Spanish American Colonialism

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Spanish American Colonialism

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Spanish colonization - Period 1: 1491-1607 - AP US History - Khan Academy

At the same time the crown established a standing army and promoted militias for the defense of empire, creating a new avenue of privilege for creole men and for castas, but excluding indigenous men from conscription or voluntary service. The Spanish Empire benefited from favorable factor endowments in its overseas possessions with their large, exploitable, indigenous populations and rich mining areas. While the Habsburgs were committed to maintaining a state monopoly in theory, in reality the Empire was a porous economic realm and smuggling was widespread.

In the 16th and 17th century under the Habsburgs, Spain experienced a gradual decline in economic conditions, especially relative to the industrial development of its French, Dutch, and English rivals. Many of the goods being exported to the Empire originated from manufacturers in northwest Europe, rather than in Spain. But illicit commercial activities became a part of the Empire's administrative structure. Supported by large flows of silver from America, trade prohibited by Spanish mercantilist trade restrictions flourished, because it provided a source of income to both crown officials and private merchants.

Paradoxically the wealth of the Indies impoverished Spain and enriched northern Europe, a course the Bourbon monarchs would later attempt to reverse in the eighteenth century. This was well recognized in Spain, with writers on political economy, the arbitristas sending the crown lengthy analyses in the form of "memorials, of the perceived problems and with proposed solutions. The tax system must be overhauled, special concessions be made to agricultural laborers, rivers be made navigable and dry lands irrigated.

In this way alone could Castile's productivity increased, its commerce restored, and its humiliating dependence on foreigners, on the Dutch and the Genoese, be brought to an end. From the early days of the Caribbean and conquest era, the crown attempted to control trade between Spain and the Indies with restrictive policies enforced by the House of Trade est. Spanish settlers in the Indies in the very early period were few and Spain could supply sufficient goods to them. But as the Aztec and Inca empires were conquered in the early sixteenth century and then large deposits of silver found in both Mexico and Peru, the regions of those major empires, Spanish immigration increased and demand for goods rose far beyond Spain's ability to supply it.

Since Spain had little capital to invest in the expanding trade and no significant commercial group, bankers and commercial houses in Genoa, Germany, The Netherlands, France, and England supplied both investment capital and goods in a supposedly closed system. Even in the sixteenth century, Spain recognized that the idealized closed system did not function in reality. Despite that the crown did not alter its restrictive structure or advocacy of fiscal prudence, despite the pleas of the arbitristas , the Indies trade remained nominally in the hands of Spain, but in fact enriched the other European countries.

The crown established the system of treasure fleets Spanish: flota to protect the conveyance of silver to Seville later Cadiz. Merchants in Seville conveyed consumer goods that were registered and taxed by the House of Trade. Other European commercial interests came to dominate supply, with Spanish merchant houses and their guilds consulados in Spain and the Indies acting as mere middlemen, reaping profits a slice of the profits. However, those profits did not promote Spanish economic development of a manufacturing sector, with its economy continuing to be based on agriculture.

The wealth of the Indies led to prosperity in northern Europe, particularly The Netherlands and England, both Protestant. As Spain's power weakened in the seventeenth century, England, The Netherlands, and the French took advantage overseas by seizing islands in the Caribbean, which became bases for a burgeoning contraband trade in Spanish America. Crown officials who were supposed to suppress contraband trade were quite often in cahoots with the foreigners, since it was a source of personal enrichment. In Spain, the crown itself participated in collusion with foreign merchant houses, since they paid fines, "meant to establish a compensation to the state for losses through fraud.

Foreigner merchants were part of the supposed monopoly system of trade. The transfer of the House of Trade from Seville to Cadiz meant even easier access of foreign merchant houses to the Spanish trade. The motor of the Spanish imperial economy that had a global impact was silver mining. The mines in Peru and Mexico were in the hands of a few elite mining entrepreneurs, with access to capital and a stomach for the risk mining entailed. They operated under a system of royal licensing, since the crown held the rights to subsoil wealth.

Further adding to the crown's revenues was mining was that it crown held a monopoly on the supply of mercury, used for separating pure silver from silver ore in the patio process. The crown kept the price high, thereby depressing the volume of silver production. Its success can be judged by the fact that the silver fleet was captured only once, in by Dutch privateer Piet Hein. That loss resulted in the bankruptcy of the Spanish crown and an extended period of economic depression in Spain. This was a rotational forced labor system where indigenous pueblos were obligated to send laborers to work in Spanish mines and plantations for a set number of days out of the year.

Repartimiento was not implemented to replace slave labor but instead existed alongside free wage labor, slavery, and indentured labor. It was, however, a way for the Spanish to procure cheap labor thus boosting the mining-driven economy. It is important to note that the men who worked as repartimiento laborers were not always resistant to the practice. Some were drawn to the labor as a way to supplement the wages they earned cultivating fields so as to support their families and, of course, pay tributes.

At first, a Spaniard could get repartimiento laborers to work for them with permission from a crown official, such as a viceroy, only on the basis that this labor was absolutely necessary to provide the country with important resources. This condition became laxer as the years went on and various enterprises had repartimiento laborers where they would work in dangerous conditions for long hours and low wages. It attempted to restructure to establish as closed trading system, but it was hampered by the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht. The treaty ending the War of the Spanish Succession with a victory for the Bourbon French candidate for the throne had a provision for British merchants to legally sell by a license Asiento de Negros slaves to Spanish America.

The provision undermined the possibility of a revamped Spanish monopoly system. The merchants also used the opportunity to engage in contraband trade of their manufactured goods. Crown policy sought to make legal trade more appealing than contraband by instituting free commerce comercio libre in whereby Spanish American ports could trade with each other and they could trade with any port in Spain.

It was aimed at revamping a closed Spanish system and outflanking the increasingly powerful British. Silver production revived in the eighteenth century, with production far surpassing the earlier output. The crown reducing the taxes on mercury, meaning that a greater volume of pure silver could be refined. Silver mining absorbed most available capital in Mexico and Peru, and the crown emphasized the production of precious metals that was sent to Spain. There was some economic development in the Indies to supply food, but a diversified economy did not emerge. In turn, the crown's attempt to tighten its control over its colonial markets in the Americas led to further conflict with other European powers who were vying for access to them.

After a sparking a series of skirmishes throughout the s over its stricter policies, Spain's reformed trade system led to war with Britain in On one hand, silver production in New Spain greatly increased and led to economic growth. But much of the profits of the revitalized mining sector went to mining elites and state officials, while in rural areas of New Spain conditions for rural workers deteriorated, contributing to social unrest that would impact subsequent revolts.

From to Francis Xavier worked in Maluku among the peoples of Ambon Island , Ternate , and Morotai , and laid the foundations for the Christian religion there. He was the first governor-general of the Spanish East Indies. The Spanish settled and took control of Tidore in to trade spices and counter Dutch encroachment in the archipelago of Maluku. The Spanish presence lasted until , when the settlers and military were moved back to the Philippines. Part of the Ternatean population chose to leave with the Spanish, settling near Manila in what later became the municipality of Ternate.

Spanish galleons travelled across the Pacific Ocean annually between Acapulco in Mexico and Manila , and from there the primary Asian destination for silver from the Americas was China. Since the arrival to Kagoshima Kyushu of a group of Jesuits with St. Francis Xavier missionary and Portuguese traders, Spain was interested in Japan. In , he was sent to search for two mythical islands called Rico de Oro island of gold and Rico de Plata island of silver. He retained the Spanish overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines.

The treaty also granted British merchants the exclusive right to sell slaves in Spanish America for thirty years, the asiento de negros , as well as licensed voyages to ports in Spanish colonial dominions and openings. Spain's economic and demographic recovery had begun slowly in the last decades of the Habsburg reign, as was evident from the growth of its trading convoys and the much more rapid growth of illicit trade during the period. This growth was slower than the growth of illicit trade by northern rivals in the empire's markets. However, this recovery was not then translated into institutional improvement, rather the "proximate solutions to permanent problems.

Following the war, the new Bourbon monarchy took a much more cautious approach to international relations, relying on a family alliance with Bourbon France, and continuing to follow a program of institutional renewal. The crown program to enact reforms that promoted administrative control and efficiency in the metropole to the detriment of interests in the colonies undermined creole elites' loyalty to the crown. When French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the Iberian peninsula in , Napoleon ousted the Spanish Bourbon monarchy, placing his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne.

There was a crisis of legitimacy of crown rule in Spanish America, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence — The Spanish Bourbons' broadest intentions were to reorganize the institutions of empire to better administer it for the benefit of Spain and the crown. It sought to increase revenues and to assert greater crown control, including over the Catholic Church. Centralization of power was to be for the benefit of the crown and the metropole and for the defense of its empire against foreign incursions. At the beginning of his reign, the first Spanish Bourbon, King Philip V, reorganized the government to strengthen the executive power of the monarch as was done in France, in place of the deliberative, Polysynodial System of Councils.

Philip's government set up a ministry of the Navy and the Indies and established commercial companies, the Honduras Company , a Caracas company, the Guipuzcoana Company , and the most successful one, the Havana Company The contraband trade that was the lifeblood of the Habsburg empire declined in proportion to registered shipping a shipping registry having been established in Two upheavals registered unease within Spanish America and at the same time demonstrated the renewed resiliency of the reformed system: the Tupac Amaru uprising in Peru in and the rebellion of the comuneros of New Granada , both in part reactions to tighter, more efficient control.

The 18th century was a century of prosperity for the overseas Spanish Empire as trade within grew steadily, particularly in the second half of the century, under the Bourbon reforms. Spain's victory in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias against a British expedition in the Caribbean port of Cartagena de Indias helped Spain secure its dominance of its possessions in America until the 19th century. But different regions fared differently under Bourbon rule, and even while New Spain was particularly prosperous, it was also marked by steep wealth inequality. Silver production boomed in New Spain during the 18th century, with output more than tripling between the start of the century and the s. The economy and the population both grew, both centered around Mexico City.

Eviction of many from their lands resulted. With a Bourbon monarchy came a repertory of Bourbon mercantilist ideas based on a centralized state, put into effect in America slowly at first but with increasing momentum during the century. Shipping grew rapidly from the mids until the Seven Years' War —63 , reflecting in part the success of the Bourbons in bringing illicit trade under control. With the loosening of trade controls after the Seven Years' War, shipping trade within the empire once again began to expand, reaching an extraordinary rate of growth in the s. The end of Cadiz's monopoly of trade with America brought about a rebirth of Spanish manufactures.

Most notable was the rapidly growing textile industry of Catalonia which by the mids saw the first signs of industrialization. This saw the emergence of a small, politically active commercial class in Barcelona. This isolated pocket of advanced economic development stood in stark contrast to the relative backwardness of most of the country. Most of the improvements were in and around some major coastal cities and the major islands such as Cuba , with its tobacco plantations , and a renewed growth of precious metals mining in America. Agricultural productivity remained low despite efforts to introduce new techniques to what was for the most part an uninterested, exploited peasant and laboring groups.

Governments were inconsistent in their policies. Though there were substantial improvements by the late 18th century, Spain was still an economic backwater. From an opposing point of view according to the "backwardness" mentioned above the naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt traveled extensively throughout the Spanish Americas, exploring and describing it for the first time from a modern scientific point of view between and In his work Political essay on the kingdom of New Spain containing researches relative to the geography of Mexico he says that the Indians of New Spain lived in better conditions than any Russian or German peasant in Europe.

Mexico City consumed pounds of meat per person per year, in comparison to pounds consumed by the inhabitants of Paris, the Mexicans also consumed almost the same amount of bread as any European city, with kilograms of bread per person per year in comparison to the kilograms consumed in Paris. Caracas consumed seven times more meat per person than in Paris. Von Humboldt also said that the average income in that period was four times the European income and also that the cities of New Spain were richer than many European cities. The Spanish empire had still not returned to first-rate power status, but it had recovered and even extended its territories considerably from the dark days at the beginning of the eighteenth century when it was, particularly in continental matters, at the mercy of other powers' political deals.

The relatively more peaceful century under the new monarchy had allowed it to rebuild and start the long process of modernizing its institutions and economy, and the demographic decline of the 17th century had been reversed. But time was to be against it. Bourbon institutional reforms under Philip V bore fruit militarily when Spanish forces easily retook Naples and Sicily Battle of Bitonto from the Austrians in during the War of the Polish Succession , and during the War of Jenkins' Ear —42 thwarted British efforts to capture the strategic cities of Cartagena de Indias and Santiago de Cuba by defeating a massive British army and navy, although Spain's invasion of Georgia also failed. The British, also occupied with France, were unable to capture Spanish convoys, and Spanish privateers attacked British merchant shipping along the Triangle Trade routes.

In Europe, Spain had been trying to divest Maria Theresa of Lombardy in northern Italy since , but faced the opposition of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia , and warfare in northern Italy remained indecisive throughout the period up to Spain was defeated during the invasion of Portugal and lost both Havana and Manila to British forces towards the end of the Seven Years' War — In and the Spanish navy bombarded Algiers to end piracy in the Mediterranean. During most of the 18th century, Spanish privateers, particularly from Santo Domingo , were the scourge of the Antilles , with Dutch, British, French and Danish vessels as their prizes. Spain contributed to the independence of the thirteen American colonies which formed the United States together with France.

Spain and France were allies because of the Bourbon " Family Pact " carried out by both countries against Britain. Vincent , and again by Admiral Richard Howe in Further Franco-Spanish efforts to capture Gibraltar were unsuccessful. One notable success took place on 5 February , when the Spanish recaptured Minorca. Ambitious plans for an invasion of Britain in had to be abandoned.

Jamaica was the last British stronghold of importance in the Caribbean. Spain actively supported the thirteen colonies throughout the American Revolutionary War , beginning in by jointly funding Roderigue Hortalez and Company , a trading company that provided critical military supplies, throughout financing the final Siege of Yorktown in with a collection of gold and silver from Havana.

The majority of the territory of today's Brazil had been claimed as Spanish when exploration began with the navigation of the length of the Amazon River in —42 by Francisco de Orellana. Many Spanish expeditions explored large parts of this vast region, especially those close to Spanish settlements. As Portuguese-Brazilian settlement expanded, following in the trail of the Bandeirantes exploits, these isolated Spanish groups were eventually integrated into Brazilian society. Only some Castilians who were displaced from the disputed areas of the Pampas of Rio Grande do Sul have left a significant influence on the formation of the gaucho , when they mixed with Indian groups, Portuguese and blacks who arrived in the region during the 18th century.

The Spanish were barred by their laws from slaving of indigenous people, leaving them without a commercial interest deep in the interior of the Amazon basin. The Laws of Burgos and the New Laws had been intended to protect the interests of indigenous people. The Portuguese-Brazilian slavers, the Bandeirantes, had the advantage of access from the mouth of the Amazon River, which was on the Portuguese side of the line of Tordesillas. One famous attack upon a Spanish mission in resulted in the enslavement of about 60, indigenous people.

In time, there was in effect a self-funding force of occupation. By the 18th century, much of the Spanish territory was under de facto control of Portuguese-Brazil. This reality was recognized with the legal transfer of sovereignty in of most of the Amazon basin and surrounding areas to Portugal in the Treaty of Madrid. Spain claimed all of North America in the Age of Discovery, but claims were not translated into occupation until a major resource was discovered and Spanish settlement and crown rule put in place. The French had established an empire in northern North America and took some islands in the Caribbean.

The English established colonies on the eastern seaboard of North America and in northern North America and some Caribbean islands as well. In the eighteenth century, the Spanish crown realized that its territorial claims needed to be defended, particularly in the wake of its visible weakness during the Seven Years' War when Britain captured the important Spanish ports of Havana and Manila. Another important factor was that the Russian empire had expanded into North America from the mid-eighteenth century, with fur trading settlements in what is now Alaska and forts as far south as Fort Ross, California.

Great Britain was also expanding into areas that Spain claimed as its territory on the Pacific coast. Taking steps to shore up its fragile claims to California, Spain began planning California missions in Spain also began a series of voyages to the Pacific Northwest, where Russia and Great Britain were encroaching on claimed territory. The Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest , with Alessandro Malaspina and others sailing for Spain, came too late for Spain to assert its sovereignty in the Pacific Northwest.

The Nootka Crisis — nearly brought Spain and Britain to war. It was a dispute over claims in the Pacific Northwest, where neither nation had established permanent settlements. The crisis could have led to war, but it was resolved in the Nootka Convention , in which Spain and Great Britain agreed to not establish settlements and allowed free access to Nootka Sound on the west coast of what is now Vancouver Island. In , Baron Nikolai Rezanov attempted to negotiate a treaty between the Russian-American Company and the Viceroyalty of New Spain , but his unexpected death in ended any treaty hopes.

When the negotiations between the two nations were taking place, Spain's resources were stretched due to the Spanish American wars of independence. The growth of trade and wealth in the colonies caused increasing political tensions as frustration grew with the improving but still restrictive trade with Spain. All was to be swept away by the tumult that was to overtake Europe at the turn of the 19th century with the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The first major territory Spain was to lose in the 19th century was the vast Louisiana Territory , which had few European settlers. It stretched north to Canada and was ceded by France in under the terms of the Treaty of Fontainebleau. Napoleon's sale of the Louisiana Territory to the United States in caused border disputes between the United States and Spain that, with rebellions in West Florida and in the remainder of Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi , led to their eventual cession to the United States.

Spain was caught up in European events of the Napoleonic era that led to its loss of empire in Spanish America. Spain was France's ally, but it had tried to avoid being drawn directly into the ongoing conflict between Napoleon's France and Britain. The British navy defeated the Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar in The viceroy retreated hastily to the hills when defeated by a small British force. However, the Criollos ' militias and colonial army repulsed the now reinforced British force in In , the Spanish king was tricked and Spain was taken over by Napoleon without firing a shot, but the French provoked a popular uprising from the Spanish people and the grinding guerrilla warfare , which Napoleon dubbed his "ulcer," [] the Peninsular War , famously depicted by the painter Goya ensued.

The Napoleonic invasion provoked a crisis of sovereignty and legitimacy to rule, a new political framework, and the loss of most of Spanish America. In Spain, political uncertainty lasted over a decade and turmoil for several decades, civil wars on succession disputes, a republic, and finally a liberal democracy. Resistance coalesced around juntas , emergency ad hoc governments. Subsequently, a cortes or parliament was called, with representatives not only from Spain, but also Spanish America and the Philippines.

When Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne in , he repudiated the constitution and re-asserted absolutist rule. A military coup in led by Rafael del Riego forced Ferdinand to accept the constitution again, which went back into force until Ferdinand raised troops in , and re-asserted absolutist rule again. The idea of a separate identity for Spanish America has been developed in the modern historical literature, [] but the idea of complete Spanish American independence from the Spanish Empire was not general at the time and political independence was not inevitable.

Historian Brian Hamnett argues that had the Spanish monarchy and Spanish liberals been more flexible regarding the place of the overseas components, the empire would not have collapsed. Spanish Americans reacted in much the same way the Peninsular Spanish did, legitimizing their actions through traditional law, which held that sovereignty reverted to the people in the absence of a legitimate king. The majority of Spanish Americans continued to support the idea of maintaining a monarchy, but did not support retaining absolute monarchy under Ferdinand VII. The juntas in the Americas did not accept the governments of the Europeans — neither the government set up for Spain by the French nor the various Spanish governments set up in response to the French invasion.

The juntas did not accept the Spanish regency, isolated under siege in the city of Cadiz — They also rejected the Spanish Constitution of although the Constitution gave Spanish citizenship to those in the territories that had belonged to the Spanish monarchy in both hemispheres. But the acquisition of citizenship for any casta of Afro-American peoples of the Americas was through naturalization — excluding slaves. A long period of wars followed in America, and the lack of Spanish troops in the colonies led to civil war between patriotic rebels and local Royalists.

In South America this period of wars led to the independence of Argentina , Venezuela , Chile , Paraguay and Uruguay , but subsequently ruled by Brazil until Panama declared independence in and merged with the Republic of Gran Colombia from to The conservative Catholic hierarchy in New Spain supported Mexican independence largely because it found the liberal Spanish Constitution of abhorrent. Central America provinces became independent via Mexico's independence in and joined Mexico for a brief time —23 , but they chose their own path when Mexico became a republic in In Spanish America, Royalist guerrillas continued the war in several countries, and Spain launched attempts to retake Venezuela in and Mexico in Finally the Spanish government went so far as to renounce sovereignty over all of continental America in Santo Domingo likewise declared independence in and began negotiating for inclusion in Bolivar's Republic of Gran Colombia, but was quickly occupied by Haiti , which ruled it until an revolution.

After 17 years of independence, in , Santo Domingo was again made a Spanish colony due to Haitian aggression. It was the only time that a Spanish colonial possession would return to Spain after having gained independence. By , Spain was contending with a limited insurgency and losing hundreds of soldiers. There they joined the garrison in the fort, leaving the city to be pillaged by the rebels.

Eventually six hundred Spanish sallied out, and after a severe fight, drove off the rebels with help from the cannon of the fort, but by then the city had been plundered and burnt almost out of existence. During the Dominican Restoration War , the rebel leadership had changed frequently, only to be deposed in coups for corruption, politics or in the case of Gaspar Polanco who lasted 3 months leading a disastrous direct attack on the Spanish at Monte Cristi in December Thus by the end of , it could be said the Spanish were winning.

However, military victory was trumped by political defeat. The price of war in terms of money and lives had been huge, disease and the hardy guerrilla fighters of the island causing many casualties that Spain could ill afford, and in , the Bourbon Queen Isabella II signed a decree annulling the annexation. The Virginius Affair 31 October , in which Spanish naval forces seized a filibustering ship flying the U.

Cuba's first war of independence ended inconclusively. The Philippine Revolution began in August , when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan , an anti-colonial secret organization. During a mass gathering in Caloocan , the leaders of the Katipunan organized into a revolutionary government, named the newly established government " Haring Bayang Katagalugan ", and openly declared a nationwide armed revolution.

This attack failed; however, the surrounding provinces began to revolt. A power struggle among the revolutionaries led to a schism among Katipunan leadership followed by Bonifacio's execution in With command having shifted to Emilio Aguinaldo , who led the newly formed revolutionary government. That year, revolutionaries and the Spanish signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato , which temporarily reduced hostilities.

Filipino revolutionary officers exiled themselves to Hong Kong. However, the hostilities never completely ceased. On April 21, , after the sinking of USS Maine in Havana Harbor and prior to its declaration of war on April 25, the United States launched a naval blockade of the Spanish colonial island of Cuba , off its southern coast of the peninsula of Florida. This was the first military action of the Spanish—American War of On May 19, Aguinaldo, unofficially allied with the United States, returned to the Philippines and resumed attacks against the Spaniards. By June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. In the treaty, Spain ceded control of the Philippines and other territories to the United States.

Aguinaldo immediately ordered "[t]hat peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies". A more modern Spanish fleet, which had been sent to try and recover Manila, was recalled to protect the Spanish coasts from a possible American attack. Thus ended any Spanish attempt to recapture or even to protect its colonies. Military defeat was followed by the U. On 2 June , the second expeditionary battalion Cazadores of Philippines, the last Spanish garrison in the Philippines, which had been besieged in Baler, Aurora at war's end, was pulled out, effectively ending around years of Spanish hegemony in the archipelago.

The latter cities were lost in , reconquered in and sold by Charles IV in In the 19th century, some Spanish explorers and missionaries would cross this zone, among them Manuel Iradier. In , Spanish troops conquered the Islas Chafarinas. The following decades of Franco-Spanish collaboration resulted in the establishment and extension of Spanish protectorates south of the city, and Spanish influence obtained international recognition in the Berlin Conference of Spain administered Sidi Ifni and Western Sahara jointly. Spain claimed a protectorate over the coast of Guinea from Cape Bojador to Cap Blanc , too, and even try to press a claim over the Adrar and Tiris regions in Mauritania.

Conflicting claims to the Guinea mainland were settled in by the Treaty of Paris , because of which Spain was left with a mere 26, km 2 out of the , stretching east to the Ubangi River which they initially claimed. Following a brief war in , Spain expanded its influence south from Melilla. In , Morocco was divided between the French and Spanish. The Rif Berbers rebelled, led by Abdelkrim , a former officer for the Spanish administration. The Battle of Annual during the Rif War was a sudden, grave, and almost fatal military defeat suffered by the Spanish army against Moroccan insurgents.

A leading Spanish politician emphatically declared: " We are at the most acute period of Spanish decadence ". It is considered the first successful amphibious landing in history supported by seaborne air power and tanks. In , Tangier was declared an international city under French, Spanish, British, and later Italian joint administration. In Bioko and Rio Muni were united as the colony of Spanish Guinea , a status that would last until In , following the fall of the monarchy, the African colonies became part of the Second Spanish Republic. In , during the government of Prime Minister Alejandro Lerroux , Spanish troops led by General Osvaldo Capaz landed in Sidi Ifni and carried out the occupation of the territory, ceded de jure by Morocco in Five years later, Francisco Franco , a general of the Army of Africa , rebelled against the republican government and started the Spanish Civil War — Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in its African colonies during the first half of the 20th century.

However, through a paternalistic system, particularly on Bioko Island , Spain developed large cocoa plantations for which thousands of Nigerian workers were imported as laborers. In , the Spanish territory on the Gulf of Guinea was established with a status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain. Madison made the issue of impressment from ships under the American flag a matter of national sovereignty—even after the British agreed to end the practice—and asked Congress for a declaration of War on Great Britain on June 1, Many who supported the call to arms saw British and Spanish territory in North America as potential prizes to be won by battle or negotiations after a successful war.

Pro-British Federalists in Washington were outraged by what they considered Republican favoritism toward France. American forces, however, won important naval and military victories at sea, on Lake Champlain, and at Baltimore and Detroit. Canadians defeated an American invasion of Lower Canada. By neither side could claim a clear victory and both war weary combatants looked to a peaceful settlement. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Invasion of the American continents and incorporation into the Spanish Empire. For other uses, see Conquista disambiguation. Main article: Spanish conquest of Mexico. Main article: Spanish conquest of Peru. Main articles: Conquest of Chile and Colonial Chile. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Muisca. See also: Spanish conquest of the Chibchan Nations. Main article: Columbian exchange. Further information: Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Main article: Council of the Indies. Main article: Real Audiencia. See also: Corregidor position. Main article: Cabildo council. Main articles: Presidio and Spanish missions in the Americas.

Main articles: Society of Jesus and Suppression of the Jesuits. Main articles: Mexican Inquisition and Peruvian Inquisition. Further information: Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Cocoliztli epidemics. Main article: Castas. Main article: Slavery in colonial Spanish America. Main article: Spanish American wars of independence. Government under traditional Spanish law. Loyal to Supreme Central Junta or Cortes. American junta or insurrection movement. Independent state declared or established. Height of French control of the Peninsula. Some of this section's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources.

Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Mexico portal Colombia portal Argentina portal Ecuador portal Venezuela portal. Duke University Press. ISBN Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Exterminate Them! Michigan State University Press. Bad Indians: A Tribal Memoir. Heyday Books. Encyclopedia of Human Rights. Volume 4. Oxford University Press. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Schwartz , Early Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press , pp. New York: Oxford University Press Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies.

London, England: Penguin Classics. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved The Americas. JSTOR The Early Spanish Main. The Broken Spears. Repertorium Columbianum Chamberlain, The Conquest and Colonization of Yucatan. Washington DC: Carnegie Institution. The War for Mexico's West. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press First published by University of California Press Chungara in Spanish. Retrieved December 21, Historia De Chile 14th ed. Editorial Universitaria. ISBN , p. A History of Latin America. Boston: Wadsworth pp. Rolena Adorno and Patrick Charles Pautz. Tucson: University of Arizona Press Taos News. Greenwood Press New York: Cambridge University Press Soldiers, Indians, Silver.

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University of Utah Press The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule. The Nahuas After the Conquest. Stanford University Press Stanford University Press, Maya society under colonial rule: The collective enterprise of survival. Princeton University Press, The Maya world: Yucatec culture and society, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press Stanford: Stanford University De Austrias a Borbones". Editorial Dykinson. Editorial Tebar. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , p. Editorial Critica. Iberia and the Americas: culture, politics, and history. De Blas, Patricio Universidad de Cuenca. Editorial Ariel. Southern California Quarterly. The Spiritual Conquest of Mexico.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Translated by Elizabeth Andros Foster. The Americas 12 : — Ecological Determinants of Aboriginal California Populations. Overland Monthly — S rule upon the native Californians is harsh: "The first factor was the food supply The second factor was the disease. A third factor, which strongly intensified the effect of the other two, was the social and physical disruption visited upon the Indian. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. He was not only given no assistance in the struggle against foreign diseases, but was prevented from adopting even the most elementary measures to secure his food, clothing, and shelter.

The utter devastation caused by the white man was literally incredible, and not until the population figures are examined does the extent of the havoc become evident. The Population of the California Indians, — University of California Press, Berkeley p. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Kenneth J. Andrien and Lyman L. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press , pp. Bloomington: Indiana University Press New York: Berghahn , pp. Berkeley: University of California Press Main article: Historiography of Colonial Spanish America.

Altman, Ida and David Wheat, eds. Burkholder, Mark A. Colonial Latin America , 10th ed. Oxford University Press Spanish Texas, — Spain in America. New York: Harper and Row Haring, Clarence H. Resendez , Andres Latin America in Colonial Times. Thomas, Hugh. Spanish colonization of the Americas. Encomienda Indian auxiliaries Spanish missions in the Americas. History of the Americas. Indigenous peoples Indigenous population Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories Discovery Exploration European colonization Spanish colonization French colonization Portuguese colonization British colonization Columbian Exchange Decolonization.

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