Pollination Of Honey Bees

Sunday, February 27, 2022 10:44:27 AM

Pollination Of Honey Bees



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How bees collect nectar to make honey ( A close-up video film )

Asian giant hornets are extremely large and equipped with relatively massive mandibles teeth. Access USDA resources on enhancing agricultural pollinator health and conservation. View our collection of pollinators, plants and apiarists. Skip to main content Official websites use. Menu U. Department of Agriculture. Search usda. Pollinators Each of us depends on pollinators in a practical way to provide us with the wide range of foods we eat. Pollinator Fact Sheets, News and Blogs. What's all the buzz about? Pollinators at a Crossroads Bees and other pollinators, including birds, bats, butterflies, moths, flies, wasps, beetles, and small mammals, play a critical role in our food production system. Pollinator Facts An overview of why pollinators are so important to our agricultural industry and our lives.

Farmers are Helping to Protect Working Wings Fruits and veggies give us the well-balanced diet we need to live healthy lifestyles, and pollinators are our suppliers. Sightings of Asian Giant Hornet Asian giant hornets are extremely large and equipped with relatively massive mandibles teeth. Read the blog Scientists Probe Pollinator Survival Shedding new light on strategies used to ensure survival of two very different pollinators. How Farmers Can Help Pollinators. Online Identification Tools. Bee Disease Diagnosis Service. Attractiveness of Agricultural Crops. Honey Bee Surveys. Cold Storage Overwintering Tool.

Establishing Pollinator Habitats. The best known honey bee is the western honey bee Apis mellifera , which has been domesticated for honey production and crop pollination ; the only other domesticated bee is the eastern honey bee Apis cerana , which occurs in South Asia. Some other types of related bees produce and store honey, and have been kept by humans for that purpose, including the stingless bees , but only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees. Modern humans also value the wax for use in making candles , soap , lip balms , and various cosmetics. The genus name Apis is Latin for "bee". Honey bees appear to have their center of origin in South and Southeast Asia including the Philippines , as all the extant species except Apis mellifera are native to that region.

Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge Apis florea and Apis andreniformis have their center of origin there. The first Apis bees appear in the fossil record at the Eocene - Oligocene boundary 34 mya , in European deposits. The origin of these prehistoric honey bees does not necessarily indicate Europe as the place of origin of the genus, only that the bees were present in Europe by that time. Few fossil deposits are known from South Asia, the suspected region of honey bee origin, and fewer still have been thoroughly studied. No Apis species existed in the New World during human times before the introduction of A.

Only one fossil species is documented from the New World, Apis nearctica , known from a single 14 million-year-old specimen from Nevada. The close relatives of modern honey bees — e. Among the extant members of Apis , the more basal species make single, exposed combs, while the more recently evolved species nest in cavities and have multiple combs, which has greatly facilitated their domestication. While about 20, species of bees exist, [8] only eight species of honey bee are recognized, with a total of 43 subspecies , although historically seven to 11 species are recognized: [9] Apis andreniformis the black dwarf honey bee ; Apis cerana the eastern honey bee ; Apis dorsata the giant honey bee ; Apis florea the red dwarf honey bee ; Apis koschevnikovi Koschevnikov's honey bee ; Apis laboriosa the Himalayan giant honey bee ; Apis mellifera the western honey bee ; and Apis nigrocincta the Philippine honey bee.

Honey bees are the only extant members of the tribe Apini. Today's honey bees constitute three clades : Micrapis the dwarf honey bees , Megapis the giant honey bee , and Apis the western honey bee and its close relatives. Most species have historically been cultured or at least exploited for honey and beeswax by humans indigenous to their native ranges. Only two species have been truly domesticated : Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Apis florea and Apis andreniformis are small honey bees of southern and southeastern Asia. They make very small, exposed nests in trees and shrubs. Their stings are often incapable of penetrating human skin, so the hive and swarms can be handled with minimal protection.

They occur largely sympatrically , though they are very distinct evolutionarily and are probably the result of allopatric speciation , their distribution later converging. Given that A. They are the most ancient extant lineage of honey bees, maybe diverging in the Bartonian some 40 million years ago or slightly later from the other lineages, but do not seem to have diverged from each other a long time before the Neogene. Two species are recognized in the subgenus Megapis. They usually build single or a few exposed combs on high tree limbs, on cliffs, and sometimes on buildings. They can be very fierce. Periodically robbed of their honey by human "honey hunters", colonies are easily capable of stinging a human being to death if provoked.

Eastern Apis species include three or four species, including A. The genetics of the western honey bee A. Koschevnikov's honey bee Apis koschevnikovi is often referred to in the literature as the "red bee of Sabah"; however, A. Apis nigrocincta is a cavity-nesting species. The species has rust-colored scapes , legs, and clypeuses , with reddish-tan hair color that covers most of the body. Apis cerana , the eastern honey bee proper, is the traditional honey bee of southern and eastern Asia.

One of its subspecies, the Indian honey bee A. It has not been possible yet to resolve its relationship to the Bornean honey bee A. It seems to have originated in eastern tropical Africa and spread from there to Europe and eastwards into Asia to the Tian Shan range. It is variously called the European, western, or common honey bee in different parts of the world.

Many subspecies have adapted to the local geographic and climatic environments; in addition, breeds such as the Buckfast bee have been bred. Behavior, color, and anatomy can be quite different from one subspecies or even strain to another. It seems to have diverged from its eastern relatives only during the Late Miocene. This would fit the hypothesis that the ancestral stock of cave-nesting honey bees was separated into the western group of East Africa and the eastern group of tropical Asia by desertification in the Middle East and adjacent regions, which caused declines of food plants and trees that provided nest sites, eventually causing gene flow to cease. The diversity of A.

That the western honey bee has been intensively managed by humans for many millennia — including hybridization and introductions — has apparently increased the speed of its evolution and confounded the DNA sequence data to a point where little of substance can be said about the exact relationships of many A. Apis mellifera is not native to the Americas , so it was not present when the European explorers and colonists arrived. However, other native bee species were kept and traded by indigenous peoples.

Many of the crops that depend on western honey bees for pollination have also been imported since colonial times. Escaped swarms known as "wild" honey bees, but actually feral spread rapidly as far as the Great Plains , usually preceding the colonists. Honey bees did not naturally cross the Rocky Mountains ; they were transported by the Mormon pioneers to Utah in the late s, and by ship to California in the early s. Africanized honey bees known colloquially as "killer bees" are hybrids between European stock and the East African lowland subspecies A.

However, these strains do not overwinter well, so they are not often found in the colder, more northern parts of North America. The original breeding experiment for which the East African lowland honey bees were brought to Brazil in the first place has continued though not as originally intended. Novel hybrid strains of domestic and re-domesticated Africanized honey bees combine high resilience to tropical conditions and good yields. They are popular among beekeepers in Brazil. Tribe Apini Latreille [23]. As in a few other types of eusocial bees, a colony generally contains one queen bee , a female; seasonally up to a few thousand drone bees , or males; [24] and tens of thousands of female worker bees.

Details vary among the different species of honey bees, but common features include:. The worker bees rotate through the cluster from the outside to the inside so that no bee gets too cold. The colder the weather is outside, the more compact the cluster becomes. During winter, they consume their stored honey to produce body heat. The amount of honey consumed during the winter is a function of winter length and severity, but ranges in temperate climates from 15 to 50 kilograms 33 to lb.

During the summer, however, this is achieved through fanning and water evaporation from water collected in various fields. Of all the honey bee species, only A. Species of Apis are generalist floral visitors, and pollinate many species of flowering plants, but because of their "generalized" nature, they do so inefficiently. Without specialized adaptations for specific flowers, their ability to reach pollen and nectar is often limited. What's more, their tendency to visit all species in a given area means that the pollen they carry for any one species is often very diluted. As such, they can provide some pollination to many plants, especially non-native crops, but most native plants have some native pollinator that is far more effective at pollinating that species.

Western honey bees are often described as essential to human food production, leading to claims that without their pollination humanity would starve or die out. Many important crops need no insect pollination at all. No crops originating in the New World depend on the western honey bee Apis mellifera at all, as the bee is an invasive species brought over with colonists in the last few centuries. Honey bees obtain all of their nutritional requirements from a diverse combination of pollen and nectar. Pollen is the only natural protein source for honey bees. Adult worker honey bees consume 3. Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated concentrations of arginine and lysine are required for brood rearing.

Pyridoxine is the most prevalent B vitamin found in royal jelly and concentrations vary throughout the foraging season with lowest concentrations found in May and highest concentrations found in July and August. Honey bees lacking dietary pyridoxine were unable to rear brood. Pollen is also a lipid source for honey bees ranging from 0. Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are not considered essential but have shown to significantly improve the number of brood reared.

Nurse bees have the ability to selectively transfer sterols to larvae through brood food. Nectar is collected by foraging worker bees as a source of water and carbohydrates in the form of sucrose. The dominant monosaccharides in honey bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is trehalose which is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules.

Honey bees require water to maintain osmotic homeostasis, prepare liquid brood food, and to cool the hive through evaporation. A colony's water needs can generally be met by nectar foraging as it has high water content. Occasionally on hot days or when nectar is limited, foragers will collect water from streams or ponds to meet the needs of the hive. The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. In Japan, where mellifera is vulnerable to local hornets and disease, the Japanese honey bee a. Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing the beekeeper to charge for the pollination services they provide, revising the historical role of the self-employed beekeeper, and favoring large-scale commercial operations.

Bees of various types other than honey bees are also domesticated and used for pollination or other means around the world, including Tetragonula iridipennis in India, the blue orchard bee for tree nut and fruit pollination in the United States, and a number of species of Bombus bumblebees for pollination in various regions globally, such as tomatoes , which are not effectively pollinated by honey bees. Primarily in places where western honey bees were imported by humans, periodic collapses in western honey bee populations have occurred at least since the late 19th century.

This has been dubbed "colony collapse disorder" CCD and was at first unexplained. Larval stages of the moth G. Eggs are laid within the hive, and the larvae that hatch tunnel through and destroy the honeycombs that contain bee larva and their honey stores. The tunnels they create are lined with silk, which entangles and starves emerging bees. Destruction of honeycombs also result in honey leaking and being wasted. Both G. To manage the mite, temperature treatments are possible, but also distorts wax of the honeycombs.

Chemical fumigants, particularly CO 2 , are also used. Varroa mites are arguably the biggest threat to honey bees in the United States. These mites invade hives and reproduce by laying eggs on pupa. The hatching mites eat away at the pupa, causing deformities as well as spreading disease. If not detected and treated early on, the mite population may increase to such an extent that the hive will succumb to the diseases and deformities caused by the mites. Mite treatment is accomplished by several methods, including treatment strips and acid vaporization.

Honey is the complex substance made when bees ingest nectar, process it, and store the substance into honey combs. Worker bees of a certain age secrete beeswax from a series of exocrine glands on their abdomens. As with honey, beeswax is gathered by humans for various purposes such as candle making, waterproofing, soap and cosmetics manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, art, furniture polish and more. Bees collect pollen in their pollen baskets and carry it back to the hive. Worker bees combine pollen, honey and glandular secretions and allow it to ferment in the comb to make bee bread.

The fermentation process releases additional nutrients from the pollen and can produce antibiotics and fatty acids which inhibit spoilage. In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives of A. The product is used as a health supplement. It has been used with moderate success as a source of pollen for hand pollination. Bee brood — the eggs, larvae or pupae of honey bees — is nutritious and seen as a delicacy in countries such as Indonesia, [52] Mexico, Thailand, and many African countries; it has been consumed since ancient times by the Chinese and Egyptians. Adult wild honeybees are also consumed as a food in parts of China , including Yunnan.

According to a worker at a Yunnan-based specialty restaurant, the bees are best served "deep-fried with salt and pepper", and they are "naturally sweet and tasty". Propolis is a resinous mixture collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flows or other botanical sources, which is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion used to nourish the larvae. Honey bees have three castes : drones , workers , and queens. Drones are typically haploid , having only one set of chromosomes , and primarily exist for the purpose of reproduction.

There are rare instances of diploid drone larvae. This phenomenon usually arises when there are more than two generations of brother-sister mating. In developing bees, if the conditions are that the individual is heterozygous for the csd gene, they will develop into females. If the conditions are so that the individual is hemizygous or homozygous for the csd gene, they will develop into males. The instances where the individual is homozygous at this gene are the instances of diploid males. They do not defend the hive or kill intruders, and do not have a stinger. Workers have two sets of chromosomes. Workers typically develop in 21 days. A typical colony may contain as many as 60, worker bees.

Their duties change with age in the following order beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell : feed brood, receive nectar, clean hive, guard duty, and foraging. Workers have morphological specializations, including the pollen basket corbicula , [70] abdominal glands that produce beeswax, brood-feeding glands, and barbs on the sting. Under certain conditions for example, if the colony becomes queenless , a worker may develop ovaries. Worker honey bees perform different behavioural tasks that cause them to be exposed to different local environments. Pollination is needed for plants to reproduce, and so many plants depend on bees or other insects as pollinators. When a bee collects nectar and pollen from the flower of a plant, some pollen from the stamens—the male reproductive organ of the flower—sticks to the hairs of her body.

When she visits the next flower, some of this pollen is rubbed off onto the stigma, or tip of the pistil—the female reproductive organ of the flower. When this happens, fertilization is possible, and a fruit, carrying seeds, can develop.

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