state elections; this precipitated the ratification of the Twenty-sixth Amendment the following year, which lowered the voting age in all elections to The court was deeply divided in Oregon v. Mitchell , and a majority of justices did not agree on a rationale for the holding. The constitutionality of Section 2, which contains a general prohibition on discriminatory voting laws, has not been definitively explained by the Supreme Court. As amended in , Section 2 prohibits any voting practice that has a discriminatory effect, irrespective of whether the practice was enacted or is administered for the purpose of discriminating.
This "results test" contrasts with the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, both of which directly prohibit only purposeful discrimination. Given this disparity, whether the Supreme Court would uphold the constitutionality of Section 2 as appropriate legislation passed to enforce the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, and under what rationale, remains unclear. In Mississippi Republican Executive Opinion v. Brooks ,  the Supreme Court summarily affirmed, without a written opinion, a lower court's decision that amendment to Section 2 is constitutional. They reasoned that the case presented complex constitutional issues that warranted a full hearing.
When making later decisions, the Supreme Court is more likely to disregard a previous judgment if it lacks a written opinion, but for lower courts the Supreme Court's unwritten summary affirmances are as binding as are Supreme Court judgments with written opinions. Partially due to Brooks , the constitutionality of the Section 2 results test has since been unanimously upheld by lower courts. The case Brnovich v.
Democratic National Committee evaluated the applicability of Section 2 in the wake of the decision of Shelby. While lower courts upheld the election laws, an en banc Ninth Circuit reversed the decision and found these laws to be in violation of Section 2. During oral arguments on March 2, , Michael Carvin, an attorney representing the Arizona Republican party, was asked by justice Amy Coney Barrett what interest the party had in defending the Arizona voting restrictions, to which Carvin replied, "Because it puts us at a competitive disadvantage relative to Democrats.
The Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of the Section 5 preclearance requirement in three cases. The first case was South Carolina v. Katzenbach ,  which was decided about five months after the Act's enactment. The court held that Section 5 constituted a valid use of Congress's power to enforce the Fifteenth Amendment, reasoning that "exceptional circumstances" of pervasive racial discrimination, combined with the inadequacy of case-by-case litigation in ending that discrimination, justified the preclearance requirement. The Supreme Court again upheld the preclearance requirement in City of Rome v.
United States The court also explicitly upheld the "discriminatory effect" prong of Section 5, stating that even though the Fifteenth Amendment directly prohibited only intentional discrimination, Congress could constitutionally prohibit unintentional discrimination to mitigate the risk that jurisdictions may engage in intentional discrimination. Finally, the court upheld the extension of Section 5 because of the record of discrimination that continued to persist in the covered jurisdictions. The court further suggested that the temporary nature of the special provisions was relevant to Section 5's constitutionality.
The final case in which the Supreme Court upheld Section 5 was Lopez v. Monterey County Lopez II Holder The District wished to move a voting location from a private home to a public school, but that change was subject to preclearance because Texas was a covered jurisdiction. The District did not register voters, and thus it did not appear to qualify as a "political subdivision" eligible to bail out of coverage. Although the court indicated in dicta a non-binding part of the court's opinion that Section 5 presented difficult constitutional questions, it did not declare Section 5 unconstitutional; instead, it interpreted the law to allow any covered local government, including one that does not register voters, to obtain an exemption from preclearance if it meets the bailout requirements.
In a 5—4 decision in Shelby County v. Holder ,  the Supreme Court struck down Section 4 b as unconstitutional. This prompted new legal challenges to these laws under other provisions unaffected by the court's decision, such as Section 2. Democratic National Committee in Supreme Court ruling which held that Section 2 preclearance provisions could not apply to out-of-precinct voting or ballot collecting. While Section 2 and Section 5 prohibit jurisdictions from drawing electoral districts that dilute the votes of protected minorities, the Supreme Court has held that in some instances, the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment prevents jurisdictions from drawing district lines to favor protected minorities.
The court first recognized the justiciability of affirmative "racial gerrymandering" claims in Shaw v. Reno Johnson ,  the court explained that a redistricting plan is constitutionally suspect if the jurisdiction used race as the "predominant factor" in determining how to draw district lines. For race to "predominate", the jurisdiction must prioritize racial considerations over traditional redistricting principles, which include "compactness, contiguity, [and] respect for political subdivisions or communities defined by actual shared interests. In Bush v. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Voting Rights Act. Piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
Introduced in the Senate as S. Johnson on August 6, South Carolina v. Katzenbach Katzenbach v. Morgan Allen v. State Board of Elections Oregon v. Mitchell Beer v. United States City of Rome v. United States City of Mobile v. Bolden Thornburg v. Gingles Growe v. Emison Voinovich v. Quilter Shaw v. Reno Holder v. Hall Johnson v. De Grandy Miller v. Johnson Bush v. Vera Lopez v. Monterey County Reno v. Bossier Parish School Board Georgia v. Perry Bartlett v.
Holder Shelby County v. Holder Brnovich v. Democratic National Committee Civil Rights Movement in Washington D. John R. Thompson Co. Bolling v. Sharpe 23rd U. Constitutional Amendment. Further information: Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction era. Play media. Main article: Amendments to the Voting Rights Act of See also: List of jurisdictions subject to the special provisions of the Voting Rights Act of Main article: Gerrymandering in the United States: Affirmative racial gerrymandering. United States portal Law portal Politics portal. The court later held, in Growe v. Emison , U. In contrast, the Fifth Circuit has held that such proof is a required component of the third precondition.
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