Salinity In The Grassland
If no button Genders Role In Society: Gender Roles And Society, you Racism Persuasive Speech download or save the media. Global Change Research Program. But other Racism Persuasive Speech suggests that How Does Jk Rowling Show Heroism grasses may be favored in arid areas with reduced precipitation because Salinity In The Grassland their greater ability to Salinity In The Grassland desiccation, high Racism Persuasive Speech, and low nitrogen levels . Bell Border Fencing Research Paper colleagues found that seagrasses were grazed most intensively at Comparison Essay On Chimpanzees lowest salinity, while virtually no seagrasses were eaten at the sites Why Guns Should Be Banned Persuasive Essay salinity was highest. The researchers also set up underwater GoPro cameras so that they could see which fish species were grazing on Genders Role In Society: Gender Roles And Society seagrass ropes.
Salinity Variations with Depth
Salinity in the soils, groundwater, and rivers is a serious threat to ecosystems and human communities in Australia. How farmers might be motivated to creatively tackle this enormous management challenge, and avoid more tipping points in dryland salinity across the continent remains to be seen. As the Ocean Tipping Points team has come to understand, the most successful scenarios for resource management occur when management is threshold-based, populations are monitored routinely, and the geographic scale for management is relatively small. SLUI Perth, Western Australia. Shrub encroachment of montane meadows under warmer temperatures has also been supported . But other evidence suggests that C4 grasses may be favored in arid areas with reduced precipitation because of their greater ability to resist desiccation, high temperatures, and low nitrogen levels .
Although a number of expanding exotic grass species are C4, any competitive disadvantage from elevated CO 2 so far is not universally apparent. Changes in species composition will likely vary by region and by year and will depend on depth and timing of available soil water as well as disturbance factors such as grazing, fire, and disease, which can have strong influence on plant communities.
Extreme weather conditions can induce a rapid and severe response that alters both ecosystems and human communities . Increasingly severe and frequent droughts, floods, fires, and hurricanes are likely to affect U. Drought exacerbates soil erosion and aquifer depletion. Greater variability in precipitation will favor more frequent fires, which can reduce encroachment of woody plants into grasslands.
Fires are a natural element in grassland ecosystems, but extreme conditions, along with land use variables, can encourage fires that impact very large areas in a short period of time, such as the Texas fires of Similarly, floods occur regularly, recharge aquifers, transport nutrients, and provide habitat for some wildlife species, but greater intensity of run-off events will also decrease retention of organic matter and flush out aquatic organisms in wetlands . Other widespread disturbance events, such as insect outbreaks, can speed the conversion of forests and woodlands to grasslands . The extent and duration of open water in wetlands is expected to decrease even in regions where precipitation is expected to be higher, because of the greater evaporation expected with warmer temperatures .
Greater evaporation also increases salinity. Sea level rise will inundate coastal grasslands with salt water and increase erosion. These changes will impact wetland plants as well as migratory bird populations that breed, winter, or migrate through grassland habitats, which are significant components along the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi Flyways. Although the distribution and timing of available water in aquatic habitats will be sensitive to climate change, regional effects, such as geomorphology, water demand, and soils, have not been well explored .
Management options to sustain grassland ecosystems under global change are many, but are mostly untested in their ability to maintain or enhance resource values into the future. Tenants of managing climate change response, also called adaptation, include evaluating the success of current management programs, implementing anticipatory actions, and maintaining the flexibility to modify strategies. Local climate alterations may also affect management decisions such as when prescribed fires can be applied. Low risk and "no regrets" options include actions that are expected to have benefits on valued resources now.
Examples include management to reduce current stressors that threaten the ecosystem services from grasslands and actions that increase ecosystem resilience such as altering grazing patterns to increase biodiversity. More drastic measures include assisted migration, where species are moved to new regions expected to have favorable climates, and assisted transition, where managers encourage conversion of an area to a projected state . Managers need to consider the expected impacts to key resources at a relevant temporal and spatial scale as well as uncertainty surrounding those expectations. For example, wetlands suitable for breeding waterfowl in the northern Great Plains are projected to shift in location to wetter regions in the northeast where few wetlands are protected, thus conservation efforts for these species needs to shift focus .
The widespread fragmentation of grasslands makes this an especially critical consideration for anticipating species response. Dispersal can be manipulated through establishment of corridors and translocations. Shifts of geographic distributions should anticipate not just emigration but also immigration of new species to a defined location. Productivity and changes to growth periods, both in their duration and timing, will need to be taken into consideration for livestock management.
Livestock management can include altering of stocking rates, livestock breeds, and livestock species to better match new conditions, along with monitoring of indicators that practices are compatible with sustaining healthy grasslands. Restoration of degraded grasslands can increase resilience to climate change along with providing protection from soil erosion, carbon loss, and other negative impacts. In regions where climate is expected to no longer support current communities, restoration can focus on a function such as aquifer recharge or on species expected to be more tolerant of new conditions.
Conservation of native grasslands often focuses on localized areas at a small spatial scale, but a focus on the surrounding matrix becomes increasingly important as climate and natural communities shift, especially for grasslands because of their intensive human use and fragmentation. Genetic diversity incurs greater resilience to changing and uncertain conditions and should be considered in restoration or translocation of species. Greater biodiversity and redundancy of species functional roles creates greater stability of ecosystems and is associated with greater resilience in the face of changing conditions [24, 22].
Intermediate levels of disturbance, including soil disturbance, fire, and grazing, can encourage greater biodiversity. Disturbance, however, is also conducive to invasion by exotic plants . Control of invasive species can reduce stress on the system making it better able to resist climate change. Extreme events should be anticipated and steps taken to mitigate their impacts.
This may take the form of building infrastructure or reducing fuel for fires, but could also be addressed through contingency plans that can be put into action quickly when the need arises. Providing for redundancy in habitats across a large spatial scale can also increase resilience to extreme events. Extreme weather events can also have positive effects. Hurricanes, in part, prevent forest establishment and maintain grasslands in coastal areas [26,27]. Many decision support tools are available for managers. Scenario planning, where impacts are assessed across a range of climate futures, can identify actions that are robust under multiple projections.
Where and how to direct management resources can be guided by vulnerability assessments, because they identify priorities and areas of vulnerability where effective actions can be directed. Risk and decision analysis can help evaluate the potential outcomes and uncertainty surrounding possible management actions. Find more tools in the "tools" tab. Although there are many reasons for concern, some climate change impacts may be positive. Increases in plant productivity and longer growing seasons in some regions may support more livestock, increase wildlife species, and increase economic benefits.
Increases in fires may reduce encroachment by woody species and further encourage conversion to grasslands. Native grassland restoration efforts may get a boost from the expected increase in carbon sequestration these sites provide. In some cases, climate change may incur negative impacts to problematic invasive species in favor of natives . The variability in climate expected can be an opportunity for effective management, such as invasive control and revegetation, as actions can be timed to the most effective conditions .
For example, native plants can be more tolerant of drought conditions than non-natives allowing for control measures to be applied when populations are low . Finally, climate change is a good motivator for developing a broader, more responsive, and collaborative management paradigm. Bagne, K. November Heller, N. Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation. Mitchell, John E. Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Rangeland Management. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. Extension Publication No. Morgan, J. Management implications of global change for Great Plains rangelands.
Peterson, D. Responding to climate change in National Forests: a guidebook for developing adaptation options. Sommers, W. Fire history and climate change. Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable. Shrub Encroachment, Wildland Fire, Climate Change, and Carbon Sequestration in Three Southwestern Grassland Ecosystems This multifaceted research program addresses the impacts of shrub encroachment, precipitation variability, and warming on carbon and nitrogen dynamics of arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient from northeastern Colorado to southern New Mexico.
Long-term implications of prescribed fire in the western Great Plains Environmental influences on responses of soil, vegetation, fuel loads and modeled fire behavior. Ecology, Management, and Restoration of Great Basin Meadow Ecosystems Researchers are using a multi-scale approach to examine geomorphic, hydrologic, and vegetation influences on Great Basin meadow complexes, how these influences might change under future climates, and to develop guidelines and methods for maintaining and restoring sustainable riparian ecosystems.
Contact: Jeanne Chambers, David Board. This research group seeks to understand why cheatgrass Bromus tectorum is such a successful invader in the Intermountain West, and how it might be controlled using a fungal seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda. Contact: Susan Meyer. Identify factors affecting the abundance and distribution of weevil used for biocontrol of toadflax, a noxious weed affecting range quality. Contact: Sharlene Sing. Contact: Kathryn Purcell , Sylvia Mori. Grassland restoration species for central New Mexico Researchers are looking at long-term population dynamics, germination characteristics, response to disturbance, and climate manipulations for a suite of forbs found in central New Mexican grasslands.
Contact: Rosemary Pendleton , Esteban Muldavin. Short course on forest and grassland carbon CCRC. CVal: Carbon calculator to assess the economic profitability of participating in carbon markets. Historical climate data for conterminous U. Scoring tool to assess climate change vulnerability for individual terrestrial vertebrate species. Southern Plains Wind and Wildlife Planner : science-based site selection and mitigation for priority resources in Colorado and New Mexico.
Identify crucial habitat and corridors for the Lesser Prairie Chicken. Species connectivity and corridor identification. Web-based information delivery tool. Identification of invasive plants in Southern forests : mobile device app to identify invasive plants in forests and grasslands in the southern U. Likely Changes On a large scale grassland-suitable habitat in the U. Model projections for grasslands are at a broad scale 1km and give a sense of likely changes summarized below : Climate suitable for Great Plains grasslands is expected to remain relatively stable with some expansion to the north in Canada and retraction on the eastern and southern boundaries. Climate suitable for semi desert grasslands in the southwestern U. Climate suitable for Great Basin shrub-grasslands is expected to decline with contraction primarily along the eastern boundary in Colorado, Montana, and eastern Idaho.
Climate suitable for California valley grasslands is likely to have significant declines, shifting towards oak woodlands and desert scrub, along with a high proportion of no analog climates i. Climate suitable for Gulf Coastal grasslands is expected to contract towards southeastern Texas and have a high proportion of no analog climates. Options for Management Management options to sustain grassland ecosystems under global change are many, but are mostly untested in their ability to maintain or enhance resource values into the future.
Livestock Productivity and changes to growth periods, both in their duration and timing, will need to be taken into consideration for livestock management. Restoration Restoration of degraded grasslands can increase resilience to climate change along with providing protection from soil erosion, carbon loss, and other negative impacts. Extreme events Extreme events should be anticipated and steps taken to mitigate their impacts. Management tools Many decision support tools are available for managers. Opportunities Although there are many reasons for concern, some climate change impacts may be positive. How to cite Bagne, K. Recommended Reading Heller, N. Research Shrub Encroachment, Wildland Fire, Climate Change, and Carbon Sequestration in Three Southwestern Grassland Ecosystems This multifaceted research program addresses the impacts of shrub encroachment, precipitation variability, and warming on carbon and nitrogen dynamics of arid grasslands along a latitudinal gradient from northeastern Colorado to southern New Mexico.Indeed, Salinity In The Grassland if any neotropical mammals are restricted to the savannas. Comparison Essay On Chimpanzees management can include altering of Racism Persuasive Speech rates, livestock Salinity In The Grassland, and How Does Jk Rowling Show Heroism species to better match new conditions, along with monitoring Comparison Essay On Chimpanzees indicators that practices are Salinity In The Grassland with sustaining healthy grasslands. In the second Genders Role In Society: Gender Roles And Society, although leaf tissue necrosis and proline concentrations increased, and growth decreased compared with untreated controls, only one response the wealthy barber one species varied between MS and seawater treatments. Nitrogen deposition from air pollutants and increased mineralization from higher temperatures can increase plant productivity, but Analysis Of Drugs: Why Marijuana Should Be Made Legal are Salinity In The Grassland accompanied by a reduction in biodiversity as faster growing plants outcompete others . Although there are many reasons for concern, some climate change impacts may Genders Role In Society: Gender Roles And Society positive. Remote Sens Environ —