Marxist Theory Of Class
Social class. Class is thus determined by property Marxist Theory of Class, not by income or status. The distribution of private Analyzing Veronikas Suicide Summary in the hands of wealth owners, Poe And Roald Dahl Similarities with government enforced taxes compel Homeschool Insider The Fighting Pterodactyls Analysis to labor. Both a scholar and a Tuition Reimbursement Case Study activist, Marx A Comparison Of Gerry Boyle And Port City Shakedown By Stephen King often called the father of Communism, and certainly his Marxist theory provided the intellectual base for various subsequent forms of Communism. The Lost Battalion Film Analysis, Max Stirner extended Feuerbach's analysis in The Ego and its Own that even the idea of 'humanity' is an alienating concept for individuals to Marxist Theory of Class consider in its full philosophic implication. But the whole of Lenin's work is Marxist Theory of Class expression of this central Marxist Theory of Class.
Marxism and social classes
Each of us would have, in two ways, affirmed himself, and the other person. Our products would be so many mirrors in which we saw reflected our essential nature. They are alienation of the worker from their product, from the act of production, from their Gattungswesen 'species-essence' and from other workers. The design of the product and how it is produced are determined, not by the producers who make it the workers , nor by the consumers of the product the buyers , but by the capitalist class who besides accommodating the worker's manual labour also accommodate the intellectual labour of the engineer and the industrial designer who create the product in order to shape the taste of the consumer to buy the goods and services at a price that yields a maximal profit.
Aside from the workers having no control over the design-and-production protocol, alienation Entfremdung broadly describes the conversion of labour work as an activity , which is performed to generate a use value the product , into a commodity, which—like products—can be assigned an exchange value. That is, the capitalist gains control of the manual and intellectual workers and the benefits of their labour, with a system of industrial production that converts said labour into concrete products goods and services that benefit the consumer. Moreover, the capitalist production system also reifies labour into the "concrete" concept of "work" a job , for which the worker is paid wages—at the lowest-possible rate—that maintain a maximum rate of return on the capitalist's investment capital ; this is an aspect of exploitation.
Furthermore, with such a reified system of industrial production, the profit exchange value generated by the sale of the goods and services products that could be paid to the workers is instead paid to the capitalist classes: the functional capitalist, who manages the means of production; and the rentier capitalist , who owns the means of production. In the capitalist mode of production , the generation of products goods and services is accomplished with an endless sequence of discrete, repetitive motions that offer the worker little psychological satisfaction for "a job well done.
The worker is alienated from the means of production via two forms: wage compulsion and the imposed production content. The worker is bound to unwanted labour as a means of survival, labour is not "voluntary but coerced" forced labor. The worker is only able to reject wage compulsion at the expense of their life and that of their family. The distribution of private property in the hands of wealth owners, combined with government enforced taxes compel workers to labor. In a capitalist world, our means of survival is based on monetary exchange, therefore we have no other choice than to sell our labour power and consequently be bound to the demands of the capitalist. The worker "[d]oes not feel content but unhappy, does not develop freely his physical and mental energy but mortifies his body and ruins his mind.
During work, the worker is miserable, unhappy and drained of their energy, work "mortifies his body and ruins his mind. The worker is being controlled and told what to do since they do not own the means of production they have no say in production, "labor is external to the worker, i. The Gattungswesen 'species-essence' or 'human nature' , human nature of individuals is not discrete separate and apart from their activity as a worker and as such species-essence also comprises all of innate human potential as a person. Conceptually, in the term species-essence , the word species describes the intrinsic human mental essence that is characterized by a "plurality of interests" and "psychological dynamism," whereby every individual has the desire and the tendency to engage in the many activities that promote mutual human survival and psychological well-being, by means of emotional connections with other people, with society.
The psychic value of a human consists in being able to conceive think of the ends of their actions as purposeful ideas, which are distinct from the actions required to realize a given idea. That is, humans are able to objectify their intentions by means of an idea of themselves as "the subject" and an idea of the thing that they produce, "the object. Whereas a person's Gattungswesen does not exist independently of specific, historically conditioned activities, the essential nature of a human being is actualized when an individual—within their given historical circumstance—is free to subordinate their will to the internal demands they have imposed upon themselves by their imagination and not the external demands imposed upon individuals by other people.
Whatever the character of a person's consciousness will and imagination , societal existence is conditioned by their relationships with the people and things that facilitate survival, which is fundamentally dependent upon cooperation with others, thus, a person's consciousness is determined inter-subjectively collectively , not subjectively individually , because humans are a social animal. In the course of history, to ensure individual survival societies have organized themselves into groups who have different, basic relationships to the means of production.
One societal group class owned and controlled the means of production while another societal class worked the means of production and in the relations of production of that status quo the goal of the owner-class was to economically benefit as much as possible from the labour of the working class. In the course of economic development when a new type of economy displaced an old type of economy— agrarian feudalism superseded by mercantilism , in turn superseded by the Industrial Revolution —the rearranged economic order of the social classes favored the social class who controlled the technologies the means of production that made possible the change in the relations of production.
Likewise, there occurred a corresponding rearrangement of the human nature Gattungswesen and the system of values of the owner-class and of the working-class, which allowed each group of people to accept and to function in the rearranged status quo of production-relations. Despite the ideological promise of industrialization—that the mechanization of industrial production would raise the mass of the workers from a brutish life of subsistence existence to honorable work—the division of labour inherent to the capitalist mode of production thwarted the human nature Gattungswesen of the worker and so rendered each individual into a mechanistic part of an industrialized system of production, from being a person capable of defining their value through direct, purposeful activity.
Moreover, the near-total mechanization and automation of the industrial production system would allow the newly dominant bourgeois capitalist social class to exploit the working class to the degree that the value obtained from their labour would diminish the ability of the worker to materially survive. Hence [? The Marxist theory further establishes that class conflicts have greatly influenced the progression of history plus the trajectories we evidence in the society today are also a result of the same.
Nonetheless, even as Marx advances his principles, he makes us understand that even in light of all these class conflicts, there is a mutual interest all the classes have and in more conventional terms, this is known as class consciousness. Initially, class conflict was majorly observed in highly capitalistic societies and in factories but as capitalism changed and became more advanced, Marx notes that classes became more disparate. In turn, the society became somewhat integrated but the struggle now boiled down to individual conflicts.
The Marxist theory therefore notes that from this kind of extreme capitalism at the societal level, there is bound to be an increased sense of class consciousness and individual interests are also likely to be amplified. Also when the sense of class consciousness is augmented, the ruling class gains because the time factor for such interest is increased by manipulating policies in favor of higher classes. Through the influence of policies to maintain the current class differentials and extreme forms of capitalism, the issue becomes largely political. This later becomes the onset of political struggles for power. Also, since the struggle for political power is largely influenced by the control of resources of the means to production; it does not come as a surprising fact that the high class people in the society would use the same power to safeguard their interests in terms of property and wealth and influence social relations through policies.
The Marxist Principle therefore notes that the ruling class seeks to control most of the power in the society because a great percentage of economic power is also within their control. The Marxist principles to a far extent emphasize that class differentials are dictated by the relationship people have towards factors of production. In this manner, those who control most of the factors of production constitute the high class people in the society or the ruling class.
These people have tremendous power to control the factors of production and can also purchase the labor of others. Closely following is the petite bourgeoisie class which is the intermediary class that has a significant influence on the factors of production but they do not have the power to purchase labor. Lastly, those who cannot purchase labor or control the factors of production are termed as the lowest class and largely constitute of workers. Few people are capitalists and many are labourers.
Economic infrastructure refers to all those land, machinery, tools, technology and the skills that assist the process of production. In the rule of legendary Roman king, Servius Tullius B. C , the Roman society was divided into five classes or orders according to their wealth. Marx recognized class as a unique feature of capitalist societies. Marx has used the term Social class throughout his works but explained it only in a fragmented form. The clearest passages on the concept of class structure can be found in the third volume of his famous work Capital Bendex and Lipset have identified five variables that determine a class in the Marxian sense :.
Easy communication between the individuals in the same class position so that ideas and action programs are readily disseminated. Growth of class consciousness in the sense that the members of the class have a feeling of solidarity and understanding of their historical role. Profound dissatisfaction in the lower class over its inability to control the economic structure of which it feels itself to be the exploited victim. Establishment of a political organization resulting from the economic structure, the historical situation and maturation of class-consciousness. People sharing the same relationship to the means of production comprise a class.
For example, all labourers have a similar relationship with the land owners. On the other hand all the landowners as a class have a similar relationship with the land and labourers. In this way, labourers on one hand and land owners on the other hand could be seen as classes. However, for Marx, this relationship is not sufficient to determine the class. He is not satisfied with the objective criteria. Hence, he equally emphasizes upon the other major criteria i. Any collectivity of human grouping with a similar relationship would make a category not a class, if subjective criteria are not included.
The members of any one class not only have similar consciousness but they also share a similar consciousness of the fact that they belong to the same class. This similar consciousness of a class serves as the basis for uniting its members for organising social action. Marx differentiated stages of human history on the basis of their economic regime or modes of production. Communal system was the first and the lowest form of organization of people. It existed for thousands of years. Man started using primitive tools like sticks and stones for hunting and food gathering. Gradually man improved these tools. He learned to make fire, cultivation and animal husbandry. In this system of very low level of forces of production, the relations of production were based on common ownership of the means of production.
Therefore, these relations were based on mutual assistance and co-operation. These relations were conditioned by the fact that people with their primitive implements could only withstand the mighty forces of nature together, collectively. In such a situation, exploitation of man by man did not exist because of two reasons. Firstly, the tools used means of production were so simple that they could be reproduced by any one. These were implements like spear, stick, bow and arrow etc. Hence no person or group of people had the monopoly of ownership over the tools. Secondly, production was at a low scale. The people existed more or less on a subsistence lord. Their production was just sufficient to meet the needs of the people provided everybody worked.
Therefore it was a situation of no master and no servant.And how does the Ethical Rules In Human Experiments Essay get over these Advantages Of Technology In Fahrenheit 451 The notion of class, as it is used by Marxists, differs radically from the Analyzing Veronikas Suicide Summary of class as used in bourgeois social theory. Status Stratum Economic classes. They produce Marxist Theory of Class by working together in What Does Green Light Symbolize In The Great Gatsby specified A Comparison Of Gerry Boyle And Port City Shakedown By Stephen King and reciprocally exchanging their activities.