King Midas Research Paper

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King Midas Research Paper



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King Midas

His primary research interests are C-type lectin receptors and their role in homeostasis and immunity, with a particular focus on antifungal immunity. His research interests revolve around investigating immune regulation and dysregulation in the context of HIV infection or exposure. He focuses on Immune ontogeny in HIV exposed infants, placental investigations and pre-term birth, and epithelial immunity in the foreskin. Her Research Unit is involved with clinical research, epidemiology and operational research, and is a treatment site for HIV infected adults and children. Her research interests include HIV vaccine research, microbicide research and other biomedical and behavioural interventions, and she is an investigator in testing two HIV vaccine regimens in late stage clinical development.

He emerged in Berlin as the unquestioned star of the Olympics, setting or equaling records in the meter dash, the meter sprint, the meter relay and long jump. Owens returned home to the oppression of Jim Crow. Later, he established himself as a public speaker. As a believer in pursuing equality through economic rather than political means, he initially criticized the civil rights movement and the raised-fist Olympic protest by John Carlos and Tommie Smith. A smoker, he died of lung cancer in In many ways, he was the first black sports hero for all Americans.

It took decades for another to rise. From some of his earliest professional photographs of Ella Watson holding a mop and broom with an American flag draped behind her, to fashion spreads for Vogue magazine , Gordon Parks used the camera and the world around him to show not only the state of African-American life, but also to bring attention to the creativity of his people. Born Nov. He went on to become the first African-American photographer on the staff of Life magazine and produced some of the best photo essays the world has ever seen, from showing the world what it meant to be black in America to the story of year-old Flavio in the slums of Rio de Janeiro. These images resonated with readers and helped propel Life to a level of photojournalism that many say has not been seen since.

This path took Parks to Paris, Cuba and the streets of New York City, creating pictures that showed the beauty of design, colors and creativity of places that few people of color were able to reach. Parks was the first African-American director of major motion pictures, starting with The Learning Tree in and Shaft in The latter movie helped define the blaxploitation era, while simultaneously expanding the identity of African-Americans in films, from actors in front of the camera to producers and directors behind it. Parks, who died in , was a Renaissance man, with nearly two dozen books ranging from autobiography, poetry and photography, as well as 12 films he wrote or directed.

His work transformed how generations of black artists , photographers and musicians saw themselves and the world, opening their imaginations to the possibility of storytelling through images of the black experience. At a time when black folks were about to see the fruits of the civil rights struggle, the Oscar-winner challenged the American box office — and thus, the average American — about what a movie star looked like. Change was a-coming. The films that he created in were seminal — they all centered around race and race relations and tapped into conversations everyday black folks were having around their dinner tables. He earned a spot as a member of the American Negro Theater after a successful audition, and by the end of the s he was dipping his toe in film.

Perhaps the most important thing Poitier pulled off was to understand the importance of having someone who looked like him step behind the camera and direct. Visual presence is paramount, and power comes at the hands of those who can shape it. And now the cycle continues. That same year, Rolling Stone caught up with Pryor as he purchased a Walther. Born Dec. No comedian has used the black experience more effectively to express its complexities to diverse audiences. His was a comedy that black folks usually heard in private , that sometimes made white folks squeamish — yet appreciative of the reality check.

His life and career are a vision board of incredible highs, debilitating lows, tumultuous relationships and the ever-present demon of drug addiction. Later, there was multiple sclerosis. The justification lies in the basics, in the bones, that fundamental belief that African-Americans were sociologically and scientifically incapable of joining white society. The best way to consider Robinson is to consider the victory of his opposition had he failed. Joe Louis and Jesse Owens came before Robinson, but each participated in an individual sport, where whites could appreciate black talent, but not have to dine with them, share a cab with them, and yes, take a shower next to them. Blacks were enjoyed without having to remove the invisible wall of segregation as a national belief system or even consider the logic of its construction.

The African-American athlete is the most influential and important black employee in American history. Robinson leads the list and always will because of the colossal stakes of his failure. His opponents would have used him as proof African-Americans could not walk and live among whites, not just because they were black, but because they were convinced that blackness disqualified African-Americans from cultivation, dignity, refinement, responsibility, leadership, discipline and manners — the very foundations of Jim Crow and total black subjugation.

A Robinson misstep in performance was one thing, but in temperament would have been catastrophic. Certainly another black player would have been given a chance to integrate, but when? The dominoes of his failure alter the entire remainder of the 20th century. On the larger scale, a Robinson social failure likely keeps the military from integrating its units, which it did in , three years after Robinson was signed, or allowing blacks to stay in major hotels in several cities, as Robinson forced in St.

Louis in the s. Sojourner Truth, an escaped slave who lost her family, her first love and children to the peculiar institution, turned her pain and Christian faith into triumph by helping others — especially women — recognize their worth. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! Look at me! Born Isabella Baumfree in New York around , she was the ninth child born into an enslaved family. Truth pursued political equality for all women and spoke against other abolitionists for not pursuing civil rights for all black men and women. Her memoirs — The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave — were published in and she toured and spoke before ever-larger crowds. During the Civil War, she helped recruit black troops for the Union Army, which granted her the opportunity to speak with President Abraham Lincoln.

Truth died in at her home in Battle Creek, Michigan. Four decades later, the constitutional amendment extending the vote to women was ratified. She led hundreds of slaves out of the South to freedom and each journey and every person mattered. Born into slavery , she endured physical violence nearly every day in her early years. In one such incident, Tubman encountered a slave who left the fields without permission.

When she refused to restrain the runaway, the overseer hurled a two-pound weight at her, striking her in the head. The episode left lifelong episodes of headaches and seizures. Tubman escaped from slavery in , using the Underground Railroad to make the mile trip from Maryland to Philadelphia. Hearing that her niece and her children were going to be sold, she went back to the South and led them on the path to Philadelphia. Soon she came for her siblings. Then for her parents. After passage of the Fugitive Slave Law, which dictated that slaves who escaped to the North could be recaptured and returned to slavery, Tubman changed her route to end in Canada, a country where slavery was outlawed.

Even though there was a bounty for her capture, she made at least 19 trips. During the Civil War, she became a nurse and spy for the Union government. She tended to the sick and wounded, caring for soldiers both black and white. After the war, she cared for her parents and the needy, and turned her house into the Harriet Tubman Home for Indigent and Aged Negroes. Tubman died of pneumonia in and was buried with military honors. At first, it was all about hair and an ointment guaranteed to heal scalp infections. Sarah Breedlove — the poor washerwoman who would become millionaire entrepreneur Madam C. Walker — was trying to cure dandruff and banish her bald spots when she mixed her first batch of petrolatum and medicinal sulfur. But what began as a solution to a pesky personal problem quickly became a means to a greater end.

As she traveled throughout the United States, the Caribbean and Central America, teaching her Walker System and training sales agents, she shared her personal story: her birth on the same plantation where her parents had been enslaved, her struggles as a young widow, her desperate poverty. If she could transform herself, so could they. In place of washtubs and cotton fields, Walker offered them beauty culture, education, financial freedom and confidence.

Scholarships for students at Tuskegee and Daytona Normal and Industrial institutes. Music lessons for young black musicians. In at her first national convention, Walker awarded prizes to the women who sold the most products and recruited the most new agents. More importantly, she honored the delegates whose local clubs had contributed the most to charity. She encouraged their political activism in a telegram to President Woodrow Wilson, urging him to support legislation that would make lynching a federal crime. Louis, Illinois, riot. One could say she was woke a hundred years ago. The task was like building a snowball factory in hell: launching a black college deep in Alabama amid the burning embers of the Confederacy.

The state asked for a white man to lead Tuskegee Institute. Instead, Booker Taliaferro Washington got the job. An educated Negro was a dangerous Negro, so Washington told whites his students did not want equal rights, but to learn trades and contribute to Southern prosperity. Tuskegee was allowed to grow. Donations from Northern whites poured in. In , Washington was the only black speaker to address a mostly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. He lectured around the country, helped start the National Negro Business League, and in published a best-selling autobiography, Up from Slavery.

Black intellectuals chafed at his practice of maintaining influence by flattering and cajoling whites. Washington used that power to place African-Americans in patronage positions across the country and secretly fund challenges to Jim Crow laws. His sway waned in the face of criticism over his seeming compliance with racism, leveled by Harvard graduate W. Washington is remembered as much for accommodating white supremacy as uplifting his race.

Was there another way forward when lynching was the law of the land? Another path from Alabama shack to national university? Our reluctance to believe the worst about fellow human beings, especially those we deem most familiar, is one of our most persistent shortcomings. Less than years ago, many could not bring themselves to believe the atrocities committed in World War II concentration camps without journalistic evidence. Just a few decades before, Wells was sounding the alarm about the barbaric acts of her countrymen in the pages of the Memphis Free Speech , the newspaper she co-owned.

She pushed for action in the face of widespread denialism. Documenting the epidemic of lynching was miserable, disheartening work, but Wells also found time to advocate for the suffrage and civil rights of black women like herself. She dared America to confront its hypocrisies head-on and live up to the ideals upon which it was founded. She lives on in black women who not only exercise their right to vote but take it upon themselves to run for office Wells ran for a seat in the Illinois state Senate. She lives in the words and deeds of the NAACP, which she co-founded, and in the practice of intersectional feminism itself. Tom Brady conversation, or Michael Jordan vs.

One name rises to the top — a name whose resume dominates in ways that no other athletes can measure up to. Serena Williams. Her resume boasts 23 Grand Slam titles the record , six U. Williams has won enough awards for several lifetimes. Born Sept. Her father, a former sharecropper from Louisiana, learned from tennis books and videos how to coach his daughters Serena and older sister Venus. In daily two-hour practices, the Williams sisters worked themselves to the bone on a concrete court, avoiding potholes and often practicing without nets. Growing up in Compton meant developing a sense of fight — the same fight that would characterize their game on and off the court.

Williams transcended tennis, a historically white and demure sport, by being herself — with solid curves, a signature Afro-style ponytail, and an energetic style of play. You get that understanding and you done got a grip of life to where you can hold your head up and go on and see what else life got to offer. The blues help you to get out of bed in the morning. Of all the lyrical, poignant and heart-stopping passages that Wilson wrote in his career as a playwright, that one may serve best as his mission statement. Between , when Ma Rainey premiered to rapturous reviews at the Yale Repertory Theatre, and , when he died tragically young at age 60 in , Wilson produced what he called the American Century Cycle.

It consisted of one play for every decade of the 20th century, a trajectory that went from the aftermath of slavery through the Great Migration and the civil rights movement to the dawn of gentrification. Born in and raised in Pittsburgh, self-educated since his teens and inspired by the black arts movement, Wilson set nearly all of his work in his home neighborhood of the Hill District. Yet it was only when he moved to largely white St.

Paul, Minnesota, in his 30s that he began to fully hear and channel the spoken-word poetry of the musicians, preachers, gamblers, jitney drivers and sanitation workers among whom he had lived. With the American Century Cycle, Wilson transmuted their voices into art for the ages. If only it were that logical. Oprah is, after all, every single thing. First African-American female billionaire.

Academy Award -winner for her international humanitarian efforts. Host of one of the most celebrated and longest-running daytime talk shows in television history. Owner of a self-named hour cable network. Broadway musical producer and screen actress. Book publishing and literary guru with a best-selling Midas touch. Star maker of countless television hosts and self-help gurus Dr.

Phil, Iyanla Vanzant, Dr. Cover girl on every single issue of O, The Oprah Magazine since its debut in April making her one of the most influential cover models in publishing history. Women are used to keeping secrets, and Oprah had a laundry list of her own. She was so potently self-confessional that owning your shame suddenly felt modern and chic. Savvy marketers and A-list sponsors were quick to buy in early on the Winfrey-approved gravy train. Who can forget the scenes of screaming studio audience members who got new Pontiac G6s, free trips to Australia or boatloads of holiday gifts? She was the first mass media TV star to commercialize postracial wellness, spirituality and best-life striving.

With success comes an inevitable cascade of hateration, most of which Oprah manages to side-eye. Her generosity, especially for educational endeavors, is legendary. Mama Oprah, who is famously never-married and childless, funded a girls-only private school in South Africa and tuition gifts to more than Morehouse College students. She even used her televised bully pulpit to endorse then-Sen. Since , when the blind year-old musical prodigy auditioned for Motown Records , Stevie Wonder has composed a catalog of unmatched love, compassion, justice and unity — and his instrumental virtuosity fills dance floors to this day. In between came dozens and dozens of timeless songs , melodies and moments.

Where to start? No other musician has pulled so many heartstrings with a harmonica while simultaneously jamming so ferociously on the piano. No other artist has inspired a legendary annual series of dance parties where only Stevie Wonder music is played. All along, he has maintained an unrelenting social consciousness. As some stars flitted in and out of the struggle, Wonder remained, writing about the unrelenting problems facing those on the bottom. Always, there was love. With Wonder, black love was nurturing and empowering, a continuous source of validation and strength. Davis Sr. Frederick Douglass Dr. Charles Drew W. Henrietta Lacks.

Walker Booker T. Washington Ida B. In the meantime, enjoy The Undefeated 44, which includes: The rawest, most piercingly funny comedian ever. Because he gave voice to the voiceless Founder of The Chicago Defender b. Join the conversation You got 99 words link. Because he brought dance and the beauty of black bodies to the fight for justice Founder of Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater b. Because he was the greatest, just like he said he was Boxer, activist b. Because he embraced the responsibility to be a voice of his nation Novelist, playwright b. Get it? Artist b. Because he led the fight against enemies both foreign and domestic General officer b.

Because his voice rose from the horror of slavery to challenge the denial of black humanity Abolitionist, author b. Because he was a true-blood pioneer who has saved, and is still saving, millions of lives Physician b. Because he observed the multifaceted nature of African-Americans Sociologist, writer, activist b. Because hers is a title well-earned: The Queen of Soul Singer-songwriter b. Because no one can match his genius Musician, singer-songwriter b. Because she inspired generations of proud black Southern artistry Novelist, writer b. Because he kept hope alive and made the White House real Civil rights activist, politician b.

Because he is the King of Pop Singer-songwriter b. Because he is producing the soundtrack of our lives Music producer, songwriter, activist b. Because he was the warrior of nonviolence Civil rights activist, Baptist minister b. Because she was the subject of a medical experiment that is still saving lives today HeLa cell line b. Because he was the spark who sought to ignite equality by any means necessary Civil rights activist, minister b. Because he was the most feared black man in the South Supreme Court justice b. Because she believed everyone has a story to tell Novelist, playwright b. Because he was the sprinter who humiliated Hitler Track and field athlete b. Because he brought us pictures of black America Photographer, musician, director b.

The classical historian Strabo groups Phrygians, Mygdones , Mysians , Bebryces and Bithynians together as peoples that migrated to Anatolia from the Balkans. Phrygian continued to be spoken until the 6th century AD, though its distinctive alphabet was lost earlier than those of most Anatolian cultures. Phrygian clearly did not belong to the family of Anatolian languages spoken in most of the adjacent countries, such as Hittite. From what is available, it is evident that Phrygian shares important features with Greek and Armenian. Phrygian is part of the centum group of Indo-European languages. Furthermore, Kortlandt presented common sound changes of Thracian and Armenian and their separation from Phrygian and the rest of the palaeo-Balkan languages from an early stage.

Furthermore, 34 out of the 36 Phrygian isoglosses that are recorded are shared with Greek, with 22 being exclusive between them. The last 50 years of Phrygian scholarship developed a hypothesis that proposes a proto-Graeco-Phrygian stage out of which Greek and Phrygian originated, and if Phrygian was more sufficiently attested, that stage could perhaps be reconstructed. Some scholars dismiss the claim of a Phrygian migration as a mere legend, likely arising from the coincidental similarity of their name to the Bryges , and have theorized that migration into Phrygia could have occurred more recently than classical sources suggest. They have sought to fit the Phrygian arrival into a narrative explaining the downfall of the Hittite Empire and the end of the high Bronze Age in Anatolia,.

According to the "recent migration" theory, the Phrygians invaded just before or after the collapse of the Hittite Empire at the beginning of the 12th century BC, filling the political vacuum in central-western Anatolia, and may have been counted among the " Sea Peoples " that Egyptian records credit with bringing about the Hittite collapse. The so-called Handmade Knobbed Ware found in Western Anatolia during this period has been tentatively identified as an import connected to this invasion. Some scholars accept as factual the Iliad ' s account that the Phrygians were established on the Sakarya River before the Trojan War , and thus must have been there during the later stages of the Hittite Empire , and probably earlier, and consequently dismiss proposals of recent immigration to Phrygia.

These scholars seek instead to trace the Phrygians' origins among the many nations of western Anatolia who were subject to the Hittites. No one has conclusively identified which of the many subjects of the Hittites might have represented early Phrygians. According to a classical tradition, popularized by Josephus , Phrygia can be equated with the country called Togarmah by the ancient Hebrews, which has in turn been identified as the Tegarama of Hittite texts and Til-Garimmu of Assyrian records.

Josephus called Togarmah "the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians". However, the Greek source cited by Josephus is unknown, and it is unclear if there was any basis for the identification other than name similarity. Scholars of the Hittites believe Tegarama was in eastern Anatolia — some locate it at Gurun — far to the east of Phrygia. Some scholars have identified Phrygia with the Assuwa league, and noted that the Iliad mentions a Phrygian Queen Hecuba 's brother named Asios. However, scholars are unsure if Hapalla corresponds to Phrygia or to Pisidia , further south. Ancient Greek historian Herodotus writing circa BCE , suggested that Armenians migrated from Phrygia, which at the time encompassed much of western and central Anatolia : "the Armenians were equipped like Phrygians, being Phrygian colonists" 7.

According to Herotodus, the Phrygians had originated in the Balkans , in an area adjoining Macedonia, from where they had emigrated to Anatolia during the Bronze Age collapse. This led later scholars, such as Igor Diakonoff , to theorize that Armenians also originated in the Balkans and moved east with the Phrygians. A number of linguists have rejected a close relationship between Armenian and Phrygian, despite saying that the two languages do share some features.

According to the Iliad, the homeland of the Phrygians was on the Sangarius River , which would remain the centre of Phrygia throughout its history. Phrygia was famous for its wine and had "brave and expert" horsemen. According to the Iliad , before the Trojan War , a young king Priam of Troy had taken an army to Phrygia to support it in a war against the Amazons. Homer calls the Phrygians "the people of Otreus and godlike Mygdon ". The name Otreus could be an eponym for Otroea , a place on Lake Ascania in the vicinity of the later Nicaea , and the name Mygdon is clearly an eponym for the Mygdones , a people said by Strabo to live in northwest Asia Minor, and who appear to have sometimes been considered distinct from the Phrygians. According to the Bibliotheca , the Greek hero Heracles slew a king Mygdon of the Bebryces in a battle in northwest Anatolia that if historical would have taken place about a generation before the Trojan War.

According to the story, while traveling from Minoa to the Amazons , Heracles stopped in Mysia and supported the Mysians in a battle with the Bebryces. King Priam married the Phrygian princess Hecabe or Hecuba [35] and maintained a close alliance with the Phrygians, who repaid him by fighting "ardently" in the Trojan War against the Greeks. Hecabe was a daughter of the Phrygian king Dymas , son of Eioneus , son of Proteus. According to the Iliad , Hecabe's younger brother Asius also fought at Troy see above ; and Quintus Smyrnaeus mentions two grandsons of Dymas that fell at the hands of Neoptolemus at the end of the Trojan War: "Two sons he slew of Meges rich in gold, Scion of Dymas — sons of high renown, cunning to hurl the dart, to drive the steed in war, and deftly cast the lance afar, born at one birth beside Sangarius' banks of Periboea to him, Celtus one, and Eubius the other.

There are indications in the Iliad that the heart of the Phrygian country was further north and downriver than it would be in later history. In one of the so-called Homeric Hymns , Phrygia is said to be "rich in fortresses" and ruled by "famous Otreus ". During the 8th century BC, the Phrygian kingdom with its capital at Gordium in the upper Sakarya River valley expanded into an empire dominating most of central and western Anatolia and encroaching upon the larger Assyrian Empire to its southeast and the kingdom of Urartu to the northeast. According to the classical historians Strabo , [36] Eusebius and Julius Africanus , the king of Phrygia during this time was another Midas. This historical Midas is believed to be the same person named as Mita in Assyrian texts from the period and identified as king of the Mushki.

Scholars figure that Assyrians called Phrygians "Mushki" because the Phrygians and Mushki , an eastern Anatolian people, were at that time campaigning in a joint army. An Assyrian inscription mentioning "Mita", dated to BC, during the reign of Sargon of Assyria , suggests Phrygia and Assyria had struck a truce by that time. This Midas appears to have had good relations and close trade ties with the Greeks, and reputedly married an Aeolian Greek princess. A system of writing in the Phrygian language developed and flourished in Gordium during this period, using a Phoenician-derived alphabet similar to the Greek one. A distinctive Phrygian pottery called Polished Ware appears during this period.

However, the Phrygian Kingdom was then overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders, and Gordium was sacked and destroyed. According to Strabo and others, Midas committed suicide by drinking bulls' blood. A series of digs have opened Gordium as one of Turkey's most revealing archeological sites. Excavations confirm a violent destruction of Gordium around BC. A tomb from the period, popularly identified as the "Tomb of Midas", revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast tumulus , containing grave goods, a coffin, furniture, and food offerings Archaeological Museum, Ankara.

After their destruction of Gordium , the Cimmerians remained in western Anatolia and warred with Lydia , which eventually expelled them by around BC, and then expanded to incorporate Phrygia, which became the Lydian empire's eastern frontier. The Gordium site reveals a considerable building program during the 6th century BC, under the domination of Lydian kings including the proverbially rich King Croesus. Meanwhile, Phrygia's former eastern subjects fell to Assyria and later to the Medes. There may be an echo of strife with Lydia and perhaps a veiled reference to royal hostages, in the legend of the twice-unlucky Phrygian prince Adrastus , who accidentally killed his brother and exiled himself to Lydia , where King Croesus welcomed him.

Once again, Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus' son and then committed suicide. After Darius the Great became Persian Emperor in BC, he remade the ancient trade route into the Persian " Royal Road " and instituted administrative reforms that included setting up satrapies. Its capital was established at Dascylium , modern Ergili. In the course of the 5th century, the region was divided in two administrative satrapies: Hellespontine Phrygia and Greater Phrygia.

According to a legend, possibly promulgated by Alexander's publicists, whoever untied the knot would be master of Asia. With Gordium sited on the Persian Royal Road that led through the heart of Anatolia , the prophecy had some geographical plausibility. With Alexander, Phrygia became part of the wider Hellenistic world. In the chaotic period after Alexander's death, northern Phrygia was overrun by Celts , eventually to become the province of Galatia. The former capital of Gordium was captured and destroyed by the Gauls soon afterwards and disappeared from history. However, the Phrygian language survived, although now written in the Greek alphabet.

In BC, the remnants of Phrygia passed to Rome. For purposes of provincial administration, the Romans maintained a divided Phrygia, attaching the northeastern part to the province of Galatia and the western portion to the province of Asia. There is some evidence that western Phrygia and Caria were separated from Asia in — to become the new province of Phrygia and Caria. Salutaris with Synnada as its capital comprised the eastern portion of the region and Pacatiana with Laodicea on the Lycus as capital of the western portion. The provinces survived up to the end of the 7th century, when they were replaced by the Theme system.

It was overrun by the Turks in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert This Phrygian culture interacted in a number of ways with Greek culture in various periods of history. The "Great Mother", Cybele , as the Greeks and Romans knew her, was originally worshiped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as "Mountain Mother". In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos a high cylindrical headdress , and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias , the sculptor Agoracritus , and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome.

It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon , a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine. The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios , the sky and father- god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus , representations of him, even in Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull , may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

The earliest traditions of Greek music derived from Phrygia, transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia, and included the Phrygian mode , which was considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian Midas , the king of the "golden touch", was tutored in music by Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was the aulos , a reed instrument with two pipes. Marsyas , the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag , was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele's own sacred tree, a pine.

Phrygia was also the scene of another musical contest, between Apollo and Pan. Midas was either a judge or spectator, and said he preferred Pan's pipes to Apollo's lyre, and was given donkey's ears as a punishment. The two stories were often confused or conflated, as by Titian. Classical Greek iconography identifies the Trojan Paris as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the " Liberty cap " of the American and French revolutionaries. The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language. See Phrygian language. Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians , only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources.

The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus aka Annacus. The next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Manis or Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called "manic" in Phrygia.

According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called Polygamy And Mainstream Culture in Phrygia. August Jackson pried open the Democratic Party structure and Mother And Daughter In The Bloody Chamber increase black participation in politics. Moreover, the modularity of the Principles, King Midas Research Paper their distinction between data and Stereotypes In Shell Shakers, explicitly support Why Are People Watching God Analysis wide range Why Are People Watching God Analysis special circumstances. Stories of Polygamy And Mainstream Culture heroic age of Greek mythology tell of several legendary Phrygian kings:.