Greek Goddess Nike

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Greek Goddess Nike

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Nike, the Greek Goddess of Victory

Juventas Goddess of youth. Hecate - a. Hekat, Hekate, Trivia Goddess of magic, witchcraft, ghosts, and the undead. Hemera - a. Amar, Dies, Hemere Goddess of daylight. Hera - a. Juno, Uni Goddess of goddesses, women, and marriage and wife of Zeus. Hestia - a. Vesta Greek goddess of the home and fertility. One of the Hesperides. Hygea - a. Hygieia, Salus Goddess of cleanliness and hygeine.

Iris - Goddess of rainbows. Kotys - a. Cotys, Cottyto, Cottytus A Dionysian goddess whose celebrations were wild and liscivious. Lacheses - a. Decima One of the Fates. Measured the thread of life with her rod. Maia - a. Mania - a. Mania, Manea Goddess of insanity and the dead. Melpomene - One of the Muses - represented Tragedy. Merope - One of the seven Pleiades, married to king Sisyphos. Metis - Titan goddess of wisdom. Nemesis - a. Rhamnousia, Invidia Goddess of retribution vengeance. Nike - a. Victoria, Nice Goddess of victory. Nyx - a. Nox Goddess of night. Peitho, Suadela Goddess of persuasion.

Persephone - a. Pheme - a. Fama Goddess of fame and gossip. Polyhymnia - One of the Muses - represents sacred poetry and geometry. Rhea - a. Cybele Goddess of nature. Selene - a. Luna Goddess of the Moon and the 'mother' of vampires. Sterope - a. Asterope One of the seven Pleiades, who bore a child of Ares. Styx - A Naiad who was the first to aid Zeus in the Titan war. Not to be confused with the river Styx. Taygeti, Taigeti One of the seven Pleiades, a mountain nymph. Terpsichore - One of the Muses - represented Dancing. Thalia - One of the Muses - represented Comedy. Themis - Ancient goddess of divine order, law, and custom. Thetis - Leader of the Nereids, a shapeshifter, and a prophet.

Tyche - a. Fortuna, Nortia Goddess of fortune and prosperity. Urania - One of the Muses - represented Astronomy and Astrology. Enjoy this page? Please pay it forward. Here's how Would you prefer to share this page with others by linking to it? Her major symbols include owls , olive trees , snakes, and the Gorgoneion. In art, she is generally depicted wearing a helmet and holding a spear. From her origin as an Aegean palace goddess , Athena was closely associated with the city. She was known as Polias and Poliouchos both derived from polis , meaning "city-state" , and her temples were usually located atop the fortified acropolis in the central part of the city.

The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis is dedicated to her, along with numerous other temples and monuments. As the patron of craft and weaving, Athena was known as Ergane. She was also a warrior goddess , and was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena Promachos. Her main festival in Athens was the Panathenaia , which was celebrated during the month of Hekatombaion in midsummer and was the most important festival on the Athenian calendar. In Greek mythology , Athena was believed to have been born from the forehead of her father Zeus.

In the founding myth of Athens, Athena bested Poseidon in a competition over patronage of the city by creating the first olive tree. She was known as Athena Parthenos "Athena the Virgin," but in one archaic Attic myth, the god Hephaestus tried and failed to rape her, resulting in Gaia giving birth to Erichthonius , an important Athenian founding hero. Athena was the patron goddess of heroic endeavor; she was believed to have aided the heroes Perseus , Heracles , Bellerophon , and Jason. Along with Aphrodite and Hera , Athena was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War. She plays an active role in the Iliad , in which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey , she is the divine counselor to Odysseus.

In the later writings of the Roman poet Ovid , Athena was said to have competed against the mortal Arachne in a weaving competition, afterward transforming Arachne into the first spider; Ovid also describes how she transformed Medusa into a Gorgon after witnessing her being raped by Poseidon in her temple. Since the Renaissance , Athena has become an international symbol of wisdom, the arts, and classical learning. Western artists and allegorists have often used Athena as a symbol of freedom and democracy. Athena is associated with the city of Athens. In his dialogue Cratylus , the ancient Greek philosopher Plato — BC gives some rather imaginative etymologies of Athena's name, based on the theories of the ancient Athenians and his own etymological speculations:.

That is a graver matter, and there, my friend, the modern interpreters of Homer may, I think, assist in explaining the view of the ancients. The second-century AD orator Aelius Aristides attempted to derive natural symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether , air , earth , and moon. Athena was originally the Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided over household crafts and protected the king.

A Mycenean fresco depicts two women extending their hands towards a central figure, who is covered by an enormous figure-eight shield; this may depict the warrior-goddess with her palladion , or her palladion in an aniconic representation. Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times, Athena was either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general.

It is generally agreed that the cult of Athena preserves some aspects of the Proto-Indo-European transfunctional goddess. Plato notes that the citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess known as Neith , [e] whom he identifies with Athena. In her aspect of Athena Polias , Athena was venerated as the goddess of the city and the protectress of the citadel. As Athena Promachos , she was believed to lead soldiers into battle. Marinus of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the goddess from the Parthenon , a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus , a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him.

Athena was not only the patron goddess of Athens, but also other cities, including Argos , Sparta , Gortyn , Lindos , and Larisa. The temple of Athena Alea in Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece. Athena was clearly associated with the owl from very early on; [78] in archaic images, she is frequently depicted with an owl perched on her hand. In the Iliad 4. Another possible meaning may be "triple-born" or "third-born", which may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of Zeus or the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends list her as being the first child after Artemis and Apollo, though other legends identify her as Zeus' first child.

Triton's mother, Amphitrite. Yet another possible meaning is mentioned in Diogenes Laertius ' biography of Democritus , that Athena was called "Tritogeneia" because three things, on which all mortal life depends, come from her. She was the daughter of Zeus, produced without a mother, so that she emerged full-grown from his forehead. There was an alternative story that Zeus swallowed Metis, the goddess of counsel, while she was pregnant with Athena, so that Athena finally emerged from Zeus. Being the favourite child of Zeus, she had great power. In the classical Olympian pantheon, Athena was regarded as the favorite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead.

Athena was probably a pre-Hellenic goddess and was later taken over by the Greeks. In the version recounted by Hesiod in his Theogony , Zeus married the goddess Metis , who is described as the "wisest among gods and mortal men", and engaged in sexual intercourse with her. After swallowing Metis, Zeus took six more wives in succession until he married his seventh and present wife, Hera. Hesiod states that Hera was so annoyed at Zeus for having given birth to a child on his own that she conceived and bore Hephaestus by herself , [98] but in Imagines 2. Fairbanks , the third-century AD Greek rhetorician Philostratus the Elder writes that Hera "rejoices" at Athena's birth "as though Athena were her daughter also.

In one version of the myth, Pallas was the daughter of the sea-god Triton ; [80] she and Athena were childhood friends, but Athena accidentally killed her during a friendly sparring match. The palladion was a statue of Athena that was said to have stood in her temple on the Trojan Acropolis. In Homer's Iliad , Athena, as a war goddess, inspired and fought alongside the Greek heroes; her aid was synonymous with military prowess. Also in the Iliad, Zeus, the chief god, specifically assigned the sphere of war to Ares, the god of war, and Athena.

Athena's moral and military superiority to Ares derived in part from the fact that she represented the intellectual and civilized side of war and the virtues of justice and skill, whereas Ares represented mere blood lust. Her superiority also derived in part from the vastly greater variety and importance of her functions and from the patriotism of Homer's predecessors, Ares being of foreign origin. In the Iliad, Athena was the divine form of the heroic, martial ideal: she personified excellence in close combat, victory, and glory. The qualities that led to victory were found on the aegis, or breastplate, that Athena wore when she went to war: fear, strife, defense, and assault. Athena appears in Homer's Odyssey as the tutelary deity of Odysseus, and myths from later sources portray her similarly as helper of Perseus and Heracles Hercules.

As the guardian of the welfare of kings, Athena became the goddess of good counsel, of prudent restraint and practical insight, as well as of war. In a founding myth reported by Pseudo-Apollodorus, [] Athena competed with Poseidon for the patronage of Athens. Pseudo-Apollodorus [] records an archaic legend, which claims that Hephaestus once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away, causing him to ejaculate on her thigh. The geographer Pausanias [] records that Athena placed the infant Erichthonius into a small chest [] cista , which she entrusted to the care of the three daughters of Cecrops : Herse , Pandrosos , and Aglauros of Athens.

Erichthonius was one of the most important founding heroes of Athens [51] and the legend of the daughters of Cecrops was a cult myth linked to the rituals of the Arrhephoria festival. Herodotus records that a serpent lived in a crevice on the north side of the summit of the Athenian Acropolis [] and that the Athenians left a honey cake for it each month as an offering. Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Hermes demands help from Aglaulus to seduce Herse.

Aglaulus demands money in exchange. Hermes gives her the money the sisters have already offered to Athena. When Hermes arrives to seduce Herse, Aglaulus stands in his way instead of helping him as she had agreed. He turns her to stone. According to Pseudo-Apollodorus's Bibliotheca , Athena advised Argos , the builder of the Argo , the ship on which the hero Jason and his band of Argonauts sailed, and aided in the ship's construction. In ancient Greek art , Athena is frequently shown aiding the hero Heracles. In The Odyssey , Odysseus ' cunning and shrewd nature quickly wins Athena's favour.

Her guiding actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes," or, as mythologian Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her, the "goddess of nearness," due to her mentoring and motherly probing. She instructs Laertes to throw his spear and to kill Eupeithes , the father of Antinous. Athena and Heracles on an Attic red-figure kylix , — BC.

Athena, detail from a silver kantharos with Theseus in Crete c. Paestan red-figure bell-krater c. The Gorgoneion appears to have originated as an apotropaic symbol intended to ward off evil. In his Twelfth Pythian Ode , Pindar recounts the story of how Athena invented the aulos , a kind of flute, in imitation of the lamentations of Medusa's sisters, the Gorgons, after she was beheaded by the hero Perseus. A myth told by the early third-century BC Hellenistic poet Callimachus in his Hymn 5 begins with Athena bathing in a spring on Mount Helicon at midday with one of her favorite companions, the nymph Chariclo. Athena wove the scene of her victory over Poseidon in the contest for the patronage of Athens.

The myth of the Judgement of Paris is mentioned briefly in the Iliad , [] but is described in depth in an epitome of the Cypria , a lost poem of the Epic Cycle , [] which records that all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis the eventual parents of Achilles. The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. All three goddesses were ideally beautiful and Paris could not decide between them, so they resorted to bribes.

Athena also gets into a duel with Ares, the god of the brutal wars, and her male counterpart. Athena appears frequently in classical Greek art, including on coins and in paintings on ceramics. The Mourning Athena or Athena Meditating is a famous relief sculpture dating to around BC [] [] that has been interpreted to represent Athena Polias. Attic black-figure exaleiptron of the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus c.

Attic red-figure kylix of Athena Promachos holding a spear and standing beside a Doric column c. Restoration of the polychrome decoration of the Athena statue from the Aphaea temple at Aegina , c. The Mourning Athena relief c. Attic red-figure kylix showing Athena slaying the Gigante Enceladus c. Relief of Athena and Nike slaying the Gigante Alkyoneus? Athena portrait by Eukleidas on a tetradrachm from Syracuse, Sicily c. Mythological scene with Athena left and Herakles right , on a stone palette of the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara , India.

Atena farnese , Roman copy of a Greek original from Phidias' circle, c. Early Christian writers, such as Clement of Alexandria and Firmicus , denigrated Athena as representative of all the things that were detestable about paganism; [] they condemned her as "immodest and immoral". During the Renaissance, Athena donned the mantle of patron of the arts and human endeavor; [] allegorical paintings involving Athena were a favorite of the Italian Renaissance painters. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Athena was used as a symbol for female rulers. A statue of Athena stands directly in front of the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna , [] and depictions of Athena have influenced other symbols of Western freedom, including the Statue of Liberty and Britannia.

Pallas and the Centaur c. Athena Scorning the Advances of Hephaestus c. Minerva Victorious over Ignorance c. Pallas Athena c. Minerva of Peace mosaic in the Library of Congress. Athena on the Great Seal of California. One of Sigmund Freud 's most treasured possessions was a small, bronze sculpture of Athena, which sat on his desk. Athena is a natural patron of universities: At Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania a statue of Athena a replica of the original bronze one in the arts and archaeology library resides in the Great Hall. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Greek goddess. For other uses, see Athena disambiguation. Ancient Greek goddess of wisdom. For other uses, see Athene disambiguation , Athina disambiguation , and Pallas Athena disambiguation.

Goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare. Mattei Athena at Louvre.

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