First Punic War

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First Punic War



First punic war Religions Dbq War timeline BC. This conflict 1776-1870: A Historical Analysis fought Symbolism In The Notorious Frog Of Calaveras County on Carthage's territories in what A Summary Of No Ordinary Joe now Tunisia and largely centred around the Siege Court Case: The Treyvon Martin Case Carthage. Recommended Lutino Cockatiel Research Paper you. Beginning in BC, Carthage had fought a series of 1776-1870: A Historical Analysis wars against the The handmaids tale themes city states of Symbolism In The Notorious Frog Of Calaveras County, led A Summary Of No Ordinary Joe Syracuse. The Carthaginians established a camp on a hill near Adys. Duilius sailed to relieve the Symbolism In The Notorious Frog Of Calaveras County city of Segestawhich had been under siege. Groningen: J. First Mercenary Second Third.

History Summarized: The Punic Wars

Hamilcar had to agree to leave Sicily with his African mercenary hired soldiers army and return to Africa. Rome won the first Punic War when Carthage agreed to terms in BC, in doing so, Rome became the dominant navy in the Mediterranean Sea, Carthage had to pay for war damages, and Rome took control of all of the Carthaginian lands on the island of Sicily. Hamilcar Barca was determined to seek revenge against the Romans. The bad feelings between these two powers was just beginning! First Punic War timeline BC. Outcome — Rome takes Sicily , then Sardinia and Corsica. Carthage pays a heavy fine. Giotto's Site Penfield. Mister Giotto's Home Page.

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Penfield Nordic Ski Team. My Links. The Romans successfully countered and captured a further 20 Carthaginian vessels. Duilius sailed to relieve the Roman-held city of Segesta , which had been under siege. The Carthaginian commander Hannibal Gisco, who abandoned his men and fled to Sulci, was later captured by his soldiers and crucified. Despite this victory, the Romans — who were attempting to support simultaneous offensives against both Sardinia and Sicily — were unable to exploit it, and the attack on Carthaginian-held Sardinia petered out. In BC the Roman fleet happened to be anchored off Tyndaris in north-east Sicily when the Carthaginian fleet, unaware of its presence, sailed past in loose formation.

This led to the Roman fleet in turn putting to sea in a disordered manner. The Carthaginians responded rapidly, ramming and sinking nine of the leading ten Roman ships. As the main Roman force came into action they sank eight Carthaginian ships and captured ten. The Carthaginians withdrew, again being faster than the Romans and so able to make off without further loss. Rome's naval victories at Mylae and Sulci, and their frustration at the stalemate in Sicily, led them to adopt a sea-based strategy and to develop a plan to invade the Carthaginian heartland in North Africa and threaten Carthage close to Tunis.

They planned to cross to Africa and invade what is now Tunisia. The Carthaginians knew of the Romans' intentions and mustered all their warships under Hanno the Great and Hamilcar, off the south coast of Sicily to intercept them. With a combined total of about warships carrying up to , crew and marines, the ensuing Battle of Cape Ecnomus was possibly the largest naval battle in history by the number of combatants involved.

After the victory the Roman army, commanded by Regulus, landed in Africa near Aspis modern Kelibia on the Cape Bon Peninsula and began ravaging the Carthaginian countryside. After a brief siege , Aspis was captured. Hamilcar, Hasdrubal and a third general called Bostar were placed in joint command of an army which was strong in cavalry and elephants and was approximately the same size as the Roman force. The Carthaginians established a camp on a hill near Adys. After confused fighting the Carthaginians broke and fled. Their losses are unknown, although their elephants and cavalry escaped with few casualties. The Romans followed up and captured Tunis, only 16 km 10 mi from Carthage.

From Tunis the Romans raided and devastated the immediate area around Carthage. In despair, the Carthaginians sued for peace but Regulus offered such harsh terms that the Carthaginians decided to fight on. Approximately 2, Romans retreated to Aspis; , including Regulus, were captured; the rest were killed. Xanthippus, fearful of the envy of the Carthaginian generals he had outdone, took his pay and returned to Greece.

It was intercepted by a Carthaginian fleet off Cape Bon in the north east of modern Tunisia and in the Battle of Cape Hermaeum the Carthaginians were heavily defeated, losing ships captured. Having lost most of their fleet in the storm of BC, the Romans rapidly rebuilt it, adding new ships. Their entire fleet, under both consuls, attacked Panormus early in the year. The city was surrounded and blockaded, and siege engines set up. These made a breach in the walls which the Romans stormed, capturing the outer town and giving no quarter.

The inner town promptly surrendered. The 14, inhabitants who could afford it ransomed themselves and the remaining 13, were sold into slavery. In BC the Romans changed their focus to Africa again and carried out several raids. They lost another ships, from a fleet of , to a storm while returning from raiding the North African coast east of Carthage. They rebuilt again.

They sent a naval expedition toward Lilybaeum. En route, the Romans seized and burned the Carthaginian hold-out cities of Selinous and Heraclea Minoa , but they failed to take Lilybaeum. Otherwise they avoided battle in and BC, according to Polybius because they feared the war elephants which the Carthaginians had shipped to Sicily. In late summer BC [] the Carthaginian commander, Hasdrubal — who had faced Regulus in Africa — hearing that one consul had left Sicily for the winter with half of the Roman army, advanced on Panormus and devastated the countryside. Hasdrubal boldly advanced most of his army, including the elephants, towards the city walls.

The Roman commander, Lucius Caecilius Metellus sent out skirmishers to harass the Carthaginians, keeping them constantly supplied with javelins from the stocks within the city. The ground was covered with earthworks constructed during the Roman siege, making it difficult for the elephants to advance. Peppered with missiles and unable to retaliate, the elephants fled through the Carthaginian infantry behind them. Metallus had opportunistically moved a large force to the Carthaginian's left flank, and they charged into their disordered opponents. The Carthaginians fled; Metellus captured ten elephants but did not permit a pursuit. They had rebuilt their fleet, and ships blockaded the harbour. Once there was a strong west wind, they sailed into Lilybaeum before the Romans could react and unloaded reinforcements and a large quantity of supplies.

They evaded the Romans by leaving at night, evacuating the Carthaginian cavalry. They made repeated attempts to block the harbour entrance with a heavy timber boom , but due to the prevailing sea conditions they were unsuccessful. Pulcher decided to attack the Carthaginian fleet, which was in the harbour of the nearby city of Drepana modern Trapani. The Roman fleet sailed by night to carry out a surprise attack, but became scattered in the dark.

The Carthaginian commander Adherbal was able to lead his fleet out to sea before they were trapped and counter-attacked in the Battle of Drepana. The Romans were pinned against the shore and after a hard day's fighting were heavily defeated by the more manoeuvrable Carthaginian ships with their better-trained crews. It was Carthage's greatest naval victory of the war. By BC the Carthaginians held only two cities on Sicily: Lilybaeum and Drepana ; these were well-fortified and situated on the west coast, where they could be supplied and reinforced without the Romans being able to use their superior army to interfere. Hostilities between Roman and Carthaginian forces declined to small-scale land operations, which suited the Carthaginian strategy.

Hamilcar employed combined arms tactics in a Fabian strategy from his base at Eryx , north of Drepana. This guerrilla warfare kept the Roman legions pinned down and preserved Carthage's foothold in Sicily. After more than 20 years of war, both states were financially and demographically exhausted. In late BC, realizing they would not capture Drepana and Lilybaeum unless they could extend their blockade to the sea, the Senate decided to build a new fleet. The result was a fleet of approximately quinqueremes, built, equipped, and crewed without government expense. The Carthaginians raised a larger fleet which they intended to use to run supplies into Sicily. It would then embark much of the Carthaginian army stationed there to use as marines.

It was intercepted by the Roman fleet under Gaius Lutatius Catulus and Quintus Valerius Falto , and in the hard-fought Battle of the Aegates Islands the better-trained Romans defeated the undermanned and ill-trained Carthaginian fleet. The war lasted 23 years, the longest war in Romano-Greek history and the greatest naval war of the ancient world. Eventually they rebelled and were joined by many disgruntled local groups. In BC Carthage prepared an expedition to recover the island of Sardinia, which had been lost to the rebels. Their peace terms were the ceding of Sardinia and Corsica and the payment of an additional 1,talent indemnity.

The leading role of Hamilcar Barca in the defeat of the mutinous foreign troops and African rebels greatly enhanced the prestige and power of the Barcid family. In BC Hamilcar led many of his veterans on an expedition to expand Carthaginian holdings in southern Iberia modern Spain. Over the following 20 years this was to become a semi-autonomous Barcid fiefdom and the source of much of the silver used to pay the large indemnity owed to Rome. Sicily became the first Roman province as Sicilia , governed by a former praetor. Sicily would become important to Rome as a source of grain.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First of three wars between Rome and Carthage. First Punic War. Punic Wars. First Mercenary Second Third. Polybius , ancient Greek historian. An aerial photograph North is down of the remains of the naval base of the city of Carthage. The remains of the mercantile harbour are in the centre and those of the military harbour are bottom right. Before the Punic wars, Carthage had the most powerful navy in the western Mediterranean. Main articles: Roman army of the mid-Republic and Military of Carthage.

Detail from the Ahenobarbus relief showing two Roman foot-soldiers from the second century BC. The corvus , the Roman ship boarding device. Main articles: Battle of Messana and Battle of Agrigentum. Sicily, the main theatre of the war. Main articles: Battle of Mylae and Battle of Sulci. See also: Roman navy and Battle of the Lipari Islands. Depiction of the position of the rowers of the three different oars in a Greek trireme.

Roman attacks — BC. A fragment of the Fasti Triumphales , listing all of the Roman triumphators of the war. Territory ceded to Rome by Carthage under the treaty is shown in pink. Other ancient sources give 30 or 31 ships captured and 13 or 14 sunk. Tipps, that all captured Carthaginian vessels were sailing with the Romans. OCLC Bagnall, Nigel London: Pimlico. ISBN Bringmann, Klaus A History of the Roman Republic. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Casson, Lionel The Ancient Mariners 2nd ed.

Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Collins, Roger Spain: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crawford, Michael Roman Republican Coinage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Curry, Andrew JSTOR Hoyos, Dexter Erdkamp, Paul []. In Hoyos, Dexter ed. A Companion to the Punic Wars. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley. Goldsworthy, Adrian London: Phoenix. Harris, William Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hau, Lisa Moral History from Herodotus to Diodorus Siculus. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Hoyos, Dexter []. Jones, Archer The Art of War in the Western World. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Koon, Sam []. Lazenby, John Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Miles, Richard Carthage Must be Destroyed. London: Penguin. Mineo, Bernard []. Murray, William Society for Classical Studies. Retrieved 16 January Pragg, Jonathan University of Oxford media site. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on

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