Examples Of Corruption In Julius Caesar

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Examples Of Corruption In Julius Caesar

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Julius Caesar Power Theme Analysis (Shakespeare Today Series full lesson)- Schooling Online

However, Macedon controlled a large area and had a relatively strong centralized government, in comparison to most Greek states. Philip II was a strong and expansionist king who took every opportunity to expand Macedonian territory. In BC he annexed Thessaly and Magnesia. In the aftermath, Philip formed the League of Corinth , effectively bringing the majority of Greece under his direct sway. He was elected Hegemon of the league, and a campaign against the Achaemenid Empire of Persia was planned.

However in BC, while this campaign was in its early stages, he was assassinated. Succeeding his father, Alexander took over the Persian war himself. The years of constant campaigning had taken their toll however, and Alexander died in BC. After his death, the huge territories Alexander had conquered became subject to a strong Greek influence Hellenization for the next two or three centuries, until the rise of Rome in the west, and of Parthia in the east. As the Greek and Levantine cultures mingled, the development of a hybrid Hellenistic culture began, and persisted even when isolated from the main centres of Greek culture for instance, in the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.

It can be argued that some of the changes across the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's conquests and during the rule of the Diadochi would have occurred without the influence of Greek rule. As mentioned by Peter Green , numerous factors of conquest have been merged under the term Hellenistic period. Specific areas conquered by Alexander's invading army, including Egypt and areas of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia "fell" willingly to conquest and viewed Alexander as more of a liberator than a conqueror.

In addition, much of the area conquered would continue to be ruled by the Diadochi , Alexander's generals and successors. Initially the whole empire was divided among them; however, some territories were lost relatively quickly, or only remained nominally under Macedonian rule. After years, only much reduced and rather degenerate states remained, [9] until the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt by Rome. When Alexander the Great died 10 June BC , he left behind a sprawling empire which was composed of many essentially autonomous territories called satraps. Without a chosen successor there were immediate disputes among his generals as to who should be king of Macedon.

Meleager and the infantry supported the candidacy of Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus , while Perdiccas , the leading cavalry commander, supported waiting until the birth of Alexander's child by Roxana. After the infantry stormed the palace of Babylon , a compromise was arranged — Arrhidaeus as Philip III should become king and should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy as it was, becoming Alexander IV. Perdiccas himself would become regent epimeletes of the empire, and Meleager his lieutenant.

Soon, however, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered and assumed full control. The first of the Diadochi wars broke out when Perdiccas planned to marry Alexander's sister Cleopatra and began to question Antigonus I Monophthalmus ' leadership in Asia Minor. Antigonus fled for Greece, and then, together with Antipater and Craterus the satrap of Cilicia who had been in Greece fighting the Lamian war invaded Anatolia. The rebels were supported by Lysimachus , the satrap of Thrace and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt. Although Eumenes , satrap of Cappadocia , defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon , Seleucus , and Antigenes possibly with Ptolemy's aid during his invasion of Egypt c.

Antipater was made regent of the Empire, and the two kings were moved to Macedon. The second Diadochi war began following the death of Antipater in BC. Passing over his own son, Cassander , Antipater had declared Polyperchon his successor as Regent. Cassander rose in revolt against Polyperchon who was joined by Eumenes and was supported by Antigonus, Lysimachus and Ptolemy. In Asia, Eumenes was betrayed by his own men after years of campaign and was given up to Antigonus who had him executed. The third war of the Diadochi broke out because of the growing power and ambition of Antigonus. He began removing and appointing satraps as if he were king and also raided the royal treasuries in Ecbatana , Persepolis and Susa , making off with 25, talents.

He then invaded Phoenicia , laid siege to Tyre , stormed Gaza and began building a fleet. Ptolemy invaded Syria and defeated Antigonus' son, Demetrius Poliorcetes , in the Battle of Gaza of BC which allowed Seleucus to secure control of Babylonia , and the eastern satrapies. Antigonus then sent his son Demetrius to regain control of Greece. In BC he took Athens, expelling Demetrius of Phaleron , Cassander's governor, and proclaiming the city free again.

Demetrius now turned his attention to Ptolemy, defeating his fleet at the Battle of Salamis and taking control of Cyprus. In the aftermath of this victory, Antigonus took the title of king basileus and bestowed it on his son Demetrius Poliorcetes , the rest of the Diadochi soon followed suit. The decisive engagement of the war came when Lysimachus invaded and overran much of western Anatolia, but was soon isolated by Antigonus and Demetrius near Ipsus in Phrygia. Seleucus' war elephants proved decisive, Antigonus was killed, and Demetrius fled back to Greece to attempt to preserve the remnants of his rule there by recapturing a rebellious Athens.

After Cassander's death in c. Demetrius fled to central Greece with his mercenaries and began to build support there and in the northern Peloponnese. He once again laid siege to Athens after they turned on him, but then struck a treaty with the Athenians and Ptolemy, which allowed him to cross over to Asia Minor and wage war on Lysimachus' holdings in Ionia , leaving his son Antigonus Gonatas in Greece. After initial successes, he was forced to surrender to Seleucus in BC and later died in captivity. Seleucus then attempted to conquer Lysimachus' European territories in Thrace and Macedon, but he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus "the thunderbolt" , who had taken refuge at the Seleucid court and then had himself acclaimed as king of Macedon.

Ptolemy was killed when Macedon was invaded by Gauls in BC —his head stuck on a spear—and the country fell into anarchy. He was quickly hailed as king of Macedon and went on to rule for 35 years. At this point the tripartite territorial division of the Hellenistic age was in place, with the main Hellenistic powers being Macedon under Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas , the Ptolemaic kingdom under the aged Ptolemy I and the Seleucid empire under Seleucus' son Antiochus I Soter. Epirus was a northwestern Greek kingdom in the western Balkans ruled by the Molossian Aeacidae dynasty. In Pyrrhus nicknamed "the eagle", aetos invaded southern Italy to aid the city state of Tarentum.

Though victorious, he was forced to retreat due to heavy losses, hence the term " Pyrrhic victory ". Pyrrhus then turned south and invaded Sicily but was unsuccessful and returned to Italy. Afterwards he invaded southern Greece, and was killed in battle against Argos in BC. After the death of Pyrrhus, Epirus remained a minor power. In BC the Aeacid royal family was deposed and a federal state was set up called the Epirote League.

Under the Antigonids, Macedonia was often short on funds, the Pangaeum mines were no longer as productive as under Philip II, the wealth from Alexander's campaigns had been used up and the countryside pillaged by the Gallic invasion. Up to two-thirds of the population emigrated, and the Macedonian army could only count on a levy of 25, men, a significantly smaller force than under Philip II. Antigonus II ruled until his death in BC. Philip V , who came to power when Doson died in BC, was the last Macedonian ruler with both the talent and the opportunity to unite Greece and preserve its independence against the "cloud rising in the west": the ever-increasing power of Rome.

He was known as "the darling of Hellas". Philip continued to wage war against Pergamum and Rhodes for control of the Aegean — BC and ignored Roman demands for non-intervention in Greece by invading Attica. Southern Greece was now thoroughly brought into the Roman sphere of influence , though it retained nominal autonomy. During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply.

The conquests of Alexander greatly widened the horizons of the Greek world, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. It led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria , Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as modern Afghanistan and Pakistan. Independent city states were unable to compete with Hellenistic kingdoms and were usually forced to ally themselves to one of them for defense, giving honors to Hellenistic rulers in return for protection.

One example is Athens , which had been decisively defeated by Antipater in the Lamian war — BC and had its port in the Piraeus garrisoned by Macedonian troops who supported a conservative oligarchy. Athens later allied itself to Ptolemaic Egypt to throw off Macedonian rule, eventually setting up a religious cult for the Ptolemaic kings and naming one of the city's phyles in honour of Ptolemy for his aid against Macedon. Athens was then occupied by Macedonian troops, and run by Macedonian officials. Sparta remained independent, but it was no longer the leading military power in the Peloponnese. The Spartan king Cleomenes III — BC staged a military coup against the conservative ephors and pushed through radical social and land reforms in order to increase the size of the shrinking Spartan citizenry able to provide military service and restore Spartan power.

Sparta's bid for supremacy was crushed at the Battle of Sellasia BC by the Achaean league and Macedon, who restored the power of the ephors. Other city states formed federated states in self-defense, such as the Aetolian League est. These federations involved a central government which controlled foreign policy and military affairs, while leaving most of the local governing to the city states, a system termed sympoliteia. In states such as the Achaean league, this also involved the admission of other ethnic groups into the federation with equal rights, in this case, non- Achaeans. One of the few city states who managed to maintain full independence from the control of any Hellenistic kingdom was Rhodes. With a skilled navy to protect its trade fleets from pirates and an ideal strategic position covering the routes from the east into the Aegean, Rhodes prospered during the Hellenistic period.

It became a center of culture and commerce, its coins were widely circulated and its philosophical schools became one of the best in the Mediterranean. After holding out for one year under siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes — BC , the Rhodians built the Colossus of Rhodes to commemorate their victory. They retained their independence by the maintenance of a powerful navy, by maintaining a carefully neutral posture and acting to preserve the balance of power between the major Hellenistic kingdoms.

Initially Rhodes had very close ties with the Ptolemaic kingdom. Rome eventually turned on Rhodes and annexed the island as a Roman province. The west Balkan coast was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes and kingdoms such as the kingdom of the Dalmatae and of the Ardiaei , who often engaged in piracy under Queen Teuta reigned — BC. Further inland was the Illyrian Paeonian Kingdom and the tribe of the Agrianes. Illyrians on the coast of the Adriatic were under the effects and influence of Hellenisation and some tribes adopted Greek, becoming bilingual [31] [32] [33] due to their proximity to the Greek colonies in Illyria.

Illyrians imported weapons and armor from the ancient Greeks such as the Illyrian type helmet , originally a Greek type and also adopted the ornamentation of ancient Macedon on their shields [34] and their war belts [35] a single one has been found, dated 3rd century BC at modern Selce e Poshtme , a part of Macedon at the time under Philip V of Macedon [36]. The Odrysian Kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes under the kings of the powerful Odrysian tribe.

The Thracians and Agrianes were widely used by Alexander as peltasts and light cavalry , forming about one fifth of his army. The Odrysians used Greek as the language of administration [38] and of the nobility. The nobility also adopted Greek fashions in dress , ornament and military equipment, spreading it to the other tribes. After BC the Odrysians had a strong competitor in the Celtic Kingdom of Tylis ruled by the kings Comontorius and Cavarus , but in BC they conquered their enemies and destroyed their capital. Southern Italy Magna Graecia and south-eastern Sicily had been colonized by the Greeks during the 8th century.

During the Hellenistic period the leading figure in Sicily was Agathocles of Syracuse — BC who seized the city with an army of mercenaries in BC. Agathocles extended his power throughout most of the Greek cities in Sicily, fought a long war with the Carthaginians , at one point invading Tunisia in BC and defeating a Carthaginian army there. This was the first time a European force had invaded the region. After this war he controlled most of south-east Sicily and had himself proclaimed king, in imitation of the Hellenistic monarchs of the east. The first Greek colony in the region was Massalia , which became one of the largest trading ports of Mediterranean by the 4th century BC with 6, inhabitants.

Massalia was also the local hegemon , controlling various coastal Greek cities like Nice and Agde. The coins minted in Massalia have been found in all parts of Liguro-Celtic Gaul. Celtic coinage was influenced by Greek designs, [43] and Greek letters can be found on various Celtic coins, especially those of Southern France. The Hellenistic period saw the Greek alphabet spread into southern Gaul from Massalia 3rd and 2nd centuries BC and according to Strabo , Massalia was also a center of education, where Celts went to learn Greek.

The Hellenistic states of Asia and Egypt were run by an occupying imperial elite of Greco-Macedonian administrators and governors propped up by a standing army of mercenaries and a small core of Greco-Macedonian settlers. Hellenistic monarchs ran their kingdoms as royal estates and most of the heavy tax revenues went into the military and paramilitary forces which preserved their rule from any kind of revolution. Macedonian and Hellenistic monarchs were expected to lead their armies on the field, along with a group of privileged aristocratic companions or friends hetairoi , philoi which dined and drank with the king and acted as his advisory council. Ptolemy , a somatophylax , one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander the Great 's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in BC.

Ptolemy built new cities such as Ptolemais Hermiou in upper Egypt and settled his veterans throughout the country, especially in the region of the Faiyum. Alexandria , a major center of Greek culture and trade, became his capital city. As Egypt's first port city, it became the main grain exporter in the Mediterranean. The Egyptians begrudgingly accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt, though the kingdom went through several native revolts.

The Ptolemies took on the traditions of the Egyptian Pharaohs , such as marrying their siblings Ptolemy II was the first to adopt this custom , having themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participating in Egyptian religious life. The Ptolemaic ruler cult portrayed the Ptolemies as gods, and temples to the Ptolemies were erected throughout the kingdom.

Ptolemy I even created a new god, Serapis , who was a combination of two Egyptian gods: Apis and Osiris, with attributes of Greek gods. Ptolemaic administration was, like the ancient Egyptian bureaucracy, highly centralized and focused on squeezing as much revenue out of the population as possible through tariffs, excise duties, fines, taxes, and so forth. A whole class of petty officials, tax farmers, clerks, and overseers made this possible.

The Egyptian countryside was directly administered by this royal bureaucracy. Ptolemy himself was eager to patronise the library, scientific research and individual scholars who lived on the grounds of the library. He and his successors also fought a series of wars with the Seleucids, known as the Syrian wars , over the region of Coele-Syria. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe, or Berenice.

Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt, though Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest. From there, he created a new empire which expanded to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. It included a diverse population estimated at fifty to sixty million people. Pergamum broke away under Eumenes I who defeated a Seleucid army sent against him. The kingdoms of Cappadocia, Bithynia and Pontus were all practically independent by this time as well.

Like the Ptolemies, Antiochus I established a dynastic religious cult, deifying his father Seleucus I. Seleucus, officially said to be descended from Apollo, had his own priests and monthly sacrifices. The erosion of the empire continued under Seleucus II , who was forced to fight a civil war — BC against his brother Antiochus Hierax and was unable to keep Bactria , Sogdiana and Parthia from breaking away. Hierax carved off most of Seleucid Anatolia for himself, but was defeated, along with his Galatian allies, by Attalus I of Pergamon who now also claimed kingship. These cities retained traditional Greek city state institutions such as assemblies, councils and elected magistrates, but this was a facade for they were always controlled by the royal Seleucid officials.

Apart from these cities, there were also a large number of Seleucid garrisons choria , military colonies katoikiai and Greek villages komai which the Seleucids planted throughout the empire to cement their rule. This 'Greco-Macedonian' population which also included the sons of settlers who had married local women could make up a phalanx of 35, men out of a total Seleucid army of 80, during the reign of Antiochus III. The rest of the army was made up of native troops. He was successful, bringing back most of these provinces into at least nominal vassalage and receiving tribute from their rulers.

In the Treaty of Apamea which ended the war, Antiochus lost all of his territories in Anatolia west of the Taurus and was forced to pay a large indemnity of 15, talents. Much of the eastern part of the empire was then conquered by the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia in the mid-2nd century BC, yet the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by the Armenian king Tigranes the Great and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey. After the death of Lysimachus , one of his officers, Philetaerus , took control of the city of Pergamum in BC along with Lysimachus' war chest of 9, talents and declared himself loyal to Seleucus I while remaining de facto independent.

His descendant, Attalus I , defeated the invading Galatians and proclaimed himself an independent king. Eumenes II turned Pergamon into a centre of culture and science by establishing the library of Pergamum which was said to be second only to the library of Alexandria [69] with , volumes according to Plutarch. It included a reading room and a collection of paintings. Eumenes II also constructed the Pergamum Altar with friezes depicting the Gigantomachy on the acropolis of the city. Pergamum was also a center of parchment charta pergamena production. The Celts who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios c.

They were defeated by Seleucus I in the 'battle of the Elephants', but were still able to establish a Celtic territory in central Anatolia. The Galatians were well respected as warriors and were widely used as mercenaries in the armies of the successor states. They continued to attack neighboring kingdoms such as Bithynia and Pergamon , plundering and extracting tribute.

This came to an end when they sided with the renegade Seleucid prince Antiochus Hierax who tried to defeat Attalus , the ruler of Pergamon — BC. Attalus severely defeated the Gauls, forcing them to confine themselves to Galatia. The theme of the Dying Gaul a famous statue displayed in Pergamon remained a favorite in Hellenistic art for a generation signifying the victory of the Greeks over a noble enemy. Galatia was henceforth dominated by Rome through regional rulers from BC onward.

The Bithynians were a Thracian people living in northwest Anatolia. After Alexander's conquests the region of Bithynia came under the rule of the native king Bas, who defeated Calas, a general of Alexander the Great, and maintained the independence of Bithynia. His son and successor, Nicomedes I , founded Nicomedia , which soon rose to great prosperity, and during his long reign c. Nicomedes also invited the Celtic Galatians into Anatolia as mercenaries, and they later turned on his son Prusias I, who defeated them in battle.

Their last king, Nicomedes IV, was unable to maintain himself against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman Senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Roman republic 74 BC. Cappadocia, a mountainous region situated between Pontus and the Taurus mountains, was ruled by a Persian dynasty. Ariarathes I — BC was the satrap of Cappadocia under the Persians and after the conquests of Alexander he retained his post. After Alexander's death he was defeated by Eumenes and crucified in BC, but his son, Ariarathes II managed to regain the throne and maintain his autonomy against the warring Diadochi. Under Ariarathes IV, Cappadocia came into relations with Rome, first as a foe espousing the cause of Antiochus the Great , then as an ally against Perseus of Macedon and finally in a war against the Seleucids.

Ariarathes V also waged war with Rome against Aristonicus, a claimant to the throne of Pergamon, and their forces were annihilated in BC. This defeat allowed Pontus to invade and conquer the kingdom. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms.

Pontic culture was a mix of Greek and Iranian elements; the most hellenized parts of the kingdom were on the coast, populated by Greek colonies such as Trapezus and Sinope , the latter of which became the capital of the kingdom. Epigraphic evidence also shows extensive Hellenistic influence in the interior. By the time of Mithridates VI Eupator, Greek was the official language of the kingdom, though Anatolian languages continued to be spoken. Mithridates, himself of mixed Persian and Greek ancestry, presented himself as the protector of the Greeks against the 'barbarians' of Rome styling himself as "King Mithridates Eupator Dionysus" [73] and as the "great liberator".

Mithridates also depicted himself with the anastole hairstyle of Alexander and used the symbolism of Herakles , from whom the Macedonian kings claimed descent. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic wars, Pontus was defeated; part of it was incorporated into the Roman Republic as the province of Bithynia, while Pontus' eastern half survived as a client kingdom. Orontid Armenia formally passed to the empire of Alexander the Great following his conquest of Persia. Alexander appointed an Orontid named Mithranes to govern Armenia. Armenia later became a vassal state of the Seleucid Empire , but it maintained a considerable degree of autonomy, retaining its native rulers. The kingdoms became so independent from Seleucid control that Antiochus III the Great waged war on them during his reign and replaced their rulers.

During the reign of the Artaxiads, Armenia went through a period of hellenization. Numismatic evidence shows Greek artistic styles and the use of the Greek language. Some coins describe the Armenian kings as " Philhellenes ". During the reign of Tigranes the Great 95—55 BC , the kingdom of Armenia reached its greatest extent, containing many Greek cities, including the entire Syrian tetrapolis. Cleopatra , the wife of Tigranes the Great , invited Greeks such as the rhetor Amphicrates and the historian Metrodorus of Scepsis to the Armenian court, and—according to Plutarch—when the Roman general Lucullus seized the Armenian capital, Tigranocerta, he found a troupe of Greek actors who had arrived to perform plays for Tigranes.

Parthia was a north-eastern Iranian satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire which later passed on to Alexander's empire. In BC, following the death of Antiochus II Theos , Andragoras , the Seleucid governor of Parthia, proclaimed his independence and began minting coins showing himself wearing a royal diadem and claiming kingship. Arsaces II sued for peace and became a vassal of the Seleucids. It was not until the reign of Phraates I c. Abundant traces of Hellenism continued under the Parthian empire.

The Parthians used Greek as well as their own Parthian language though lesser than Greek as languages of administration and also used Greek drachmas as coinage. They enjoyed Greek theater , and Greek art influenced Parthian art. The Parthians continued worshipping Greek gods syncretized together with Iranian deities. Their rulers established ruler cults in the manner of Hellenistic kings and often used Hellenistic royal epithets. The Hellenistic influence in Iran was significant in terms of scope, but not depth and durability—unlike the Near East, the Iranian— Zoroastrian ideas and ideals remained the main source of inspiration in mainland Iran, and was soon revived in late Parthian and Sasanian periods. Its capital was the city of Petra , an important trading city on the incense route.

The Nabateans resisted the attacks of Antigonus and were allies of the Hasmoneans in their struggle against the Seleucids , but later fought against Herod the Great. The hellenization of the Nabateans occurred relatively late in comparison to the surrounding regions. Though the Nabateans originally worshipped their traditional gods in symbolic form such as stone blocks or pillars, during the Hellenistic period they began to identify their gods with Greek gods and depict them in figurative forms influenced by Greek sculpture. During the Hellenistic period, Judea became a frontier region between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt and therefore was often the frontline of the Syrian wars, changing hands several times during these conflicts.

This period also saw the rise of a Hellenistic Judaism , which first developed in the Jewish diaspora of Alexandria and Antioch, and then spread to Judea. The reason for the production of this translation seems to be that many of the Alexandrian Jews had lost the ability to speak Hebrew and Aramaic. Between and BC the Ptolemies ruled Judea in relative peace, and Jews often found themselves working in the Ptolemaic administration and army, which led to the rise of a Hellenized Jewish elite class e. The wars of Antiochus III brought the region into the Seleucid empire; Jerusalem fell to his control in BC and the Temple was repaired and provided with money and tribute.

Antiochus then banned key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea. He may have been attempting to Hellenize the region and unify his empire and the Jewish resistance to this eventually led to an escalation of violence. Whatever the case, tensions between pro- and anti-Seleucid Jewish factions led to the — BC Maccabean Revolt of Judas Maccabeus whose victory is celebrated in the Jewish festival of Hanukkah. Modern interpretations see this period as a civil war between Hellenized and orthodox forms of Judaism. The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated in a civil war , which coincided with civil wars in Rome. In spite of originally being a revolt against Greek overlordship, the Hasmonean kingdom and also the Herodian kingdom which followed gradually became more and more hellenized.

He considerably enlarged the Temple see Herod's Temple , making it one of the largest religious structures in the world. The style of the enlarged temple and other Herodian architecture shows significant Hellenistic architectural influence. The Greek kingdom of Bactria began as a breakaway satrapy of the Seleucid empire, which, because of the size of the empire, had significant freedom from central control.

Between and BC, the governor of Bactria , Sogdiana and Margiana most of present-day Afghanistan , one Diodotus , took this process to its logical extreme and declared himself king. Diodotus II, son of Diodotus, was overthrown in about BC by Euthydemus , possibly the satrap of Sogdiana, who then started his own dynasty. While victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria , and married one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son, thus legitimising the Greco-Bactrian dynasty.

Soon afterwards the Greco-Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, possibly taking advantage of the defeat of the Parthian king Arsaces II by Antiochus. Indian sources also maintain religious contact between Buddhist monks and the Greeks, and some Greco-Bactrians did convert to Buddhism. Demetrius , son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan Empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians and Seleucids. The exact justification for the invasion remains unclear, but by about BC, the Greeks ruled over parts of northwestern India. This period also marks the beginning of the obfuscation of Greco-Bactrian history.

Demetrius possibly died about BC; numismatic evidence suggests the existence of several other kings shortly thereafter. It is probable that at this point the Greco-Bactrian kingdom split into several semi-independent regions for some years, often warring amongst themselves. Heliocles was the last Greek to clearly rule Bactria, his power collapsing in the face of central Asian tribal invasions Scythian and Yuezhi , by about BC. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek rule.

The Kushan Empire which followed continued to use Greek on their coinage and Greeks continued being influential in the empire. The separation of the Indo-Greek kingdom from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom resulted in an even more isolated position, and thus the details of the Indo-Greek kingdom are even more obscure than for Bactria. Many supposed kings in India are known only because of coins bearing their name. The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom.

Large numbers of his coins have been found in India, and he seems to have reigned in Gandhara as well as western Punjab. Menander converted to Buddhism , and seems to have been a great patron of the religion; he is remembered in some Buddhist texts as 'Milinda'. He also expanded the kingdom further east into Punjab, though these conquests were rather ephemeral. After the death of Menander c. This inevitably weakened the Greek position, and territory seems to have been lost progressively. Around 70 BC, the western regions of Arachosia and Paropamisadae were lost to tribal invasions, presumably by those tribes responsible for the end of the Bactrian kingdom.

The resulting Indo-Scythian kingdom seems to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom towards the east. The Indo-Greek kingdom appears to have lingered on in western Punjab until about AD 10, at which time it was finally ended by the Indo-Scythians. Greeks continued being an important part of the cultural world of India for generations. The depictions of the Buddha appear to have been influenced by Greek culture: Buddha representations in the Ghandara period often showed Buddha under the protection of Herakles.

Several references in Indian literature praise the knowledge of the Yavanas or the Greeks. The mlecchas are wedded to the creations of their own fancy", [90] such as flying machines that are generally called vimanas. The "Brihat-Samhita" of the mathematician Varahamihira says: "The Greeks , though impure, must be honored since they were trained in sciences and therein, excelled others Hellenistic culture was at its height of world influence in the Hellenistic period. Hellenism or at least Philhellenism reached most regions on the frontiers of the Hellenistic kingdoms. Though some of these regions were not ruled by Greeks or even Greek speaking elites, certain Hellenistic influences can be seen in the historical record and material culture of these regions.

Other regions had established contact with Greek colonies before this period, and simply saw a continued process of Hellenization and intermixing. Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas. The Bosporan Kingdom was a multi-ethnic kingdom of Greek city states and local tribal peoples such as the Maeotians , Thracians , Crimean Scythians and Cimmerians under the Spartocid dynasty — BC. The Spartocids were a hellenized Thracian family from Panticapaeum. The Bosporans had long lasting trade contacts with the Scythian peoples of the Pontic—Caspian steppe , and Hellenistic influence can be seen in the Scythian settlements of the Crimea , such as in the Scythian Neapolis.

Scythian pressure on the Bosporan kingdom under Paerisades V led to its eventual vassalage under the Pontic king Mithradates VI for protection, c. It later became a Roman client state. Other Scythians on the steppes of Central Asia came into contact with Hellenistic culture through the Greeks of Bactria. Many Scythian elites purchased Greek products and some Scythian art shows Greek influences. At least some Scythians seem to have become Hellenized, because we know of conflicts between the elites of the Scythian kingdom over the adoption of Greek ways. These Hellenized Scythians were known as the "young Scythians". The Greek colonies on the west coast of the Black sea , such as Istros , Tomi and Callatis traded with the Thracian Getae who occupied modern-day Dobruja.

From the 6th century BC on, the multiethnic people in this region gradually intermixed with each other, creating a Greco-Getic populace. The ancient Georgian kingdoms had trade relations with the Greek city-states on the Black Sea coast such as Poti and Sukhumi. The kingdom of Colchis , which later became a Roman client state, received Hellenistic influences from the Black Sea Greek colonies. In Arabia, Bahrain , which was referred to by the Greeks as Tylos , the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus came to discover it serving under Alexander the Great.

It is not known whether Bahrain was part of the Seleucid Empire , although the archaeological site at Qalat Al Bahrain has been proposed as a Seleucid base in the Persian Gulf. Carthage was a Phoenician colony on the coast of Tunisia. Carthaginian culture came into contact with the Greeks through Punic colonies in Sicily and through their widespread Mediterranean trade network. While the Carthaginians retained their Punic culture and language, they did adopt some Hellenistic ways, one of the most prominent of which was their military practices.

The core of Carthage's military was the Greek-style phalanx formed by citizen hoplite spearmen who had been conscripted into service, though their armies also included large numbers of mercenaries. After their defeat in the First Punic War , Carthage hired a Spartan mercenary captain, Xanthippus of Carthage , to reform their military forces. Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. By the 2nd century BC, the kingdom of Numidia also began to see Hellenistic culture influence its art and architecture. The Numidian royal monument at Chemtou is one example of Numidian Hellenized architecture.

Reliefs on the monument also show the Numidians had adopted Greco-Macedonian type armor and shields for their soldiers. Ptolemaic Egypt was the center of Hellenistic influence in Africa and Greek colonies also thrived in the region of Cyrene, Libya. There was a temple to Serapis , the Greco-Egyptian god. Widespread Roman interference in the Greek world was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendancy of the Roman Republic. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy.

Rome had come to dominate the Italian peninsula, and desired the submission of the Greek cities to its rule. Although they initially resisted, allying themselves with Pyrrhus of Epirus , and defeating the Romans at several battles, the Greek cities were unable to maintain this position and were absorbed by the Roman republic. The end result was the complete conquest of Sicily, including its previously powerful Greek cities, by the Romans. Roman entanglement in the Balkans began when Illyrian piratical raids on Roman merchants led to invasions of Illyria the First and, Second Illyrian Wars.

Tension between Macedon and Rome increased when the young king of Macedon, Philip V , harbored one of the chief pirates, Demetrius of Pharos [] a former client of Rome. Forcing the Romans to fight on another front when they were at a nadir of manpower gained Philip the lasting enmity of the Romans—the only real result from the somewhat insubstantial First Macedonian War — BC. Once the Second Punic War had been resolved, and the Romans had begun to regather their strength, they looked to re-assert their influence in the Balkans, and to curb the expansion of Philip. A pretext for war was provided by Philip's refusal to end his war with Attalid Pergamum and Rhodes , both Roman allies.

Like most Roman peace treaties of the period, the resultant 'Peace of Flaminius' was designed utterly to crush the power of the defeated party; a massive indemnity was levied, Philip's fleet was surrendered to Rome, and Macedon was effectively returned to its ancient boundaries, losing influence over the city-states of southern Greece, and land in Thrace and Asia Minor. The result was the end of Macedon as a major power in the Mediterranean. As a result of the confusion in Greece at the end of the Second Macedonian War, the Seleucid Empire also became entangled with the Romans. However, this brought Antiochus into conflict with Rhodes and Pergamum, two important Roman allies, and began a 'cold war' between Rome and Antiochus not helped by the presence of Hannibal at the Seleucid court.

During the course of this war Roman troops moved into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at the Battle of Magnesia BC. A crippling treaty was imposed on Antiochus, with Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor removed and given to Rhodes and Pergamum, the size of the Seleucid navy reduced, and a massive war indemnity invoked. Thus, in less than twenty years, Rome had destroyed the power of one of the successor states, crippled another, and firmly entrenched its influence over Greece. This was primarily a result of the over-ambition of the Macedonian kings, and their unintended provocation of Rome, though Rome was quick to exploit the situation.

In another twenty years, the Macedonian kingdom was no more. Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province BC after yet another rebellion under Andriscus. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. The Achaeans refused and declared war on Rome. Most of the Greek cities rallied to the Achaeans' side, even slaves were freed to fight for Greek independence. The Roman consul Lucius Mummius advanced from Macedonia and defeated the Greeks at Corinth , which was razed to the ground. In BC, the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate. Roman taxes were imposed, except in Athens and Sparta, and all the cities had to accept rule by Rome's local allies.

The Attalid dynasty of Pergamum lasted little longer; a Roman ally until the end, its final king Attalus III died in BC without an heir, and taking the alliance to its natural conclusion, willed Pergamum to the Roman Republic. Many Greek cities, including Athens, overthrew their Roman puppet rulers and joined him in the Mithridatic wars. When he was driven out of Greece by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla , the latter laid siege to Athens and razed the city. Further ruin was brought to Greece by the Roman civil wars, which were partly fought in Greece. The struggles with Rome had left Greece depopulated and demoralised. Nevertheless, Roman rule at least brought an end to warfare, and cities such as Athens, Corinth, Thessaloniki and Patras soon recovered their prosperity.

Contrarily, having so firmly entrenched themselves into Greek affairs, the Romans now completely ignored the rapidly disintegrating Seleucid empire perhaps because it posed no threat ; and left the Ptolemaic kingdom to decline quietly, while acting as a protector of sorts, in as much as to stop other powers taking Egypt over including the famous line-in-the-sand incident when the Seleucid Antiochus IV Epiphanes tried to invade Egypt. In some fields Hellenistic culture thrived, particularly in its preservation of the past. The states of the Hellenistic period were deeply fixated with the past and its seemingly lost glories.

The museum and library of Alexandria was the center of this conservationist activity. With the support of royal stipends, Alexandrian scholars collected, translated, copied, classified, and critiqued every book they could find. Most of the great literary figures of the Hellenistic period studied at Alexandria and conducted research there. They were scholar poets, writing not only poetry but treatises on Homer and other archaic and classical Greek literature. Athens retained its position as the most prestigious seat of higher education, especially in the domains of philosophy and rhetoric, with considerable libraries and philosophical schools.

Libraries were also present in Antioch , Pella , and Kos. Cicero was educated in Athens and Mark Antony in Rhodes. The spread of Greek culture and language throughout the Near East and Asia owed much to the development of newly founded cities and deliberate colonization policies by the successor states, which in turn was necessary for maintaining their military forces. Settlements such as Ai-Khanoum , on trade routes, allowed Greek culture to mix and spread. The language of Philip II's and Alexander's court and army which was made up of various Greek and non-Greek speaking peoples was a version of Attic Greek , and over time this language developed into Koine , the lingua franca of the successor states. The identification of local gods with similar Greek deities, a practice termed ' Interpretatio graeca ', stimulated the building of Greek-style temples, and Greek culture in the cities meant that buildings such as gymnasia and theaters became common.

Many cities maintained nominal autonomy while under the rule of the local king or satrap , and often had Greek-style institutions. Greek dedications, statues, architecture, and inscriptions have all been found. However, local cultures were not replaced, and mostly went on as before, but now with a new Greco-Macedonian or otherwise Hellenized elite. An example that shows the spread of Greek theater is Plutarch 's story of the death of Crassus , in which his head was taken to the Parthian court and used as a prop in a performance of The Bacchae.

Theaters have also been found: for example, in Ai-Khanoum on the edge of Bactria , the theater has 35 rows — larger than the theater in Babylon. The spread of Greek influence and language is also shown through ancient Greek coinage. Portraits became more realistic, and the obverse of the coin was often used to display a propagandistic image, commemorating an event or displaying the image of a favored god. The use of Greek-style portraits and Greek language continued under the Roman, Parthian , and Kushan empires , even as the use of Greek was in decline. The concept of Hellenization, meaning the adoption of Greek culture in non-Greek regions, has long been controversial. Undoubtedly Greek influence did spread through the Hellenistic realms, but to what extent, and whether this was a deliberate policy or mere cultural diffusion, have been hotly debated.

It seems likely that Alexander himself pursued policies which led to Hellenization, such as the foundations of new cities and Greek colonies. While it may have been a deliberate attempt to spread Greek culture or as Arrian says, "to civilise the natives" , it is more likely that it was a series of pragmatic measures designed to aid in the rule of his enormous empire. Alexander also seems to have attempted to create a mixed Greco-Persian elite class as shown by the Susa weddings and his adoption of some forms of Persian dress and court culture. He also brought Persian and other non-Greek peoples into his military and even the elite cavalry units of the companion cavalry. Again, it is probably better to see these policies as a pragmatic response to the demands of ruling a large empire [20] than to any idealized attempt to bringing Greek culture to the ' barbarians '.

This approach was bitterly resented by the Macedonians and discarded by most of the Diadochi after Alexander's death. These policies can also be interpreted as the result of Alexander's possible megalomania [] during his later years. After Alexander's death in BC, the influx of Greek colonists into the new realms continued to spread Greek culture into Asia. The founding of new cities and military colonies continued to be a major part of the Successors' struggle for control of any particular region, and these continued to be centers of cultural diffusion. The spread of Greek culture under the Successors seems mostly to have occurred with the spreading of Greeks themselves, rather than as an active policy. Throughout the Hellenistic world, these Greco-Macedonian colonists considered themselves by and large superior to the native "barbarians" and excluded most non-Greeks from the upper echelons of courtly and government life.

Most of the native population was not Hellenized, had little access to Greek culture and often found themselves discriminated against by their Hellenic overlords. Greek cities and colonies may have exported Greek art and architecture as far as the Indus , but these were mostly enclaves of Greek culture for the transplanted Greek elite. The degree of influence that Greek culture had throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms was therefore highly localized and based mostly on a few great cities like Alexandria and Antioch.

Some natives did learn Greek and adopt Greek ways, but this was mostly limited to a few local elites who were allowed to retain their posts by the Diadochi and also to a small number of mid-level administrators who acted as intermediaries between the Greek speaking upper class and their subjects. In the Seleucid Empire, for example, this group amounted to only 2. Hellenistic art nevertheless had a considerable influence on the cultures that had been affected by the Hellenistic expansion. As far as the Indian subcontinent, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was broad and far-reaching, and had effects for several centuries following the forays of Alexander the Great.

Despite their initial reluctance, the Successors seem to have later deliberately naturalized themselves to their different regions, presumably in order to help maintain control of the population. In the Indo-Greek kingdom we find kings who were converts to Buddhism e. The Greeks in the regions therefore gradually become 'localized', adopting local customs as appropriate. In this way, hybrid 'Hellenistic' cultures naturally emerged, at least among the upper echelons of society.

The trends of Hellenization were therefore accompanied by Greeks adopting native ways over time, but this was widely varied by place and by social class. If you need help preparing for the tests or gain a deeper understanding of a subject, you can go through essays on select topics. Various types of essays like compare and contrast, expository, and argumentative essays will help you expand your understanding as they provide different perspectives and detailed analysis. Armed with this, you'll be better prepared to tackle tests. Last month, our free practice tests were taken over , times and we received 2,, page views from , unique visitors.

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