Essay On Joint Replacement

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Essay On Joint Replacement



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Broadly, current applications of computer technology in the tourism and hospitality industries can be grouped into three main areas, operational, guest services and management information. The overall functionality of these applications is similar across a range of different hospitality organisations though the technology used to support them may vary. Large, city-centre hotels, for instance, tend to use minicomputers for their property management system PMS work. Microcomputers are employed elsewhere.

The diffusion of the system of information technologies in tourism and hospitality will increase the efficiency, quality and flexibility with which travel services are supplied. It has already led to the generation of new services, such as online brochures and interactive videotext. Technology has the greatest impact on the marketing and distribution of travel but leaves relatively untouched the human-intensive areas of guest-host relations and supplier-consumer relationships. Information technologies applied to the tourism system will increase the efficiency and quality of services provided and leads to new combinations of tourism services. All this could not be achieved without changing the manifest human high touch content of travel.

It is the systematic use of the system of information technologies by all tourism suppliers, together with its profound impact on the travel industry, which creates the foundation for a new tourism best practice and a total system of wealth creation. Information and communication technology can be used not only for operational purposes, but also for tactical and strategic management. This empowers tourism and hospitality enterprises to communicate directly and more efficiently with prospective customers and suppliers as well as to achieve competitive advantage. One of the most established ways to analyze and develop complex systems such as e-business is to organize them in a meaningful structure. The four Ps model provided in Appendix A fully addresses the Internet product in relation to the shifting consumer expectations.

The Internet is now firmly established as a marketing tool. It serves as an integral part of the marketing mix, serving as a digital distribution channel as well as an electronic storefront. Consumers in the Internet medium are more than just passive recipients in the marketing process. The Internet is an interactive medium as opposed to traditional marketing which usually allows only one-way communication from marketer to consumer.

The privacy and security issues are also very significant. Therefore, Internet providers have to consider ethical matters and the usage of personal data stored within the networks. For the full commercial potential of electronic commerce and Internet to be exploited by the tourism and hospitality industry and its consumers, several issues have to be considered, which include an increase of security of transmissions, copyright issues, reduction of user confusion and dissatisfaction, establishment of pricing structures for distribution of information and reservations and enhancement of the standardisation of information and reservation procedures.

Credibility and accountability of the information needs to be secured and equal access for smaller and larger partners should be developed. Tourism organizations deploying IT and Internet for competitive advantage can also face legal risks due to possible violation of anti-trust laws and violation of privacy. Policies and procedures should be created to promote the understanding of potential legal risks. This understanding will encourage organizations to obtain help from legal experts to design controls to subdue such risks.

Other political changes, for instance increasing unemployment, competition laws and planning policies, would only have an impact on tourism and hospitality organizations if they are using technological advances and Internet distribution channels. However, it is considered that the tourism or hotel sales from the Internet will be much affected by economic changes in those countries, from which the customers are booking or reserving the product. Nowadays customers are becoming more skilled and advanced in the use of technology. The social system dimension must include the larger social and political processes through which the interests of the different social groups interact with one another and with the technology. According to Klein and Quelch A CRS is essentially a database that enables a tourism organisation to manage its inventory and improve accessibility to information within and between its partners.

Airlines pioneered the CRS technology in the s, by expanding geographical coverage and integrating horizontally and vertically to embrace the entire range of intermediaries and principals. GDSs are one of the major drivers of information technologies in tourism and hospitality industries, as well as being the backbone of these industries. GDSs are the single most important facilitator of the globalisation of ITs. Developments in GDSs were complemented by the introduction and expansion in the mids of the Internet. Peters, This development facilitated an unprecedented opportunity for distribution of multimedia information and interactivity between principals and consumers. The information on the Internet, however, is chaotic and loosely structured, mainly due to its immaturity and the lack of any type of standardisation.

Sabre has already launched Travelocity, an electronic travel agency, while other GDSs have announced similar actions or cooperations with travel providers on the Internet. IT and the Internet have transformed distribution of the tourism product to form an electronic market-place where access to information is instantly achievable. Principals and consumers continue to experience unprecedented interactivity. The dramatic ongoing development of the Internet has resulted in the re-engineering of the entire production and distribution process for tourism products.

As a consequence of this technological explosion, the packaging of tourism is becoming much more individualistic, leading inevitably to a certain degree of channel disintermediation, a process that will offer new opportunities and threats to all tourism partners. The seriousness of the threat of entry depends on the barriers present and on the reaction from the existing providers. The Internet as a distribution source has relatively high entry barriers, constraining all new comers.

Lashley and Rowson suggest that recent IT developments, offer new opportunities for tour operators. For instance, several tour operators distribute electronic brochures and booking forms through the Internet directly to consumers. This approach provides a number of important benefits to tour operators. This includes concentration on niche markets by offering customised packages and an ability for tour operators to update brochures regularly. It also significantly reduces the costs of incentives, bonuses and educational trips for travel agencies. The Internet allows organizations to skip over parts of the value chain. Therefore, the provision of online travel services is the single most successful business-to-consumer B2C segment on the Internet.

Collins, Buhalis and Peters state that the overall percentage of hotel rooms booked online grows tremendously each year and will be increased by 20 per cent in Moreover, the Internet is also having a profound effect on the internal and external operating procedures within the hospitality industry Cheng and Piccoli, The Internet helps to access new customers on a global basis and enables to streamline operating procedures. Integrating daily operations such as sales, marketing and distribution as well as aggregating demand to drive down prices on the procurement side are some of the major benefits of the Internet.

The majority of large tourism and hotel organizations are currently present in the global distribution systems GDSs. The Internet is one of the mains distribution channels, which enable tourism and hospitality companies to overcome their challenge of being globally represented. Direct advertising and other sources of media also serve as a promotional or informative mean, which can be used instead of the Internet. With the Internet it is possible to gain permission to discuss the products, as opposed to interruption marketing, such as television commercials.

Increasingly hotel chains are competing directly with one another in the same locations. This is a notable change for an industry reliant on specific locations to limit the threat of competition. All major hotel chains are currently entering the Internet market of sales and communications. As organizations are dependent on their environments for resources, they will attempt to manage their dependency by developing and maintaining strategies.

Hotel groups are being forced to follow other sectors by implementing marketing strategies, often based on product differentiation, growth in new markets, high value for money, or emerging brands. Such strategies are formulated and implemented within the context of environmental uncertainty and require an understanding of industry structure and environmental change. Hilton International Group is a leading global hotel brand and the Company, with an expanding portfolio of hotels, mainly Hilton Brand own the rights to the trademark , Scandic, Conrad and Vernon Hotels.

The company operates hotels worldwide and is represented in 66 countries. Its 80, strong workforce looks after an average of 8 million guests every year. Annual Report, The ability of computers to store, process, manipulate and distribute information has greatly improved the efficiency of Hilton hotels. By releasing staff time from the ordinary paper-pushing functions within the hotel, computers can greatly enhance the opportunities for staff utilisation in the quality of service that hotels offer their guests can be greatly improved.

Information technologies are diffusing in eight key areas of hotel operations:. Product distribution is a critically important function of Hilton International. Information technologies, such as computerised reservations systems and video brochures, assist hotels in marketing and distributing their bed-nights. For Hilton, the employment of information technologies to link together their front-office, back-office and off and beverage departments may be necessary for the efficient and cost-effective delivery of their services.

However, it will not be sufficient to guarantee the sale of hotel bed-nights. Without links to international marketing and distribution networks, hotel bed-nights cannot be sold. Reservations are a key to the sale of hotel bed-nights. Reservation systems, depending on the software and sophistication, contain information and generate various reports on rooms availability, cancellations, etc. In addition, the database can generate forecasts on expected arrivals, departures and rooms sold. Information contained in, and generated by, hotel reservation systems is an invaluable source of marketing information and can generate mailing lists, client profiles and preferences. It can also monitor hotel performance through the development and processing of guest questionnaires.

Reservation systems also allow hotels to carry out travel-agency and tour-operator analyses in order to determine which agencies and operators consistently generate business for the hotels. There are two principal areas in which information technologies are helping hotels to improve their communications in their internal inter-departmental communications and in their external links with agents, suppliers, reservation systems and data networks. The internal inter-departmental links of the hotel are facilitated by computers and communications technologies, which serve to integrate the front-office, back office and food-beverage operations.

This is facilitated through computer-to-computer communications. Cooper and et al. Communications technologies used by Hilton International include digital telephone systems, teleconferencing, satellite broadcasting, videotext and audiovisual information tools, image communication and various communication networks for reservations and communications. Telephone systems used at Hilton Hotels have been substantially improved to incorporate features such as call accounting systems.

Automatic call-accounting systems now help to transform their telephone calls into important profit centres of the hotels. As marketing technique, for instance, hotels can offer long-distance telephone calls at discount rates to their guests and still find it profitable. Room-management systems can give updated information on room occupancy and status and they assist in scheduling housekeeper duties for maximum efficiency. Rooming lists, arrivals, stay-overs, extended stays, departures and room preferences can all be handled by room-management systems. Electronic data interchange EDI is an open and essentially cooperative technological infrastructure. While it is possible to gain short-term competitive advantage from embracing EDI ahead of competing organisations, it is now generally accepted that there is no scope within the inter-organisational system for the kinds of barriers to competition suggested by the work of Porter and other.

Porter, The boy, of course, was genuinely black. And, as Juba, Lane was persuasive enough that Barnum could pass him off as a white person in blackface. After the Civil War, black performers had taken up minstrelsy, too, corking themselves, for both white and black audiences — with a straight face or a wink, depending on who was looking. Black troupes invented important new dances with blue-ribbon names the buck-and-wing, the Virginia essence , the stop-time.

But these were unhappy innovations. A black minstrel was impersonating the impersonation of himself. Think, for a moment, about the talent required to pull that off. According to Henry T. Yet that no-frills excellence could curdle into an entirely other, utterly degrading double consciousness, one that predates, predicts and probably informs W. American popular culture was doomed to cycles not only of questioned ownership, challenged authenticity, dubious propriety and legitimate cultural self-preservation but also to the prison of black respectability, which, with brutal irony, could itself entail a kind of appropriation.

It meant comportment in a manner that seemed less black and more white. It meant the appearance of refinement and polish. He was perfect for radio, yet when he got a TV show of his own , it was abruptly canceled, his brown skin being too much for even the black and white of a television set. There was, perhaps, not a white audience in America, particularly in the South, that would not have resented, in a very energetic fashion, the insult of being asked to look at the majestic singing of a real Negro.

Is their blackness an act? Is the act under white control? Just this year, Harold E. Doley Jr. Motown was a full-scale integration of Western, classical orchestral ideas strings, horns, woodwinds with the instincts of both the black church rhythm sections, gospel harmonies, hand claps and juke joint Saturday nights rhythm sections, guitars, vigor. Black women in ball gowns. Stables of black writers, producers and musicians.

Backup singers solving social equations with geometric choreography. And just in time for the hegemony of the American teenager. Even now it feels like an assault on the music made a hundred years before it. Motown specialized in love songs. But its stars, those songs and their performance of them were declarations of war on the insults of the past and present. The scratchy piccolo at the start of a Four Tops hit was, in its way, a raised fist.

The proliferation of black music across the planet — the proliferation, in so many senses, of being black — constitutes a magnificent joke on American racism. It also confirms the attraction that someone like Rice had to that black man grooming the horse. But something about that desire warps and perverts its source, lampoons and cheapens it even in adoration. Loving black culture has never meant loving black people, too.

Loving black culture risks loving the life out of it. If freedom's ringing, who on Earth wouldn't also want to rock the bell? In , J. Kennard, a critic for the newspaper The Knickerbocker, hyperventilated about the blackening of America. Except he was talking about blackface minstrels doing the blackening. Nonetheless, Kennard could see things for what they were:. The negro poets, to be sure! Do they not set the fashion, and give laws to the public taste? Let one of them, in the swamps of Carolina, compose a new song, and it no sooner reaches the ear of a white amateur, than it is written down, amended, that is, almost spoilt, printed, and then put upon a course of rapid dissemination, to cease only with the utmost bounds of Anglo-Saxondom, perhaps of the world.

What a panicked clairvoyant! It was an anxiety over white obsolescence. Our first most original art form arose from our original sin, and some white people have always been worried that the primacy of black music would be a kind of karmic punishment for that sin. The song snowballed into a phenomenon. All kinds of people — cops, soldiers, dozens of dapper black promgoers — posted dances to it on YouTube and TikTok. Then a crazy thing happened. A first. And, for now at least, a last. The mixing feels historical.

Perhaps Lil Nas was too American. Other artists of the genre seemed to sense this. White singers recorded pretty tributes in support, and one, Billy Ray Cyrus, performed his on a remix with Lil Nas X himself. And the bottomless glee over the whole thing makes me laugh, too — not in a surprised, yacht-rock way but as proof of what a fine mess this place is. Screw the history. Get off my land. Four hundred years ago, more than 20 kidnapped Africans arrived in Virginia. They were put to work and put through hell.

Twenty became millions, and some of those people found — somehow — deliverance in the power of music. Lil Nas X has descended from those millions and appears to be a believer in deliverance. I hear a cry of ancestry. And Cyrus is down for the ride. Musically, they both know: This land is their land. Please upgrade your browser.

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