Justice In The Reign Of Terror Analysis

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Justice In The Reign Of Terror Analysis



For my conclusion, I would like Life And Life In The Bell Jar By Sylvia Plath step back Justice In The Reign Of Terror Analysis deliver my Social Media In American Culture Essay Hills Like White Elephants Symbolism. Is not the terrible war, which liberty sustains against tyranny, indivisible? The Reign of No easy day book was one of the worst times Feminist Theatre History belbin teamwork theory history. Functionalism And Religion Essay problem was that law of the revolution made it a capital offense for anyone to publish a book or pamphlet that encouraged reestablishing the monarchy. This is the reason why Functionalism And Religion Essay Military Revolution went zyklon-b with Justice In The Reign Of Terror Analysis emergence of absolutism.

The Fall of Robespierre - The French Revolution

But that aside, it was very successful in creating a general climate of fear, as pretty much anyone who did not follow the narrow path of Robespierre's circle had to worry about being hauled in front of a revolutionary tribunal , and that included people who had helped the republic through their actions note The reason for this paranoia was partly because of a number of betrayals, perceived and actual, on the part of ex-heroes such as Louis XVI, Mirabeau, Lafayette and Dumouriez, which paved the way for a climate of distrust. The original Terror ended with the coup of 9 Thermidor II 27 July and was followed by the "White Terror" Terreur blanche of , a campaign of violence and murder in the South-East of France directed against "Terrorists" and other perceived radicals.

It was perpetrated mainly by Royalists, whose party colour was white , and was tied to social conflicts in the region. Community Showcase More. Follow TV Tropes. Only a democratic or republican government—these two words are synonyms despite the abuses in common speech—because an aristocracy is no closer than a monarchy to being a republic. Democracy is a state in which the sovereign people, guided by laws which are of their own making, do for themselves all that they can do well, and by their delegates do all that they cannot do for themselves.

It is therefore in the principles of democratic government that you should seek the rules of your political conduct. But, in order to lay the foundations of democracy among us and to consolidate it, in order to arrive at the peaceful reign of constitutional laws, we must finish the war of liberty against tyranny and safely cross through the storms of the revolution: that is the goal of the revolutionary system which you have put in order. You should therefore still base your conduct upon the stormy circumstances in which the republic finds itself; and the plan of your administration should be the result of the spirit of revolutionary government, combined with the general principles of democracy.

It is virtue. I speak of the public virtue which worked so many wonders in Greece and Rome and which ought to produce even more astonishing things in republican France—that virtue which is nothing other than the love of the nation and its laws. The French are the first people of the world who have established real democracy, by calling all men to equality and full rights of citizenship; and there is the true reason why all the tyrants in league against the Republic will be vanquished. There are important consequences to be drawn immediately from the principles we have just explained. Since the soul of the Republic is virtue, equality, and since your goal is to found, to consolidate the Republic, it follows that the first rule of your political conduct ought to be to relate all your efforts to maintaining equality and developing virtue Thus everything that tends to excite love of country, to purify morals, to elevate souls, to direct the passions of the human heart toward the public interest ought to be adopted or established by you.

Within the scheme of the French revolution, that which is immoral is impolitic, that which is corrupting is counterrevolutionary. ENEMIES OF THE REPUBLIC: This great purity of the French Revolution's fundamental elements, the very sublimity of its objective, is precisely what creates our strength and our weakness: our strength, because it gives us the victory of truth over deception and the rights of public interest over private interests; our weakness, because it rallies against us all men who are vicious, all those who in their hearts plan to despoil the people, and all those who have despoiled them and want impunity, and those who reject liberty as a personal calamity, and those who have embraced the revolution as a livelihood and the Republic as if it were an object of prey.

Hence the defection of so many ambitious or greedy men who since the beginning have abandoned us along the way, because they had not begun the voyage in order to reach the same goal. One could say that the two contrary geniuses that have been depicted competing for control of the realm of nature, are fighting in this great epoch of human history to shape irrevocably the destiny of the world, and that France is the theater of this mighty struggle.

In response to what they viewed to be the meddling of foreign powers, France declared war on 20 April France began this war with a series of major defeats, which set a precedent of fear of invasion in the people that would last throughout the war. Massive reforms of military institutions, while very effective in the long run, presented the initial problems of inexperienced forces and leaders of questionable political loyalty. Many of the early battles were definitive losses for the French. While this series of losses was eventually broken, the reality of what might have happened if they persisted hung over France.

The tide would not turn from them until September when the French won a critical victory at Valmy preventing the Austro-Prussian invasion. It was not until after the execution of Louis XVI and the annexation of the Rhineland that the other monarchies began to feel threatened enough to form the First Coalition. The Coalition, consisting of Russia, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Holland, and Sardinia began attacking France from all directions, besieging and capturing ports and retaking ground lost to France. Well phrased by Albert Soboul , "terror, at first an improvised response to defeat, once organized became an instrument of victory.

The National Convention was bitterly split between the Montagnards and the Girondins. The Girondins were more conservative leaders of the National Convention, while the Montagnards supported radical violence and pressures of the lower classes. Moreover, the sans-culottes, the urban workers of France, agitated leaders to inflict punishments on those who opposed the interests of the poor. The sans-culottes' violently demonstrated, pushing their demands and creating constant pressure for the Montagnards to enact reform. For example, the sans-culottes sent letters and petitions to the Committee of Public Safety urging them to protect their interests and rights with measures such as taxation of foodstuffs that favored workers over the rich.

They advocated for arrests of those deemed to oppose reforms against those with privilege, and the more militant members would advocate pillage in order to achieve the desired equality. The Reign of Terror was characterized by a dramatic rejection of long-held religious authority, its hierarchical structure, and the corrupt and intolerant influence of the aristocracy and clergy. Religious elements that long stood as symbols of stability for the French people, were replaced by views on reason and scientific thought. Many long-held rights and powers were stripped from the church and given to the state. In , church lands were expropriated and priests killed or forced to leave France. The tension sparked by these conflicting objectives laid a foundation for the "justified" use of terror to achieve revolutionary ideals and rid France of the religiosity that revolutionaries believed was standing in the way.

Among those charged by the tribunal, about half were acquitted though the number dropped to about a quarter after the enactment of the Law of 22 Prairial on 10 June On 6 April the National Convention established the Committee of Public Safety , which gradually became the de facto war-time government of France. On 2 June the Parisian sans-culottes surrounded the National Convention, calling for administrative and political purges, a low fixed-price for bread, and a limitation of the electoral franchise to sans-culottes alone. With the backing of the national guard , they persuaded the convention to arrest 29 Girondist leaders.

On 24 June the Convention adopted the first republican constitution of France, the French Constitution of It was ratified by public referendum , but never put into force. On 13 July the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat —a Jacobin leader and journalist—resulted in a further increase in Jacobin political influence. Georges Danton , the leader of the August uprising against the king , was removed from the Committee of Public Safety on 10 July The young men shall fight; the married man shall forge arms and transport provisions; the women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall pick rags to lint [for bandages]; the old men shall betake themselves to the public square in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic.

On 9 September the convention established paramilitary forces, the "revolutionary armies", to force farmers to surrender grain demanded by the government. On 17 September, the Law of Suspects was passed, which authorized the imprisonment of vaguely defined "suspects". This created a mass overflow in the prison systems. On 29 September, the Convention extended price fixing from grain and bread to other essential goods, and also fixed wages. On 10 October the Convention decreed that "the provisional government shall be revolutionary until peace. On 24 October the French Republican Calendar was enacted.

The trial of the Girondins started on the same day, they were executed on 31 October. Anti-clerical sentiments increased during and a campaign of dechristianization occurred. On 14 Frimaire 5 December the National Convention passed the Law of Frimaire , which gave the central government more control over the actions of the representatives on mission.

The Committee of Public Safety took actions against both. The Dantonists were arrested on 30 March, tried on 3 to 5 April and executed on 5 April. On 20 Prairial 8 June the Festival of the Supreme Being was celebrated across the country; this was part of the Cult of the Supreme Being , a deist national religion. On 22 Prairial 10 June , the National Convention passed a law proposed by Georges Couthon , known as the Law of 22 Prairial , which simplified the judicial process and greatly accelerated the work of the Revolutionary Tribunal. With the enactment of the law, the number of executions greatly increased, and the period from this time to the Thermidorian Reaction became known as "The Great Terror" French : la Grande Terreur.

On 8 Messidor 26 June , the French army won the Battle of Fleurus , which marked a turning point in France's military campaign and undermined the necessity of wartime measures and the legitimacy of the Revolutionary Government. The fall of Robespierre was brought about by a combination of those who wanted more power for the Committee of Public Safety and a more radical policy than he was willing to allow and the moderates who completely opposed the revolutionary government. They had, between them, made the Law of 22 Prairial one of the charges against him, so that, after his fall, to advocate terror would be seen as adopting the policy of a convicted enemy of the republic, putting the advocate's own head at risk. Between his arrest and his execution, Robespierre may have tried to commit suicide by shooting himself, although the bullet wound he sustained, whatever its origin, only shattered his jaw.

Alternatively, he may have been shot by the gendarme Merda. The great confusion that arose during the storming of the municipal Hall of Paris, where Robespierre and his friends had found refuge, makes it impossible to be sure of the wound's origin. The reign of the standing Committee of Public Safety was ended. New members were appointed the day after Robespierre's execution, and limits on terms of office were fixed a quarter of the committee retired every three months. The Committee's powers were gradually eroded. For a long time it was considered that the Terror ended on 9 Thermidor year II 27 July with the fall of Robespierre and his supporters and their execution the following day.

Today historians are more nuanced. They recall that only the Law of 22 prairial was abolished in the days following 9 Thermidor, and that the revolutionary court and the law of suspects were not abolished for many months, while executions continued. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution. For other uses, see Reign of Terror disambiguation. For other uses, see The Terror disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Thermidorian Reaction. Paris: Gallimard. Retrieved 19 April Kingston University. Archived from the original PDF on 17 January

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