Spelman Narrative Analysis

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Spelman Narrative Analysis

This guide covers how to write a Spelman Narrative Analysis of continued interested plus an example and useful tips to help guide you along the way. Cohen, Rodney T. Online Courses. The Role Of Hucks Father In Huckleberry Finn were exposed to either rap or popular Interpersonal Communication In Goodfellas and their stereotypes regarding Black Rhetorical Analysis Of 9/11 were then assessed, both Inquirie Granting The Medicines Case Analysis and explicitly. Spelman Narrative Analysis Publishers. This study indicates that Spelman Narrative Analysis younger the youths, the more likely they will listen to rap. In a study researching the effects on female listeners, Ellen S. Two-Year Public Inquirie Granting The Medicines Case Analysis factors of social identity, such as ethnicity Interpersonal Communication In Goodfellas class, Essay On Gun Control Laws also been definition of integrity to correlate Rhetorical Analysis Of 9/11 care thinking.

Essentials of Narrative Analysis: Meet the Authors (APA Books)

Later on, she established a career in academia, becoming a professor at the University of Virginia and an esteemed poet with multiple awards. Rita Dove poetry is known for its layered eloquence of language and portrayal of the black experience in America, taken from her personal life and observing what was happening at the time. Dove was named the poet laureate of the United States, a title given to no other black authors before her. She is the first African American, first woman, and youngest person to ever be appointed to this position at only 41 years old. After her laureate post was done, she received a National Humanities Medal from then-president Bill Clinton and also received the Heinz Award in the Arts and Humanities the very same year for Rita Dove poems.

In the book of poems Thomas and Beulah , Dove tells us the story of her maternal grandparents intertwined with elements of fiction. The book is split into two halves, the first focusing on her grandfather, Thomas, and the second on her grandmother, Beulah. Heart to Heart by Rita Dove is an eloquent example of contemporary poetry. While most of them are focused on history and politics, Heart to Heart is a deep and ominous poem about love and emotion. Is a Kirrian-British writer, novelist, playwright, and essayist. His novels have won multiple awards, and his works are primarily interested in exploring the experiences of the African diaspora in different places of the world, including England, the Caribbean, and the USA.

He is one of the many black writers to detail the black experience outside the United States. Philips is also an academic and a Professor of English and has worked in several institutions, including Barnard College, Amherst College, and Yale University. Philips was born in St. Kitts, an island in the West Indies. His family had moved to England when he was four months old. After graduation, Philips moved to Edinburgh and lived on the dole while writing his first play, later moving to London, where he wrote two more. His literary career would progress after he visited his place of birth St.

Kitts at the age of This trip was his primary source of inspiration for his first book, which he published five years later, which placed him among highly influential black authors. Caryl Phillips creates a heartbreaking story where he raises the themes of ancestry and belonging. In Crossing the River, Caryl Philips explored the issues of identity and struggle. The novel is about three black people who struggle with their separation from Africa. The characters are vastly different, yet they experience similar racial injustices and hardships, a theme tackled by all African-American books on our list.

Edward P. Jones is known for his novels and short stories, which depict the effects of slavery in America before the Civil War. His vivid characters represent the majority of working-class African Americans. Jones earned a National Book Award nomination. The first novel written by Edward P. Jones, Lost in the City, i s a collection of short stories about the African-American working-class set in the 20th century. The characters include some first-generation immigrants who have come to DC with the Great Migration from the South. This book won him the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in and is considered one of the most influential books by black authors.

The Known World is set during the antebellum era and is focused on the issues of owning enslaved African Americans by both white and black slavers. Not many black writers talked about these topics the same way as Jones, who was heavily praised for his use of prose in the novel. The book is especially notable for how Jones gives vivid accounts of the situation and intertwines one story within the other without imposing any opinion or bias on the reader. Was born in Bret, England, on October 25, She changed her name from Sadie to Zadie at the age of There, she published a number of short stories in The Mays Anthology. Many of Zadie Smith books became best-sellers and were received well by critics.

Zadie Smith, author of a best-seller White Teeth , became celebrated among contemporary black writers with her debut book. She became highly acclaimed upon the release of White Teeth and has enjoyed a career in literature since then. She has also received the Langston Hughes Medal for being an influential and distinguished author associated with the African-American diaspora. The first book written by Zadie Smith, White Teeth , was published before it was even finished. It was an instant classic and a best-seller. The novel would go on to become a TV adaptation in The latest novel published by Zadie Smith, Swing Time , is a story about two tap dancers. One of the central topics explored in the book is the search for identity. The narrator struggles to make her self-image and the way society perceives her coexist.

It gets into every dimension of her experience, both in personal and professional life. Is an American author and journalist who has gained a significant readership working as a national correspondent at The Atlantic. There, he was known for talking about issues regarding African Americans, including cultural, social issues, political issues, and white supremacy.

Coates is a journalist, writer, memoirist, and public intellectual. A nonfiction book written by Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me, is the reflection of the wide themes of race, oppression, fear, identity, justice, and father-son relationships. It takes the form of a letter from the writer to his son. Coates draws from his experience of being Black in the US. The Guardian included it in the list of the best books of the 21st century. After the literary success that came with Between the World and Me , Coates published one more compelling book called The Beautiful Struggle.

It is a memoir of his father, Paul Coates, a Vietnam vet and autodidact. He dedicated his life to raising his sons as proud Black men and telling the history of African civilization. Black Writers in American History and How Their Number Has Changed Over Time After the American Civil War and the liberation of enslaved African Americans across the continent, many rose to prominence for depicting harsh lives and realities they experienced during their time in enslavement.

Frederick Douglass Biography Was a prominent writer who had escaped from slavery and would go on to become a phenomenal public speaker, an iconic leader in the abolitionist movement, and one of the most famous African-American authors. Zora Neale Hurston Achievements Hurston studied a lot throughout her life. Sweat by Zora Neale Hurston: Short Story Sweat is one of her most famous short stories, a work of fiction depicting the life of a washerwoman Delia and her unemployed husband Sykes. Langston Hughes Biography Was an American poet, activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist. James Baldwin Biography Was a novelist, essayist, poet, and playwright. Maya Angelou Biography Was an American author, screenwriter, actress, dancer, poet, and civil rights activist.

Maya Angelou Accomplishments and Achievements Nothing stopped her from continuing her work with the civil rights movement. Alice Walker Biography Is an acclaimed novelist, essayist, and poet. Toni Morrison Achievements Morrison graduated high school with Honors and attended Howard University, where she continued pursuing literature. Toni Morrison Recitatif In her first published short story, Recitatif, Toni Morrison challenges stereotypes that surround the issue of racial identity.

Octavia Butler Biography Was an American science fiction author who had won several industry awards during her career, including the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award. Hierarchical Thinking in Patternmaster Octavia Butler Patternmaster is a notable book in the science fiction genre. Rita Dove Biography Is an American poet who has been fascinated with poetry and music since she was young. My goal is to bring more ease, purpose, and joy to the college application process. Get practical advice. Write with purpose. Let's have some fun. Start your journey here. Go to Blog. Go to podcast. Go to Courses. Featured Blog Post:. Let's connect. The Free Stuff Guides. Join thousands of students, parents, and counselors. College Essay Courses Watch our online college essay courses for practical, step-by-step advice on writing personal statements and supplemental essays that work.

Video Courses for Students. How to Write a Personal Statement Create an inspiring and impactful main essay for your college application. Video Courses for Counselors. Part 1: How to Write a Personal Statement - Counselors A step-by-step course on how to guide your students through the process of writing beautiful college essays. One-on-One I've been helping students tell their stories for more than 10 years, and listening with unconditional positive regard is at the heart of my coaching philosophy.

Looking for free one-on-one college admissions support? Learn more about the matchlighters scholars program. The College Admissions Blog. Check out my latest blog posts. This definition posits care fundamentally as a practice, but Tronto further identifies four sub-elements of care that can be understood simultaneously as stages, virtuous dispositions, or goals. These sub-elements are: 1 attentiveness, a proclivity to become aware of need; 2 responsibility, a willingness to respond and take care of need; 3 competence, the skill of providing good and successful care; and 4 responsiveness, consideration of the position of others as they see it and recognition of the potential for abuse in care , Other definitions of care provide more precise delineations. Diemut Bubeck narrows the definitional scope of care by emphasizing personal interaction and dependency.

She also holds that one cannot care for oneself, and that care does not require any emotional attachment. For example, both Maurice Hamington and Daniel Engster make room for self-care in their definitions of care, but focus more precisely on special bodily features and end goals of care Hamington, ; Engster, Although these definitions emphasize care as a practice, not all moral theorists maintain this view of. Alternatively, care is understood as a virtue or motive. James Rachels, Raja Halwani, and Margaret McLaren have argued for categorizing care ethics as a species of virtue ethics, with care as a central virtue Rachels, ; McLaren, ; Halwani, Some ethicists prefer to understand care as a practice more fundamental than a virtue or motive because doing so resists the tendency to romanticize care as a sentiment or dispositional trait, and reveals the breadth of caring activities as globally intertwined with virtually all aspects of life.

A number of criticisms have been launched against care ethics, including that it is: a a slave morality; b empirically flawed; c theoretically indistinct; d parochial, e essentialist, and f ambiguous. One of the earliest objections was that care ethics is a kind of slave morality valorizing the oppression of women Puka, ; Card, ; Davion, The concept of slave morality comes from the philosopher Frederick Nietzsche, who held that oppressed peoples tend to develop moral theories that reaffirm subservient traits as virtues. Following this tradition, the charge that care ethics is a slave morality interprets the different voice of care as emerging from patriarchal traditions characterized by rigidly enforced sexual divisions of labor.

This critique issues caution against uncritically valorizing caring practices and inclinations because women who predominantly perform the work of care often do so to their own economic and political disadvantage. To the extent that care ethics encourages care without further inquiring as to who is caring for whom, and whether these relationships are just, it provides an unsatisfactory base for a fully libratory ethic. This objection further implies that the voice of care may not be an authentic or empowering expression, but a product of false consciousness that equates moral maturity with self-sacrifice and self-effacement.

Gilligan has been faulted for basing her conclusions on too narrow a sample, and for drawing from overly homogenous groups such as students at elite colleges and women considering abortion thereby excluding women who would not view abortion as morally permissible. It is argued that wider samples yield more diverse results and complicate the picture of dual and gendered moral perspectives Haan, ; Brabeck, For instance, Vanessa Siddle Walker and John Snarey surmise that resolution of the Heinz dilemma shifts if Heinz is identified as Black, because in the United States African-American males are disproportionately likely to be arrested for crime, and less likely to have their cases dismissed without stringent penalties Walker and Snarey, Sandra Harding observes certain similarities between care ethics and African moralities, noting that care ethics has affinities with many other moral traditions Harding, Sarah Lucia Hoagland identifies care as the heart of lesbian connection, but also cautions against the dangers of assuming that all care relations are ideally maternalistic Hoagland, Thus, even if some women identify with care ethics, it is unclear whether this is a general quality of women, whether moral development is distinctly and dualistically gendered, and whether the voice of care is the only alternative moral voice.

However, authors like Marilyn Friedman maintain that even if it cannot be shown that care is a distinctly female moral orientation, it is plausibly understood as a symbolically feminine approach Friedman, Along similar lines some critics object that care ethics is not a highly distinct moral theory, and that it rightly incorporates liberal concepts such as autonomy, equality, and justice. Some defenders of utilitarianism and deontology argue that the concerns highlighted by care ethics have been, or could be, readily addressed by existing theories Nagl-Docekal, ; Ma, Others suggest that care ethics merely reduces to virtue ethics with care being one of many virtues Rachels, ; Slote, a; b; McLaren, , Halwani, Although a number of care ethicists explore the possible overlap between care ethics and other moral theories, the distinctiveness of the ethic is defended by some current advocates of care ethics, who contend that the focus on social power, identity, relationship, and interdependency are unique aspects of the theory Sander-Staudt, Most care ethicists make room for justice concerns and for critically scrutinizing alternatives amongst justice perspectives.

In some cases, care ethicists understand the perspectives of care and justice as mutual supplements to one another. Other theorists underscore the strategic potential for construing care as a right in liberal societies that place a high rhetorical value on human rights. Yet others explore the benefits of integrating care ethics with less liberal traditions of justice, such as Marxism Bubeck, Another set of criticisms center around the concern that care ethics obscures larger social dynamics and is overly parochial. Critics worry that this stance privileges elite care-givers by excusing them from attending to significant differences in international standards of living and their causes.

Noddings now affirms an explicit theme of justice in care ethics that resists arbitrary favoritism, and that extends to public and international domains. The objection that care ethics is essentialist stems from the more general essentialist critique made by Elizabeth Spelman Following this argument, early versions of care ethics have been faulted for failing to explore the ways in which women and others differ from one another, and for thereby offering a uniform picture of moral development that reinforces sex stereotypes Tronto, Critics challenge tendencies in care ethics to theorize care based on a dyadic model of a care-giving mother and a care-receiving child, on the grounds that it overly romanticizes motherhood and does not adequately represent the vast experiences of individuals Hoagland, The charge of essentialism in care ethics highlights ways in which women and men are differently implicated in chains of care depending on variables of class, race, age, and more.

Essentialism in care ethics is problematic not only because it is conceptually facile, but also because of its political implications for social justice. For example, in the United States women of color and white women are differently situated in terms of who is more likely to give and receive care, and of what degree and quality, because the least paid care workers predominantly continue to be women of color. Likewise, lesbian and heterosexual women are differently situated in being able to claim the benefits and burdens of marriage, and are not equally presumed to be fit as care-givers.

Contemporary feminist care ethicists attempt to avoid essentialism by employing several strategies, including: more thoroughly illuminating the practices of care on multiple levels and from various perspectives; situating caring practices in place and time; construing care as the symbolic rather than actual voice of women; exploring the potential of care as a gender neutral activity; and being consistently mindful of perspective and privilege in the activity of moral theorizing. Because it eschews abstract principles and decisional procedures, care ethics is often accused of being unduly ambiguous, and for failing to offer concrete guidance for ethical action Rachels, Some care ethicists find the non-principled nature of care ethics to be overstated, noting that because a care perspective may eschew some principles does not mean that it eschews all principles entirely Held, Principles that could be regarded as central to care ethics might pertain to the origin and basic need of care relations, the evaluation of claims of need, the obligation to care, and the scope of care distribution.

On principle, it would seem, a care ethic guides the moral agent to recognize relational interdependency, care for the self and others, cultivate the skills of attention, response, respect, and completion, and maintain just and caring relationships. However, while theorists define care ethics as a theory derived from actual practices, they simultaneously resist subjectivism and moral relativism. Because of its association with women, care ethics is often construed as a feminine ethic. Indeed, care ethics, feminine ethics, and feminist ethics are often treated as synonymous.

But although they overlap, these are discrete fields in that although care ethics connotes feminine traits, not all feminine and feminist ethics are care ethics, and the necessary connection between care ethics and femininity has been subject to rigorous challenge. The idea that there may be a distinctly woman-oriented, or a feminine approach to ethics, can be traced far back in history.

Attempts to legitimate this approach gained momentum in the 18 th and 19 th centuries, fueled by some suffragettes, who argued that granting voting rights to white women would lead to moral social improvements. Central assumptions of feminine ethics are that women are similar enough to share a common perspective, rooted in the biological capacity and expectation of motherhood, and that characteristically feminine traits include compassion, empathy, nurturance, and kindness.

But once it is acknowledged that women are diverse, and that some men exhibit equally strong tendencies to care, it is not readily apparent that care ethics is solely or uniquely feminine. Many women, in actuality and in myth, in both contemporary and past times, do not exhibit care. Other factors of social identity, such as ethnicity and class, have also been found to correlate with care thinking. Nonetheless, care has pervasively been assumed to be a symbolically feminine trait and perspective, and many women resonate with a care perspective. What differentiates feminine and feminist care ethics turns on the extent to which there is critical inquiry into the empirical and symbolic association between women and care, and concern for the power-related implications of this association.

Alison Jaggar characterizes a feminist ethic as one which exposes masculine and other biases in moral theory, understands individual actions in the context of social practices, illuminates differences between women, provides guidance for private, public, and international issues, and treats the experiences of women respectfully, but not uncritically Jaggar, Slote develops a strictly gender neutral theory of care on the grounds that care ethics can be traced to the work of male as well as female philosophers.

Although he acknowledges that women are disadvantaged in current caring distributions and are often socialized to value self-effacing care, his theory is feminist only in seeking to assure that the basic needs of women and girls are met and their capabilities developed. While cautious of the associations between care and femininity, they find it useful to tap the resources of the lived and embodied experiences of women, a common one which is the capacity to birth children. They tend to define care as a practice partially in order to stay mindful of the ongoing empirical if misguided associations between care and women, that must inform utopian visions of care as a gender-neutral activity and virtue.

Complicating things further, individuals who are sexed as women may nonetheless gain social privilege when they exhibit certain perceived traits of the male gender, such as being unencumbered and competitive, suggesting that it is potentially as important to revalue feminine traits and activities, as it is to stress the gender-neutral potential of care ethics. As it currently stands, care ethicists agree that women are positioned differently than men in relation to caring practices, but there is no clear consensus about the best way to theorize sex and gender in care ethics.

The most pre-dominant of these comparisons has been between care ethics and virtue ethics, to the extent that care ethics is sometimes categorized as a form of virtue ethics, with care being a central virtue. The identification of caring virtues fuels the tendency to classify care ethics as a virtue ethic, although this system of classification is not universally endorsed. Some theorists move to integrate care and virtue ethics for strategic reasons. McLaren posits that virtue theory provides a normative framework which care ethics lacks McLaren, The perceived flaw in care ethics for both authors is a neglect of justice standards in how care is distributed and practiced, and a relegation of care to the private realm, which exacerbates the isolation and individualization of the burdens of care already prevalent in liberal societies.

Feminist critics, however, resist this assimilation on the grounds that it may dilute the unique focus of care ethics Held, ; Sander-Staudt, They are optimistic that feminist versions of care ethics can address the above concerns of justice, and doubt that virtue ethics provides the best normative framework. Similar debates surround the comparison between care ethics and Confucianism. Philosophers note a number of similarities between care ethics and Confucian ethics, not least that both theories are often characterized as virtue ethics Li, , ; Lai Tao, Additional similarities are that both theories emphasize relationship as fundamental to being, eschew general principles, highlight the parent-child relation as paramount, view moral responses as properly graduated, and identify emotions such as empathy, compassion, and sensitivity as prerequisites for moral response.

Ren is often translated as love of humanity, or enlargement. Several authors argue that there is enough overlap between the concepts of care and ren to judge that care ethics and Confucian ethics are remarkably similar and compatible systems of thought Li, ; Rosemont, However, some philosophers object that it is better to view care ethics as distinct from Confucian ethics, because of their potentially incompatible aspects. Feminist care ethicists charge that a feminist care ethic is not compatible with the way Confucianism subordinates women. For similar reasons, Lijun Yuan doubts that Confucian ethics can ever be acceptable to contemporary feminists, despite its similarity to care ethics.

Daniel Star categorizes Confucian ethics as a virtue ethic, and distinguishes virtue ethics and care ethics as involving different biases in moral perception According to Star, care ethics differs from Confucian ethics in not needing to be bound with any particular tradition, in downgrading the importance of principles versus merely noting that principles may be revised or suspended , and in rejecting hierarchical, role-based categories of relationship in favor of contextual and particular responses.

There are also refutations of the belief that care ethics is conceptually incompatible with the justice perspectives of Kantian deontology and liberal human rights theory. Care ethicists dispute the inference that because care and justice have evolved as distinct practices and ideals, that they are incompatible. Some deny that Kantianism is as staunchly principled and rationalistic as often portrayed, and affirm that care ethics is compatible with Kantian deontology because it relies upon a universal injunction to care, and requires a principle of caring obligation.

An adaptation of the Kantian categorical imperative can be used to ground the obligation to care in the universal necessity of care, and the inconsistency of willing a world without intent to care. Other theorists compare the compatibility between care ethics and concepts of central importance to a Kantian liberal tradition. Thus, Grace Clement argues that an ideal of individual autonomy is required by normative ideals of care, in the sense that care-givers ideally consent to and retain some degree of autonomy in caring relations, and also ideally foster the autonomy of care-receivers Clement, Other ways that Kantianism is thought to benefit care ethics is by serving as a supplementary check to caring practice, denouncing caring relations that use others as mere means , and by providing a rhetorical vehicle for establishing care as a right.

As a theory rooted in practices of care, care ethics emerged in large part from analyses of the reasoning and activities associated with mothering. Although some critics caution against the tendency to construe all care relations in terms of a mother-child dyad, Ruddick and Held use a maternal perspective to expand care ethics as a moral and political theory.

Ruddick notes that while some mothers support violence and war, they should not because of how it threatens the goals and substance of care. Loving attention helps mothers to perceive their children and themselves honestly so as to foster growth without retreating to fantasy or incurring loss of the self. In so doing, mothers should challenge the rigid division of male and female aspects characteristic of military ideology because it threatens the hope and promise of birth.

Ruddick creates a feminist account of maternal care ethics that is rooted in the vulnerability, promise, and power of human bodies, and that by resisting cheery denial, can transform the symbols of motherhood into political speech. But however useful the paradigm for mothering has been to care ethics, many find it to be a limited and problematic framework. Although Ruddick acknowledges that many mothers support military endeavors and undermine peace movements, some critics are unconvinced that warfare is always illogical and universally contrary to maternal practice. For these reasons, some care ethicists, even when in agreement over the significance of the mother-child relationship, have sought to expand the scope of care ethics by exploring other paradigms of care work, such as friendship and citizenship.

Care ethics was initially viewed as having little to say about international relations. With an emphasis on known persons and particular selves, care ethics did not seem to be a moral theory suited to guide relations with distant or hostile others. Fiona Robinson challenges this idea, however, by developing a critical ethics of care that attends to the relations of dependency and vulnerability that exist on a global scale Robinson, She argues that universal principles of right and wrong typically fail to generate moral responses that alleviate the suffering of real people. But she is optimistic that a feminist phenomenological version of care ethics can do so by exploring the actual nature, conditions, and possibilities of global relations.

This culture is girded by a systemic devaluing of interdependence, relatedness, and positive interaction with distant others. A critical ethic of care understands the global order not as emerging from a unified or homogeneous humanity, but from structures that exploit differences to exclude, marginalize and dominate. Likewise, Held is hopeful that care ethics can be used to transform international relations between states, by noticing cultural constructs of masculinity in state behaviors, and by calling for cooperative values to replace hierarchy and domination based on gender, class, race and ethnicity Held, Care ethicists continue to explore how care ethics can be applied to international relations in the context of the global need for care and in the international supply and demand for care that is served by migrant populations of women.

As a political theory , care ethics examines questions of social justice, including the distribution of social benefits and burdens, legislation, governance, and claims of entitlement. Here, Benhabib traces a basic dichotomy in political and moral theory drawn between the public and private realms. Whereas the former is thought to be the realm of justice, the social and historical, and generalized others, the latter is thought to be the realm of the good life, the natural and atemporal, and concrete others. Benhabib traces this metaphor, internalized by the male ego, within the political philosophies of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and John Rawls, and the moral theories of Immanuel Kant and Lawrence Kohlberg.

She argues that under this conception, human interdependency, difference, and questions about private life become irrelevant to politics. Together, these boundaries obscure how care as a political concept illuminates the interdependency of human beings, and how care could stimulate democratic and pluralistic politics in the United States by extending a platform to the politically disenfranchised. Following Tronto, a number of feminist care ethicists explore the implications of care ethics for a variety of political concepts, including Bubeck who adapts Marxist arguments to establish the social necessity and current exploitation of the work of care; Sevenhuijsen who reformulates citizenship to be more inclusive of caring need and care work; and Kittay who develops a dependency based concept of equality Bubeck, ; Sevenhuijsen, ; Kittay,

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