Essay On Brain Localization
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Localisation of Function in the Brain - Biological Psychology [AQA ALevel]
The interesting twist on his case is that AD had anosognosia; a lack of insight into his odd behavior. This meant that AD truly believed his own lavish stories. His condition is a form of anterograde amnesia, which caused him to forget everything prior to the cardiac arrest, thus allowing him to invent past lives. However, psychologists have also found a counter-argument for localization of brain function; and that is brain plasticity. The idea of brain plasticity has been around for hundreds of years. The ancient Greeks accepted the idea, believing that one could train their mind, just like training a body. This film portrays what happens to one member of the medical establishment when he faces problems normally confronted only by patients.
Jack MacKee, a cool, self-centered surgeon who is in total control of his successful life until he is diagnosed as having cancer of the throat. Then he finds himself subject to the negligence, indifference, strict regulations, and humiliations which many have An example of brain plasticity is the case of Cheryl Schiltz, a 39 year old woman who in developed an infection in her inner ear canal after a routine operation.
The infection caused her to be prescribed gentamicin, an antibiotic that when over used, can cause damage to the cells in the inner ear. Her doctor found an bizarre way to treat her. He fitted her with a helmet fitted with motion sensors. These gave signals to a metal strip that was placed in her mouth. Now, as she tipped forward, she felt a tingle ripple to the tip of her tongue. As her head moved to the side, the tingle rolled sideways.
Sperry used a tachistoscope to present visual information to one hemisphere or the other in split-brain patients and recorded whether the patient could recognize the object. The tachistoscope requires people to focus on a point in the centre of their visual field. Because each half of the visual field projects to the opposite site of the brain, crossing in the optic chiasm, it is possible to project a picture to either the right hemisphere or the left hemisphere. Sperry found that left and right hemispheres of the brain are specialized to certain functions. When Sperry showed objects to a split brain patients left vision field and right hemisphere, they patient could not see the object, even though they could pick up the earlier shown object from behind a screen, showing that the right hemisphere does understand.
The patient would then question why they were holding the object; this was because the left hemisphere could now see the image in the right vision field. This showed that the left hemisphere was better in analytical and verbal tasks than the right hemisphere and that the right hemisphere, although mute, can perform space perception tasks for example map reading. The right hemisphere also controls the emotions in the mind, although only being able to produce simple words and phrases. This study demonstrates localization of function because it proves that the right and left hemisphere when isolated are unable to perform tasks to a normal extent or at all.
The model that has dominated current thinking was famously elaborated in the s by Lewis Wolpert in his French flag analogy. Here, a signal produced by a group of organizer cells diffuses from its source through a surrounding field of cells. In so doing, it forms a concentration gradient with more of the signal present in areas closer to the source. Cells respond to the concentration of this signal. In Wolpert's French Flag analogy, they become blue, white or red in reality, they would become cells of different types, not different colors. Close to the source, cells receive signals above the highest threshold to become blue, or type 1.
Beyond this, cells respond to a lower dose to become white, or type 2 while farther still cells do not receive enough of the signal to respond and become red, or type 3. The important point is that cells can work out where they are based on the level of signal they receive and they respond accordingly by developing different attributes. Beyond Wolpert's basic model, the issue of how brain regionalization develops is an important question and we have relatively few answers. Regional specification is a prerequisite for the development of the connections that must link each region of the brain in a stereotypical and highly precise way but allowing room for plasticity at a fine level.
How these trillions of connections are made is another of life's great mysteries. However, as Tim Berners-Lee comments, this is just the first step in understanding how our brains really work: "There are billions of neurons in our brains, but what are neurons? Just cells. The brain has no knowledge until connections are made between neurons. All that we know, all that we are, comes from the way our neurons are connected. The suffix "—ome" is used with increasing frequency to indicate a complete collection of whatever units are specified in the first part of the word, such as genes hence genome , proteins proteome or connections connectome. The connectome of the human brain is bewildering in its complexity, but the development of new brain imaging methods has catalyzed the first serious attempts to map it in living brains.
At present, the resolution of imaging methods that can be applied to living brains isn't sufficient to follow individual connections called axons. In these TEDTalks you'll hear about an attempt to come at the problem from the other direction, using very high resolution imaging of non-living brain tissue to reconstruct the ultramicroscopic anatomy of connections around individual cells. The extent to which these approaches are likely to succeed remains controversial. The theory known as connectionism addresses a somewhat different matter within the field of brain organization: the relationship between connectivity and function. Essentially, the idea is that higher mental processes such as object recognition, memory and language result from the activity of the connections between areas of the brain rather than the activity of specific discrete regions.
Whereas connectionists would agree that primary sensory and motor functions i. The theory emphasizes the relationship between connected brain areas and the function of the brain as a whole, with all parts having the potential to contribute to cognitive function. You should appreciate, therefore, that there is as yet no accepted view of the extent to which our higher mental functions are localized to particular parts of the brain.The ancient Greeks accepted the idea, believing that one could train their mind, just Long Term Effects Of Bullying Essay training a body. Related Theodore Rubins Competition And Happiness. The holy grail of neuroscience is a complete Short Biography: Zakk Wylde of the human brain. Preview 1 out of Social Competence In Preschool Children pages.