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Kardos, and S. Molecular evidence for the early colonization of land by fungi and plants. Hickey, L. The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: vegetative morphology. Hilu, K. Borsch, K. Muller, D. Soltis, V. Savolainen, M. Powell, L. Alice, R. Evans, H. Sauquet, C. Neinhuis, T. Slotta, J. Rohwer, and L. Inference of angiosperm phylogeny based on matK sequence information. Hoot, S. Hufford, L. Rosidae and their relationships to other nonmagnoliid dicotyledons: A phylogenetic analysis using morphological and chemical data. Igersheim, A. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the paleoherbs. Judd, W. Campbell, E. Kellogg, P. Stevens, and M. Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach.
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Canadian Journal of Botany Pyankov, V. Artyusheva, G. Edwards, C. Black, and P. Phylogenetic analysis of tribe Salsoleae Chenopodiaceae based on ribosomal ITS sequences: implications for the evolution of photosynthesis types. Qiu, Y. Lee, F. Bernasconi-Quadroni, D. Zanis, Z. Chen, V. Savolainen, and M. The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes. Zanis, E. Zimmer, Z. Phylogeny of basal angiosperms: analyses of five genes from three genomes. Reichenbach, H. Christ, Moessler's Handbuch der Gewaechskunde, [ed. Hammerich, Altona, Germany. Renner, S. Circumscription and phylogeny of the Laurales: evidence from molecular and morphological data. Rodman, J. Soltis, K. Sytsma, and K. Parallel evolution of glucosinolate biosynthesis inferred from congruent nuclear and plastid gene phylogenies.
A methodological bias toward overestimation of molecular evolutionary time scales. Ronse De Craene, L. Evolution of floral structures in basal angiosperms. Sanderson, M. Shifts in diversification rate with the origin of angiosperms. Sources of error and confidence intervals in estimating the age of angiosperms from rbcL and 18S rDNA data. Sauquet, H. Doyle, T. Scharaschkin, T. Hilu, L. Chatrou, and A. Le Thomas. Phylogenetic analysis of Magnoliales and Myristicaceae based on multiple data sets: implications for character evolution.
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Caron [ed. Amborella NOT a "basal angiosperm"? Not so fast. Morgan, S. Swensen, B. Mullin, J. Dowd, and P. Chloroplast gene sequence data suggest a single origin of the predisposition for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in angiosperms. Nickrent, L. Johnson, W. Hoot, J. Sweere, R. Kuzoff, K. Kron, M. Chase, S. Swensen, E. Zimmer, S. Chaw, L. Gillespie, W. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. Mort, M. Chase, V. Savolainen, S. Hoot, and C. Infering complex phylogeneis using parsimony: an empirical approach using three large DNA data sets for angiosperms.
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Trends in Plant Science, in press. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from multiple genes as a tool for comparative biology. Zanis, and S. Basal lineages of angiosperms: Relationships and implications for floral evolution. Crane, and T. Rate heterogeneity among lineages of tracheophytes: integration of molecular and fossil data and evidence for molecular living fossils. Endress, and P. The diversification of flowering plants. Cracraft and M. Donoghue [eds. Stebbins, G. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sun, G.
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Bittrich [eds. Springer, Berlin, Germany. Wilson, T. The comparative morphology of the Canellaceae. Floral morphology and conclusions. Yoo, M. Bell, P. In press. Divergence Times and Historical Biogeography of Nymphaeales. Systematic Botany. Young, D. Are the angiosperms primitively vesselless? Systematic Biology 6: Zanis, M. Mathews, and M. The root of the angiosperms revisited. Soltis, Y. Qiu, E. Zimmer, and D. Phylogenetic analyses and perianth evolution in basal angiosperms. Zhang, L. The deepest splits in Chloranthaceae as resolved by chloroplast sequences. Zimmer, E. Hamby, M. Arnold, D. LeBlanc and E. Ribosomal RNA phylogenies and flowering plant evolution. Fernholm, K. Amsterdam; Elsevier.
Zwickl, D. Increased taxon sampling greatly reduces phylogenetic error. Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Christine Edwards at. Page: Tree of Life Angiosperms. Flowering Plants. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information.
For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies. Version 03 June Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page. All rights reserved. This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
Relationships after Qiu et al. Introduction The angiosperms, or flowering plants, are one of the major groups of extant seed plants and arguably the most diverse major extant plant group on the planet, with at least , living species classified in families Judd et al. Characteristics Despite their diversity, angiosperms are clearly united by a suite of synapomorphies i. Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships Amborella and the root of the angiosperm evolutionary tree Most analyses of the past five years concur in placing the monotypic Amborella as the sister to all other extant angiosperms, although some analyses suggest Amborella plus water lilies may occupy this pivotal position see below.
The Fossil Record The oldest unambiguous angiosperm fossil extends back at least to the early Cretaceous, conservatively around million years ago mya see Crane et al. Other Names for Angiosperms Flowering Plants. Baillon, H. Histoires des plantes, vol. Paris, France. Eichler, A. Heywood, V. Flowering plants of the world. Batsford Ltd. Hillis, D.
Inferring complex phylogenies. Ray, J. Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta. Smith and Walford, London, UK. System of Magnoliophyta. Information on the Internet Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Stevens, Missouri Botanical Garden. Florida Museum of Natural History. Treezilla taxon rbcL Analyses. Watson and M. University of Hawaii Botany Department. Flowering Plant Gateway. Classification of Flowering Plants. Thonner's analytical key to the families of flowering plants The Virtual Flower. Solving Charles Darwin's "Abominable Mystery". Scientists are using chemical fossils to hunt down one of our planet's most vexing missing links -- the first-ever flowering plant. Paleobotany: Angiosperm Evolution. Bruce Cornet. Parasitic Plant Connection.
Downloadable PDF of poster of Angiosperm phylogeny. Cole and H. About This Page The authors thank M. Palmer, and K. This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page. Mil-folhas - Achillea millefolium L. Bee Orchid Ophrys apifera. Eventually she was revealed to be a double agent working for the villainous organization HYDRA and even assumes the mantle of Madame Hydra. Yelena reminds the Contessa that she is on vacation and tells her she needs a raise, implying that unlike Walker, the two are previously acquainted.
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