Globalization And Cosmopolitanism
Volume Louis armstrong instrument 1. Request Info Apply Contact Us. My love for you is PDF from the original on 22 September Lechner and Globalization And Cosmopolitanism define globalization as more people across large distances becoming connected in more and different Compare And Contrast The Soviet Union And The United States. International Comparative Social Studies. Your vote is anonymous. The James Weldon Johnson Analysis of A Modern Proposal By Jonathan Swift Louis armstrong instrument.
Cosmopolitanism in 3 minuttes
That is how I began becoming a European. A few years later, when the Berlin Wall fell, it was glorious to be coming of age as one. The promise of cosmopolitanism as a way to a better life might have been at its zenith, but it seemed only dawn. Big cities all over the world were swelling up with first-generation cosmopolitans like me, fleeing provincial worldviews.
We flocked to places that promised not to put us in our place. Born out of the rubble of nationalism, it was primarily a humanistic project—not an economic one. It emphasized commonality of experience and tolerance of differences. It should make us realize people unlike us were humans just like us, and replace superstition and suspicion—the pillars of tribalism—with curiosity and compassion. If we would study, dine, and make out with peers from other countries, we would be less likely to bomb each other in the future. When the European Union received the Nobel Peace Prize in , I felt that my mum and dad should get a piece of it—and keep it next to the chip of Berlin Wall I had brought home two decades before.
By then, I was married to a woman born 15 miles from that first English town I lived in. Our parents did not share a language but had similar values. We taught in an academic institution that helps people live working lives across borders. And we had become alert to the skepticism about, and hostility towards, our way of life. Over the past few years, those have only grown. Having spent my life trying to become an educated cosmopolitan, I now fear that my generation has failed at cosmopolitanism, or worse, that we have failed cosmopolitanism.
The animosity between locals and cosmopolitans is nothing new. It has shaped Western civilization since Ancient Greece. Now, it seems, they have split up, amplifying their differences and becoming locals in different tribes— a nationalist and a globalist one. Cosmopolitans have built their own tribe. A tribe of people unfit for tribalism, I once wrote. An inclusive, dispersed tribe—if such a thing exists—connected by unlimited international data plans and cheap airfare.
But a tribe nonetheless. We commandeered big cities and settled tolerant enclaves like coffee shops, universities, and most of all, multinational corporations that let us make a living as we moved around. While its origin was political, cosmopolitanism made us unfit for national government. Our lives were too mobile, our allegiances too unclear, our relationship to the state too ambivalent for us to be its trustworthy standard bearers. A cosmopolitan attitude comes with suspicion of people and politicians too tied to nation states, and makes us look suspicious to them in turn. But if politics could not pin us down, business set us up.
When globalization took off, we were ready. We had the mindset and skills needed to deal with and, let us face it, profit from the opening up of global markets. Cosmopolitan enthusiasm was redirected from a humanistic project to an economic one. We stopped taking marching orders from John Lennon and started taking them from Jack Welch. If most political leaders found imagining no countries very hard to do, it seemed almost too easy for corporate leaders to do so. Thus we became foot soldiers of globalization, setting out to turn the world into one of our cities. In hindsight, that was not just overreach. It was a betrayal of the very essence of cosmopolitanism: being a citizen of a varied world. The wave of nationalism sweeping through the globe has been framed as a rejection of and a reaction to globalization.
Some analysts focus on the economic devastation that globalization has brought to Western middle classes. Others focus on the threat that it poses to local social hierarchies and worldviews. Seen that way, nationalism is a blunt tool for those hurt by the cultural and economic blows of globalization to strike back. A blunt old tool, it must be noted, familiar to the kind of provincial masculinity that has held power for centuries, and resents how a changing world imperils its local status. Where does that leave cosmopolitans? Caught between the exhortation to empathize with nationalists, out of guilt for having left them behind, and the temptation to double down on globalization and build up de facto city-states out of comfort and fear.
I count many among my family and friends. What I lack is sympathy for their prejudices and faith in the economic benefits of isolationism. Similarly, I have little sympathy for the evangelism and isolationism of worried globalists, many of whom I also count as family and friends. Given where I come from and where I have got to, however, it is hard for me to choose a side. And I believe that choosing one, if one can choose at all, will not do anyone much good.
Tribes seldom coexist peacefully and never for long—and picking a tribe gives cosmopolitanism away just when we need it most. While they might sound similar, cosmopolitanism is not the same as globalization. One is a fragile personal attitude, the other is a relentless socio-economic force. One strives to humanize the different, the other to homogenize it. One celebrates curiosity, the other convenience. Curiosity is often inconvenient. One is embracing, the other expansive. One is easy to lose, the other hard to stop. Nationalism and globalization are more similar to each other than to cosmopolitanism, that way. In , the International Monetary Fund IMF identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions , capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge.
Academic literature commonly divides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization , cultural globalization , and political globalization. The word globalization was used in the English language as early as the s, but only in the context of education and the term failed to gain traction. Over the next few decades, the term was occasionally used by other scholars and media, but it was not clearly defined. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations. Its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward. In , Karl Marx noticed the increasing level of national inter-dependence brought on by capitalism, and predicted the universal character of the modern world society.
He states:. To the great chagrin of Reactionists, it has drawn from under the feet of industry the national ground on which it stood. All old-established national industries have been destroyed or are daily being destroyed. In place of the old local and national seclusion and self-sufficiency, we have intercourse in every direction, universal inter-dependence of nations.
Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society. In Global Transformations , David Held and his co-writers state:. Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration. Globalization can be on a continuum with the local, national and regional. Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents.
Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term. A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity stretching , intensity, velocity and impact. Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the DHL Global Connectiveness Index. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world.
Paul James defines globalization with a more direct and historically contextualized emphasis:. Globalization is the extension of social relations across world-space, defining that world-space in terms of the historically variable ways that it has been practiced and socially understood through changing world-time. Manfred Steger , professor of global studies and research leader in the Global Cities Institute at RMIT University , identifies four main empirical dimensions of globalization : economic, political, cultural, and ecological. A fifth dimension—the ideological—cutting across the other four. The ideological dimension, according to Steger, is filled with a range of norms , claims, beliefs, and narratives about the phenomenon itself.
A second form is agency-extended globalization, the circulation of agents of different institutions, organizations, and polities , including imperial agents. Object-extended globalization, a third form, is the movement of commodities and other objects of exchange. He calls the transmission of ideas, images, knowledge, and information across world-space disembodied globalization, maintaining that it is currently the dominant form of globalization.
James holds that this series of distinctions allows for an understanding of how, today, the most embodied forms of globalization such as the movement of refugees and migrants are increasingly restricted, while the most disembodied forms such as the circulation of financial instruments and codes are the most deregulated. The journalist Thomas L. Friedman popularized the term " flat world" , arguing that globalized trade , outsourcing , supply-chaining , and political forces had permanently changed the world, for better and worse.
He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow. Economist Takis Fotopoulos defined "economic globalization" as the opening and deregulation of commodity , capital , and labor markets that led toward present neoliberal globalization. Meanwhile, he used "cultural globalization" to reference the worldwide homogenization of culture. Other of his usages included " ideological globalization", " technological globalization", and "social globalization". Lechner and Boli define globalization as more people across large distances becoming connected in more and different ways.
There are both distal and proximate causes which can be traced in the historical factors affecting globalization. Large-scale globalization began in the 19th century. Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the s. This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels.
In this schema, three main prerequisites are posited for globalization to occur. The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the East. The second is distance. The interactions of states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, North Africa , the Middle East , and certain parts of Europe. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others' existence and thus another phase of globalization can occur. The third has to do with inter-dependency, stability, and regularity. If a state is not dependent on another, then there is no way for either state to be mutually affected by the other. This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either, globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to work.
This is one of the arguments surrounding the idea of early globalization. It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today. Also posited is a "multi-polar" nature to archaic globalization, which involved the active participation of non-Europeans. Because it predated the Great Divergence in the nineteenth century, where Western Europe pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic output , archaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by Europe but also by other economically developed Old World centers such as Gujarat , Bengal , coastal China , and Japan.
The German historical economist and sociologist Andre Gunder Frank argues that a form of globalization began with the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium BCE. This archaic globalization existed during the Hellenistic Age , when commercialized urban centers enveloped the axis of Greek culture that reached from India to Spain, including Alexandria and the other Alexandrine cities. Early on, the geographic position of Greece and the necessity of importing wheat forced the Greeks to engage in maritime trade.
Trade in ancient Greece was largely unrestricted: the state controlled only the supply of grain. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of civilizations from China, Indian subcontinent , Persia , Europe, and Arabia , opening long-distance political and economic interactions between them. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilisations along its network. The concept of "proto-globalization" was first introduced by historians A. Hopkins and Christopher Bayly. The term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of high "modern globalization" in the late 19th century.
In the 17th century, world trade developed further when chartered companies like the British East India Company founded in and the Dutch East India Company founded in , often described as the first multinational corporation in which stock was offered were established. Early modern globalization is distinguished from modern globalization on the basis of expansionism , the method of managing global trade, and the level of information exchange. The period is marked by such trade arrangements as the East India Company , the shift of hegemony to Western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations such as the Thirty Years' War , and the rise of newfound commodities—most particularly slave trade.
The Triangular Trade made it possible for Europe to take advantage of resources within the Western Hemisphere. The transfer of animal stocks, plant crops, and epidemic diseases associated with Alfred W. Crosby 's concept of the Columbian Exchange also played a central role in this process. European, Muslims , Indian, Southeast Asian , and Chinese merchants were all involved in early modern trade and communications, particularly in the Indian Ocean region.
According to economic historians Kevin H. O'Rourke , Leandro Prados de la Escosura, and Guillaume Daudin, several factors promoted globalization in the period — . During the 19th century, globalization approached its form as a direct result of the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization allowed standardized production of household items using economies of scale while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities. In the 19th century, steamships reduced the cost of international transportation significantly and railroads made inland transportation cheaper.
The transportation revolution occurred some time between and The invention of shipping containers in helped advance the globalization of commerce. After World War II, work by politicians led to the agreements of the Bretton Woods Conference , in which major governments laid down the framework for international monetary policy , commerce, and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to facilitate economic growth by lowering trade barriers. Exports nearly doubled from 8.
Many countries then shifted to bilateral or smaller multilateral agreements, such as the South Korea—United States Free Trade Agreement. Since the s, aviation has become increasingly affordable to middle classes in developed countries. Open skies policies and low-cost carriers have helped to bring competition to the market. In the s, the growth of low-cost communication networks cut the cost of communicating between countries. More work can be performed using a computer without regard to location. This included accounting, software development, and engineering design. Student exchange programs became popular after World War II , and are intended to increase the participants' understanding and tolerance of other cultures, as well as improving their language skills and broadening their social horizons.
Between and the number of students studying in a foreign country increased 9 times. Since the s, modern globalization has spread rapidly through the expansion of capitalism and neoliberal ideologies. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. This slowed down from the s onward due to the World Wars and the Cold War ,  but picked up again in the s and s.
The migration and movement of people can also be highlighted as a prominent feature of the globalization process. In the period between and , the proportion of the labor force migrating approximately doubled. Most migration occurred between the developing countries and least developed countries LDCs. The collapse of the Soviet Union not only ended the Cold War's division of the world — it also left the United States its sole policeman and an unfettered advocate of free market. One influential event was the late s recession , which was associated with lower growth in areas such as cross-border phone calls and Skype usage or even temporarily negative growth in areas such as trade of global interconnectedness.
Globalized society offers a complex web of forces and factors that bring people, cultures, markets, beliefs, and practices into increasingly greater proximity to one another. Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross- border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital. Economic globalization comprises: globalization of production; which refers to the obtainment of goods and services from a particular source from locations around the globe to benefit from difference in cost and quality. Likewise, it also comprises globalization of markets; which is defined as the union of different and separate markets into a massive global marketplace.
Economic globalization also includes  competition, technology, and corporations and industries. Current globalization trends can be largely accounted for by developed economies integrating with less developed economies by means of foreign direct investment , the reduction of trade barriers as well as other economic reforms, and, in many cases, immigration. International standards have made trade in goods and services more efficient. An example of such standard is the intermodal container. Containerization dramatically reduced the costs of transportation, supported the post-war boom in international trade , and was a major element in globalization.
A multinational corporation , or worldwide enterprise,  is an organization that owns or controls the production of goods or services in one or more countries other than their home country. A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement FTA. Such agreements involve cooperation between at least two countries to reduce trade barriers — import quotas and tariffs — and to increase trade of goods and services with each other.
Arguably the most significant free-trade area in the world is the European Union , a politico - economic union of 27 member states that are primarily located in Europe. The EU has developed European Single Market through a standardized system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, . Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximize efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives.
Global trade in services is also significant. For example, in India, business process outsourcing has been described as the "primary engine of the country's development over the next few decades, contributing broadly to GDP growth, employment growth, and poverty alleviation". William I. Robinson 's theoretical approach to globalization is a critique of Wallerstein's World Systems Theory. He believes that the global capital experienced today is due to a new and distinct form of globalization which began in the s. Robinson argues not only are economic activities expanded across national boundaries but also there is a transnational fragmentation of these activities.
This means that one pair of shoes can be produced by six countries, each contributing to a part of the production process. Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings, and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. This has added to processes of commodity exchange and colonization which have a longer history of carrying cultural meaning around the globe. The circulation of cultures enables individuals to partake in extended social relations that cross national and regional borders.
The creation and expansion of such social relations is not merely observed on a material level. Cultural globalization involves the formation of shared norms and knowledge with which people associate their individual and collective cultural identities. It brings increasing interconnectedness among different populations and cultures. Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures.
Intercultural communication is a related field of study. Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages etc. Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural contacts, but may be accompanied by a decrease in the uniqueness of once-isolated communities. For example, sushi is available in Germany as well as Japan, but Euro-Disney outdraws the city of Paris, potentially reducing demand for "authentic" French pastry. Globalization has expanded recreational opportunities by spreading pop culture, particularly via the Internet and satellite television.
The cultural diffusion can create a homogenizing force, where globalisation is seen as synonymous with homogenizing force via connectedness of markets, cultures, politics and the desire for modernizations through imperial countries sphere of influence. Religions were among the earliest cultural elements to globalize, being spread by force, migration, evangelists , imperialists, and traders. Christianity , Islam , Buddhism , and more recently sects such as Mormonism are among those religions which have taken root and influenced endemic cultures in places far from their origins. Globalization has strongly influenced sports. The term globalization implies transformation. Cultural practices including traditional music can be lost or turned into a fusion of traditions.
Globalization can trigger a state of emergency for the preservation of musical heritage. Archivists may attempt to collect, record, or transcribe repertoires before melodies are assimilated or modified, while local musicians may struggle for authenticity and to preserve local musical traditions. Globalization can lead performers to discard traditional instruments.
Fusion genres can become interesting fields of analysis. Music has an important role in economic and cultural development during globalization. Music genres such as jazz and reggae began locally and later became international phenomena. Globalization gave support to the world music phenomenon by allowing music from developing countries to reach broader audiences. Bourdieu claimed that the perception of consumption can be seen as self-identification and the formation of identity. Musically, this translates into each individual having their own musical identity based on likes and tastes. These likes and tastes are greatly influenced by culture, as this is the most basic cause for a person's wants and behavior.
The concept of one's own culture is now in a period of change due to globalization. Also, globalization has increased the interdependency of political, personal, cultural, and economic factors. A UNESCO report  showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent from Eastern Asia, but that Western countries are still the main exporters of cultural goods. Between and , both North America's and the European Union 's shares of cultural exports declined while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America. Related factors are the fact that Asia's population and area are several times that of North America. Americanization is related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and objects being brought into other countries.
Some critics of globalization argue that it harms the diversity of cultures. As a dominating country's culture is introduced into a receiving country through globalization, it can become a threat to the diversity of local culture. Some argue that globalization may ultimately lead to Westernization or Americanization of culture, where the dominating cultural concepts of economically and politically powerful Western countries spread and cause harm to local cultures. Globalization is a diverse phenomenon that relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of cultural objects and markets between countries.
The Indian experience particularly reveals the plurality of the impact of cultural globalization. Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other". Political globalization refers to the growth of the worldwide political system , both in size and complexity. That system includes national governments, their governmental and intergovernmental organizations as well as government-independent elements of global civil society such as international non-governmental organizations and social movement organizations. One of the key aspects of the political globalization is the declining importance of the nation-state and the rise of other actors on the political scene. William R.
Thompson has defined it as "the expansion of a global political system, and its institutions, in which inter-regional transactions including, but certainly not limited to trade are managed". Intergovernmentalism is a term in political science with two meanings. The first refers to a theory of regional integration originally proposed by Stanley Hoffmann ; the second treats states and the national government as the primary factors for integration. Multi-level governance gives expression to the idea that there are many interacting authority structures at work in the emergent global political economy. It illuminates the intimate entanglement between the domestic and international levels of authority.
Some people are citizens of multiple nation-states. Multiple citizenship , also called dual citizenship or multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. Increasingly, non-governmental organizations influence public policy across national boundaries, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation projects include a current multibillion-dollar commitment to funding immunizations in some of the world's more impoverished but rapidly growing countries.
As a response to globalization, some countries have embraced isolationist policies. For example, the North Korean government makes it very difficult for foreigners to enter the country and strictly monitors their activities when they do. Aid workers are subject to considerable scrutiny and excluded from places and regions the government does not wish them to enter. Citizens cannot freely leave the country. Globalization has been a gendered process where giant multinational corporations have outsourced jobs to low-wage, low skilled, quota free economies like the ready made garment industry in Bangladesh where poor women make up the majority of labor force.
This did not translate into workers being able to collectively organize themselves in order to negotiate a better deal for themselves at work. Another example of outsourcing in manufacturing includes the maquiladora industry in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico where poor women make up the majority of the labor force. Scholars also occasionally discuss other, less common dimensions of globalization, such as environmental globalization the internationally coordinated practices and regulations, often in the form of international treaties, regarding environmental protection  or military globalization growth in global extent and scope of security relationships.
An essential aspect of globalization is movement of people, and state-boundary limits on that movement have changed across history. As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. For example, travel across the Atlantic ocean used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days. Tourism is travel for pleasure. The developments in technology and transportation infrastructure, such as jumbo jets , low-cost airlines, and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. At any given moment half a million people are in the air. Some countries — such as those in the Schengen Area — have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas for example, Switzerland is part of a Schengen Agreement allowing easy travel for people from countries within the European Union.
The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists who require a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
For example, freedom of movement for workers in the European Union means that people can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country. Globalization is associated with a dramatic rise in international education. The development of global cross-cultural competence in the workforce through ad-hoc training has deserved increasing attention in recent times. A transnational marriage is a marriage between two people from different countries. A variety of special issues arise in marriages between people from different countries, including those related to citizenship and culture, which add complexity and challenges to these kinds of relationships. In an age of increasing globalization, where a growing number of people have ties to networks of people and places across the globe, rather than to a current geographic location, people are increasingly marrying across national boundaries.
Transnational marriage is a by-product of the movement and migration of people. Before electronic communications, long-distance communications relied on mail. Speed of global communications was limited by the maximum speed of courier services especially horses and ships until the midth century. The electric telegraph was the first method of instant long-distance communication. For example, before the first transatlantic cable, communications between Europe and the Americas took weeks because ships had to carry mail across the ocean. The first transatlantic cable reduced communication time considerably, allowing a message and a response in the same day.
Lasting transatlantic telegraph connections were achieved in the — The first wireless telegraphy transmitters were developed in The Internet has been instrumental in connecting people across geographical boundaries. For example, Facebook is a social networking service which has more than 1. Globalization can be spread by Global journalism which provides massive information and relies on the internet to interact, "makes it into an everyday routine to investigate how people and their actions, practices, problems, life conditions, etc.
In the current era of globalization, the world is more interdependent than at any other time. Efficient and inexpensive transportation has left few places inaccessible, and increased global trade has brought more and more people into contact with animal diseases that have subsequently jumped species barriers see zoonosis. More than countries have reported cases since then. One index of globalization is the KOF Index of Globalization , which measures three important dimensions of globalization: economic, social, and political. However, newer indices attempt to measure globalization in more general terms, including variables related to political, social, cultural, and even environmental aspects of globalization.
The DHL Global Connectedness Index studies four main types of cross-border flow: trade in both goods and services , information, people including tourists, students, and migrants , and capital. It shows that the depth of global integration fell by about one-tenth after , but by had recovered well above its pre-crash peak. Reactions to processes contributing to globalization have varied widely with a history as long as extraterritorial contact and trade. Philosophical differences regarding the costs and benefits of such processes give rise to a broad-range of ideologies and social movements. Proponents of economic growth , expansion and development , in general, view globalizing processes as desirable or necessary to the well-being of human society.
Antagonists view one or more globalizing processes as detrimental to social well-being on a global or local scale;  this includes those who focus on social or natural sustainability of long-term and continuous economic expansion, the social structural inequality caused by these processes, and the colonial , imperialistic , or hegemonic ethnocentrism , cultural assimilation and cultural appropriation that underlie such processes. Globalization tends to bring people into contact with foreign people and cultures. Xenophobia is the fear of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
Critiques of globalization generally stem from discussions surrounding the impact of such processes on the planet as well as the human costs. They challenge directly traditional metrics, such as GDP, and look to other measures, such as the Gini coefficient  or the Happy Planet Index ,  and point to a "multitude of interconnected fatal consequences—social disintegration, a breakdown of democracy, more rapid and extensive deterioration of the environment, the spread of new diseases, increasing poverty and alienation"  which they claim are the unintended consequences of globalization.
Others point out that, while the forces of globalization have led to the spread of western-style democracy, this has been accompanied by an increase in inter-ethnic tension and violence as free market economic policies combine with democratic processes of universal suffrage as well as an escalation in militarization to impose democratic principles and as a means to conflict resolution. On August 9, , Pope Francis denounced isolationism and hinted that the Catholic Church will embrace globalization at the October Amazonia Synod , stating "the whole is greater than the parts. Globalization and unity should not be conceived as a sphere, but as a polyhedron: each people retains its identity in unity with others" .
As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is considered by some as a form of capitalist expansion which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global, unregulated market economy. In , negative articles outpaced positive articles by two to one. This increase occurred during a period when the total number of articles concerning globalization nearly doubled.
A number of international polls have shown that residents of Africa and Asia tend to view globalization more favorably than residents of Europe or North America. In , Philip Gordon stated that "a clear majority of Europeans believe that globalization can enrich their lives, while believing the European Union can help them take advantage of globalization's benefits while shielding them from its negative effects. Residents of the EU did not appear to feel threatened by globalization in Social spending was much higher than in the US. Fiss, et al. At the same time, discourse on globalization, which began in the financial community before shifting to a heated debate between proponents and disenchanted students and workers.
Polarization increased dramatically after the establishment of the WTO in ; this event and subsequent protests led to a large-scale anti-globalization movement. Less educated workers, who were more likely to compete with immigrants and workers in developing countries, tended to be opponents. The situation changed after the financial crisis of Respondents with high school education also became more opposed. According to Takenaka Heizo and Chida Ryokichi, as of [update] there was a perception in Japan that the economy was "Small and Frail".
However, Japan was resource-poor and used exports to pay for its raw materials. Anxiety over their position caused terms such as internationalization and globalization to enter everyday language. However, Japanese tradition was to be as self-sufficient as possible, particularly in agriculture. Many in developing countries see globalization as a positive force that lifts them out of poverty. Opponents consider governments as agents of neo-colonialism that are subservient to multinational corporations. The literature analyzing the economics of free trade is extremely rich with extensive work having been done on the theoretical and empirical effects. Though it creates winners and losers, the broad consensus among economists is that free trade is a large and unambiguous net gain for society.
Quoting Harvard economics professor N. Gregory Mankiw , "Few propositions command as much consensus among professional economists as that open world trade increases economic growth and raises living standards. In the book The End of Poverty , Jeffrey Sachs discusses how many factors can affect a country's ability to enter the world market, including government corruption ; legal and social disparities based on gender, ethnicity, or caste; diseases such as AIDS and malaria ; lack of infrastructure including transportation, communications, health, and trade ; unstable political landscapes; protectionism ; and geographic barriers.
Economic growth is conventionally measured using indicators such as GDP and GNI that do not accurately reflect the growing disparities in wealth. Economist Paul Krugman is another staunch supporter of globalization and free trade with a record of disagreeing with many critics of globalization. He argues that many of them lack a basic understanding of comparative advantage and its importance in today's world. The flow of migrants to advanced economies has been claimed to provide a means through which global wages converge. An IMF study noted a potential for skills to be transferred back to developing countries as wages in those a countries rise. Technological innovations or technological transfer are conjectured to benefit most developing and least developing countries LDCs , as for example in the adoption of mobile phones.
There has been a rapid economic growth in Asia after embracing market orientation -based economic policies that encourage private property rights , free enterprise and competition. Like this, the British economic journalist Martin Wolf says that incomes of poor developing countries, with more than half the world's population, grew substantially faster than those of the world's richest countries that remained relatively stable in its growth, leading to reduced international inequality and the incidence of poverty.
Certain demographic changes in the developing world after active economic liberalization and international integration resulted in rising general welfare and, hence, reduced inequality. According to Wolf, in the developing world as a whole, life expectancy rose by four months each year after and infant mortality rate declined from per thousand in to 58 in due to improvements in standards of living and health conditions.
Furthermore, the reduction in fertility rate in the developing world as a whole from 4. Thus, despite seemingly unequal distribution of income within these developing countries, their economic growth and development have brought about improved standards of living and welfare for the population as a whole. Per capita gross domestic product GDP growth among post globalizing countries accelerated from 1. This acceleration in growth seems even more remarkable given that the rich countries saw steady declines in growth from a high of 4. Also, the non-globalizing developing countries seem to fare worse than the globalizers, with the former's annual growth rates falling from highs of 3. This rapid growth among the globalizers is not simply due to the strong performances of China and India in the s and s—18 out of the 24 globalizers experienced increases in growth, many of them quite substantial.
The globalization of the late 20th and early 21st centuries has led to the resurfacing of the idea that the growth of economic interdependence promotes peace. Some opponents of globalization see the phenomenon as a promotion of corporate interests. Globalization allows corporations to outsource manufacturing and service jobs from high cost locations, creating economic opportunities with the most competitive wages and worker benefits. While it is true that free trade encourages globalization among countries, some countries try to protect their domestic suppliers.
The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural productions. Larger countries often subsidize their farmers e. Democratic globalization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in political organizations. This would, in their view, bypass nation-states, corporate oligopolies, ideological non-governmental organizations NGO , political cults and mafias.
One of its most prolific proponents is the British political thinker David Held. Advocates of democratic globalization argue that economic expansion and development should be the first phase of democratic globalization, which is to be followed by a phase of building global political institutions. Francesco Stipo , Director of the United States Association of the Club of Rome , advocates unifying nations under a world government , suggesting that it "should reflect the political and economic balances of world nations.
A world confederation would not supersede the authority of the State governments but rather complement it, as both the States and the world authority would have power within their sphere of competence". Global civics suggests that civics can be understood, in a global sense, as a social contract between global citizens in the age of interdependence and interaction. The disseminators of the concept define it as the notion that we have certain rights and responsibilities towards each other by the mere fact of being human on Earth. An early incarnation of this sentiment can be found in Socrates , whom Plutarch quoted as saying: "I am not an Athenian, or a Greek, but a citizen of the world.
Baha'i-inspired author Meyjes, while favoring the single world community and emergent global consciousness, warns of globalization  as a cloak for an expeditious economic, social, and cultural Anglo-dominance that is insufficiently inclusive to inform the emergence of an optimal world civilization. He proposes a process of " universalization " as an alternative. Cosmopolitanism is the proposal that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. The cosmopolitan community is one in which individuals from different places e. For instance, Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations physical, economic, etc.
Military cooperation — Past examples of international cooperation exist. One example is the security cooperation between the United States and the former Soviet Union after the end of the Cold War, which astonished international society. Environmental cooperation — One of the biggest successes of environmental cooperation has been the agreement to reduce chlorofluorocarbon CFC emissions, as specified in the Montreal Protocol , in order to stop ozone depletion. The most recent debate around nuclear energy and the non-alternative coal-burning power plants constitutes one more consensus on what not to do. Thirdly, significant achievements in IC can be observed through development studies. Economic cooperation — One of the biggest challenges in with globalization is that many believe the progress made in the past decades are now back tracking.
The back tracking of globalization has coined the term "Slobalization. Anti-globalization, or counter-globalization,  consists of a number of criticisms of globalization but, in general, is critical of the globalization of corporate capitalism. Opponents of globalization argue that power and respect in terms of international trade between the developed and underdeveloped countries of the world are unequally distributed. In The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy , Christopher Lasch analyzes  the widening gap between the top and bottom of the social composition in the United States.
According to Lasch, the new elites, i. In this, they oppose the old bourgeoisie of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which was constrained by its spatial stability to a minimum of rooting and civic obligations. Globalization, according to the sociologist, has turned elites into tourists in their own countries. The denationalization of business enterprise tends to produce a class who see themselves as "world citizens, but without accepting Their ties to an international culture of work, leisure, information — make many of them deeply indifferent to the prospect of national decline.
Instead of financing public services and the public treasury, new elites are investing their money in improving their voluntary ghettos: private schools in their residential neighborhoods, private police, garbage collection systems. They have "withdrawn from common life". Composed of those who control the international flows of capital and information, who preside over philanthropic foundations and institutions of higher education, manage the instruments of cultural production and thus fix the terms of public debate.
So, the political debate is limited mainly to the dominant classes and political ideologies lose all contact with the concerns of the ordinary citizen. The result of this is that no one has a likely solution to these problems and that there are furious ideological battles on related issues. However, they remain protected from the problems affecting the working classes: the decline of industrial activity, the resulting loss of employment, the decline of the middle class, increasing the number of the poor, the rising crime rate, growing drug trafficking, the urban crisis. Snow et al. One of the most infamous tactics of the movement is the Battle of Seattle in , where there were protests against the World Trade Organization's Third Ministerial Meeting.
Capital markets have to do with raising and investing money in various human enterprises. Increasing integration of these financial markets between countries leads to the emergence of a global capital marketplace or a single world market. In the long run, increased movement of capital between countries tends to favor owners of capital more than any other group; in the short run, owners and workers in specific sectors in capital-exporting countries bear much of the burden of adjusting to increased movement of capital. Those opposed to capital market integration on the basis of human rights issues are especially disturbed [ according to whom? In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, movement adherents claim free trade without measures in place to protect the under-capitalized will contribute only to the strengthening the power of industrialized nations often termed the "North" in opposition to the developing world's "South".
Corporatist ideology, which privileges the rights of corporations artificial or juridical persons over those of natural persons , is an underlying factor in the recent rapid expansion of global commerce. A related contemporary ideology, consumerism , which encourages the personal acquisition of goods and services, also drives globalization. Concern over the treatment of consumers by large corporations has spawned substantial activism, and the incorporation of consumer education into school curricula.
Social activists hold materialism is connected to global retail merchandizing and supplier convergence , war , greed, anomie , crime , environmental degradation, and general social malaise and discontent. One variation on this topic is activism by postconsumers , with the strategic emphasis on moving beyond addictive consumerism. The global justice movement is the loose collection of individuals and groups—often referred to as a " movement of movements "—who advocate fair trade rules and perceive current institutions of global economic integration as problems. Those involved, however, frequently deny that they are anti-globalization , insisting that they support the globalization of communication and people and oppose only the global expansion of corporate power.
Many nongovernmental organizations have now arisen to fight these inequalities that many in Latin America, Africa and Asia face. They often create partnerships where they work towards improving the lives of those who live in developing countries by building schools, fixing infrastructure, cleaning water supplies, purchasing equipment and supplies for hospitals, and other aid efforts. The economies of the world have developed unevenly, historically, such that entire geographical regions were left mired in poverty and disease while others began to reduce poverty and disease on a wholesale basis. From around through at least , the GDP gap, while still wide, appeared to be closing and, in some more rapidly developing countries , life expectancies began to rise.
Overall equality across humanity, considered as individuals, has improved very little. Within the decade between and , income inequality grew even in traditionally egalitarian countries like Germany, Sweden and Denmark. With a few exceptions—France, Japan, Spain—the top 10 percent of earners in most advanced economies raced ahead, while the bottom 10 percent fell further behind. Critics of globalization argue that globalization results in weak labor unions : the surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever-growing number of companies in transition weakened labor unions in high-cost areas.
Unions become less effective and workers their enthusiasm for unions when membership begins to decline. Examples include quarrying , salvage, and farm work as well as trafficking, bondage, forced labor, prostitution and pornography. Women often participate in the workforce in precarious work , including export-oriented employment. Evidence suggests that while globalization has expanded women's access to employment, the long-term goal of transforming gender inequalities remains unmet and appears unattainable without regulation of capital and a reorientation and expansion of the state's role in funding public goods and providing a social safety net. In , a study published by the IMF posited that neoliberalism , the ideological backbone of contemporary globalized capitalism, has been "oversold", with the benefits of neoliberal policies being "fairly difficult to establish when looking at a broad group of countries" and the costs, most significantly higher income inequality within nations, "hurt the level and sustainability of growth.
Beginning in the s, opposition arose to the idea of a world government, as advocated by organizations such as the World Federalist Movement WFM. Those who oppose global governance typically do so on objections that the idea is unfeasible, inevitably oppressive, or simply unnecessary. Such reasoning dates back to the founding of the League of Nations and, later, the United Nations.
Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology    and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment. Environmentalist concerns with globalization include issues such as global warming , global water supply and water crises , inequity in energy consumption and energy conservation , transnational air pollution and pollution of the world ocean , overpopulation , world habitat sustainability , deforestation , biodiversity loss and species extinction. One critique of globalization is that natural resources of the poor have been systematically taken over by the rich and the pollution promulgated by the rich is systematically dumped on the poor.
Globalization is thus leading to a type of" environmental apartheid ". In her book Ancient Futures , Norberg-Hodge claims that "centuries of ecological balance and social harmony are under threat from the pressures of development and globalization. Although globalization takes similar steps in most countries, scholars such as Hodge claim that it might not be effective to certain countries and that globalization has actually moved some countries backward instead of developing them. A related area of concern is the pollution haven hypothesis , which posits that, when large industrialized nations seek to set up factories or offices abroad, they will often look for the cheapest option in terms of resources and labor that offers the land and material access they require see Race to the bottom.
Developing countries with cheap resources and labor tend to have less stringent environmental regulations , and conversely, nations with stricter environmental regulations become more expensive for companies as a result of the costs associated with meeting these standards. Thus, companies that choose to physically invest in foreign countries tend to re locate to the countries with the lowest environmental standards or weakest enforcement. The European Union—Mercosur Free Trade Agreement , which would form one of the world's largest free trade areas,  has been denounced by environmental activists and indigenous rights campaigners.
Globalization is associated with a more efficient system of food production. This is because crops are grown in countries with optimum growing conditions. This improvement causes an increase in the world's food supply which encourages improved food security. Norway's limited crop range advocates globalization of food production and availability. The northernmost country in Europe requires trade with other countries to ensure population food demands are met. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Globalization disambiguation.
Spread of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Main article: History of globalization. See also: Timeline of international trade. Main article: Archaic globalization. Main article: Proto-globalization. Main article: Economic globalization. Main article: Cultural globalization. Main article: Political globalization. See also: Internet. Main article: Globalization and disease. See also: Virgin soil epidemic , Wildlife smuggling and zoonoses , Emerging infectious disease , and Pandemic. See also: List of globalization-related indices.
See also: Criticisms of globalization. This article needs to be updated. Please help update this section to reflect recent events or newly available information. December Main article: Democratic globalization. Main articles: Global civics and Multiculturalism. See also: Global citizenship. Main article: Anti-globalization movement. Main article: Anti-capitalist movements. Main articles: Anti-corporatism and Anti-consumerism.
Main article: Global justice movement. Main articles: Social inequality and International inequality. Main article: Global governance.The Anabaptist Vision Analysis : Cosmopolitanism Cultural geography Global citizenship Cultural globalization Interculturalism Philosophical movements Globalization And Cosmopolitanism schools and traditions Political philosophy Political theories Social movements Globalization And Cosmopolitanism philosophy World government. Berkeley: University of California Press. James Weldon Johnson Analysis of those who control the James Weldon Johnson Analysis history of macbeth of capital and information, who preside over philanthropic foundations Communication In Volleyball institutions of higher education, manage the instruments of cultural production and thus fix the terms of public debate.