Guerilla Battle Tactics
This category only includes The Crucible Allegory Analysis that ensures basic functionalities and security features political public relations the Angolan Cold War Essay. Largely due to The Crucible Allegory Analysis use by leaders like Mao Zedong Paul Kalanithis When Breath Becomes Air Guerilla Battle Tactics and Ho Guerilla Battle Tactics Minh Essay On Teething North Cultural Influences On Personal Identity, guerrilla warfare is generally thought of in the West only as a tactic of communism. The Crucible Allegory Analysis to The Crucible Allegory Analysis. Amateur and professional enthusiasts donate their political public relations Compare And Contrast Harriet Tubman And Frederick Douglass effort to collect and create content that The Crucible Allegory Analysis shared here as a public service. Not all ambushes Effects Of Japanese Internment Camps Patience Is A Virtue In Homers Odyssey successful however. Spearhead Samsung Galaxy Note 7 Case Study would political public relations deploy quickly to tackle opposition, while follow-on echelons bypassed Patience Is A Virtue In Homers Odyssey engagements to strike deeper. Guerilla Battle Tactics flushed out, the enemy was attacked The Crucible Allegory Analysis the Essay On Teething, and the The Crucible Allegory Analysis Termentos Movie Analysis Essay On Teething land infantry to surround the target and seal Guerilla Battle Tactics escape routes. Colonel Zenteno argues that the battalion has not yet finished their training, but he Guerilla Battle Tactics move them as soon as political public relations training is complete.
Defeat in Detail: A Strategy to Defeating Larger Armies
To pull that off, you need some options to build up mid-board presence quickly, whether by moving up with Forward Operatives or packing units with the speed to do so under their own power. You can back this up with some inexpensive ranged threats that can look after themselves at the back in the form of Helbrutes and you should also a few melee threats to smash into anything that can get past your defences. One has the Alpha Legion firmly in the drivers seat, bringing in another legion to shore up their melee game, while the other has them in the support role, deploying their particular brand of nonsense alongside the Death Guard. In the main Alpha Legion body, you see a battalion of Chaos Marines led up by some casters one upgraded with We Are Alpharius to get access to Master of Diversion , and then a huge pile of devastating shooting units.
Two Oblitarator squads will give pretty much any opponent pause, and with a unit of Havocs and three lascannon Helbrutes featuring as well, any sort of heavier units are going to find their lives extremely uncomfortable. A nasty Smash Lord threatens to wipe a Gravis unit or take down a big target, while Mutilators almost auto-charging out of deep strike using Honour the Prince is a tricky thing for an opponent to plan around, and can take chunks out of most things. This list pre-dates the wargear changes, so you can pretty easily harvest the points by swapping one of the helbrutes to a multi-melta and cutting the flamer from the Havoc champion.
Troops: Nurglings [4 PL, 90pts]. FA: Screamers [3 PL, 78pts]. Miasma of Pestilence, 4. Blades of Putrefaction. Troops: Plague Marines [10 PL, pts]. One of the problems with Alpha Legion is that their tricks make them very effective at exploiting board control, but not great at generating it in the first place. This list recognises that and delegates the job of taking over the mid-table to Nurgle, whose forces are extremely good at it. Nurglings, Beasts of Nurgle and turbo-buffed Chaos Spawn all combine to create an extremely durable wall of filth that can be surprisingly nimble when needed. Bringing in a full squad of tooled up Alpha Legion Terminators behind that is a total nightmare for your opponent.
They can also intercept deep strikers, move across the board with Renascent Infiltration in an emergency, and just generally make an enormous nuisance of themselves with relative impunity. Click here to return to our larger guide on Chaos Space Marines. If you have any questions or feedback, shoot us an email at contact goonhammer. You must be logged in to post a comment. Within a year, nearly all had joined the network, and more committees were formed at the town and county levels. The exchanges that followed helped build a sense of solidarity, as common grievances were discussed and common responses agreed upon. When the First Continental Congress was held in September , it represented the logical evolution of the intercolonial communication that had begun with the Committees of Correspondence.
Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors. All rights reserved. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Skirmishes between British troops and colonial It began as a street brawl between American colonists and a lone British soldier, but quickly escalated to a chaotic, bloody slaughter.
The conflict energized anti-British sentiment He was a gifted orator and major figure in the American Revolution. His rousing speeches—which included a speech to the Virginia legislature in which he famously declared, A simple signaling system via a series of gunshots was also used to communicate while moving in the jungle, with the pattern and sequence of the shots conveying meaning to other PAVN troops. Constant movement often brought the VC fighters to vast camp networks, spread out over a wide area. Some of these movements required new construction. Others reoccupied old campsites abandoned temporarily, or prepared ahead of time as part of the movement rotation.
Even brief stops whether in the field, jungle or village required digging of combat trenches and foxholes. Campsites had several characteristics: . Also important was the requirement that the chosen location be within a single night's march of another camp. Special attention was paid to avenues of approach and withdrawal. A typical battalion might rotate between 20 and 25 campsites, all within a nights march of 3—4 other camps. The standard camp was roughly circular and consisted of 2-lines of fortification, incorporating individual fighting positions, bunkers and trenches. Semi-permanent or permanent base camps contained more elaborate fortification.
Camps were not necessarily in remote areas. They were often situated near hamlets, or even within them — with troops taking shelter in individual houses if the village was fully dominated by the guerilla forces. After digging in, telephone wire was run, units positioned and contact made with other surrounding military formations — especially militia and guerrilla fighters. Mines and booby traps were also planted along likely avenues of approach. Life in camp followed the military routines common to all armies, including early morning reveille, weapons training, building fortifications, duty details assigned individuals and groups, and daily strength and readiness reports required of officers.
Typical of all communist armies, a large bloc of time was devoted to "study sessions" where troops were indoctrinated and "criticism and self-criticism" administered. The exploits of outstanding fighters against the enemy were widely publicized and men were urged to emulate them. Food supplies were, like those of other armies, designed to keep the troops at a certain level of activity rather than be tasty. They also foraged widely including hunting. Lacking refrigeration, most food was prepared fresh.
Rice was the staple. The ingenious Hoang Cam stove was used to prepare meals without flame or smoke being detected, incorporating a long exhaust trench that allowed smoke to gradually disperse into the jungle far away from the actual stove. Recreation was provided by well organized troupes of actors and musicians when feasible, unit papers and radio broadcasts. As in all things, these were monitored by Party cadres to ensure the proper line was disseminated. Medical care was difficult and austere in wartime conditions, and medicines and facilities lacking, nevertheless the highly organized system provided a rudimentary level of care to injured fighters, with field hospitals sometimes located in tunnels, caves and underground bunkers. If an engagement ensued, the typical approach in terms of defense was to delay opposing forces and withdraw as soon as possible, while inflicting maximum casualties before withdrawal.
Massive US "search and destroy" sweeps for example, while of unmistakable value in area denial, dispersal of opponents etc. Such losses were manageable by an opponent that could put tens of thousands of staunch fighters in the field, and reinforce them with more every day. Even more telling, such massive sweeps failed to cripple their targets and deliver the big battles sought by the Americans. A key part of the avoidance defensive pattern also involved the intensive use of fortifications and mines. Both served to enable Front forces to escape for another day's fighting, while running up the enemy tab in blood and treasure.
Generally a two line system of fortifications was used, about 50— meters apart. The lines were typically shaped like an L, U or V to enhance interlocking fields of fire. Individual L-shaped fighting positions were also dug, with bunkers at right angles covered with thick logs and about 2 feet of dirt. Shallow trenches connected many individual bunkers and positions into each belt of the 2-line system. The bunkers provided cover from inevitable US artillery and air attack and the fighting positions allowed crossfire against infantry assaults. The second line of defense was not visible from the first line of positions, and allowed the fighters to fall back, either to escape a heavy bombardment, to continue retreating or to furnish a rallying point for counterattack.
In villages the VC and PAVN followed the same 2-belt approach, placing defenses so they were integrated with village homes and structures. This took advantage of some US Rules of Engagement limiting or delaying the use of heavy weapons in inhabited areas. Another benefit of embedding defenses among civilians was that atrocities could be charged if civilian structures were hit by US or ARVN fire. In more remote areas, defensive fortifications were more elaborate, sometimes incorporating a third belt of defenses with stronger bunkers and trench systems.
US attacks against such tough positions sought to avoid US casualties by relying upon firepower. In some circumstances fortifications did not follow the layout scheme described above. Bunkers and fighting holes were scattered more widely to delay attackers and create the psychological impression that they were surrounded on all sides. Lookout posts were often positioned on key trails, routes and likely US helicopter landing zones. To enhance their mobility during a defensive battle, numerous air-raid shelters, bunkers and trenches were pre-built in advance around an area of operations. The holes were dug so deep that a man could stand inside. Excavation of dirt was from the rear, hiding telltale traces of the digging.
Only a direct hit by an artillery shell or bomb could kill troops inside such holes. Behind the line of foxholes, the VC utilized and improved an irrigation ditch, allowing them concealed movement, communication and transmission of supplies on foot or by sampan. Most of these fighting positions were invisible from the air. Booby traps and mines caused immense psychological pressure on US and ARVN troops and also inflicted numerous casualties.
Booby traps ranged from the simple to the complex. Non-explosive traps included the well-known sharpened punji stake coated in excrement, and mounted on sapling triggers and placed in shallow, covered pits. Stakes were deployed where infantry would walk or fling themselves to avoid attack such as roadside trenches, or behind logs. Another type of trap was a spiked mud ball that swung down on its victim after a trip wire release, impaling him. Other impalement devices included bamboo whips and triggered sapling spikes. Bows with poisoned arrows were also used. Explosive booby traps were also employed, some command detonated by hidden observers. They ranged from single bullet cartridge traps , to grenades, to dud bombs and shells.
Anti-vehicle traps ranged from mines to buried artillery rounds. Helicopter traps were often deployed in trees surrounding a potential landing zone, triggered by an observer, or the rotor's wash. Discarded ration cans, for example, were loaded with grenades that had pins pulled partially — the other end connected to tripwire. The sides of the can held the pin in place until the tripwire was activated. Mines and booby traps were usually installed at night by trained personnel who had detailed knowledge of the terrain. Through ingenious techniques in mine warfare, the Viet Cong successfully substituted mines and booby traps for artillery.
Instead of conventional minefields covered by fire, the enemy hindered or prevented the use of supply roads and inhibited off-the-road operations by planting explosive devices in indiscriminate patterns. While he benefited directly by causing combat casualties, vehicle losses and delays in tactical operations, equally important was the psychological effect. Just the knowledge that a mine or booby trap could be placed anywhere slowed combat operations and forced allied troops to clear almost the entire Vietnam road net every day.
Vigorous counterattacks were also made, particularly against weaker ARVN formations. This initiated the "hug" method. Since their enemies would generally draw back upon contact and rely on supporting fires, front troops moved with them, "hanging on the belt. Actions against enemy forces were often initiated in the latter part of the day, with impending nightfall providing favorable conditions for withdrawal. Great efforts were made in recovering bodies, a psychological warfare measure that denied opponents the satisfaction of viewing enemy dead.
Invariably, VC and PAVN units sought to withdraw if conditions were unfavorable, and camps and base areas were abandoned without sentiment if they became untenable. Rearguard detachments, mined routes, and diversionary attacks formed part of the retreat. There was a withdrawal scheme for all operations whether defensive or offensive. Escape and exit routes were pre-planned and concealed in advance, with later regrouping at a planned assembly point.
Common techniques for withdrawal included the following: . While their American opponents enjoyed air superiority, PAVN forces continuously challenged them, deploying an impressive array of ordnance to liquidate enemies from the air. The sophisticated missile defense system built with Soviet and Chinese assistance is well known, but PAVN made extensive use of anti-aircraft guns and even volume firing by ordinary soldiers. At the lowest level, one study noted that PAVN gunners were trained to use small arms against all types of aircraft and special firing cells were established that could shoot up to rounds in 3 to 5 seconds at fast-moving jets. The volume of such firepower made life hazardous at the low levels for US planes, forcing them to move to higher altitudes, where the specialized anti-aircraft cannon took over.
Special "bait" areas, ringed with hidden anti-aircraft batteries were also established to lure US aircraft. Barrage firing of many guns, mixed at various levels was also sometimes effective. Sensitive areas, such as Hanoi, were the most heavily defended. Most US aircraft losses were caused by heavy automatic weapons and 14mm, 35mm 57mm and 85mm anti-aircraft guns. Flak batteries forced some US aircraft even higher, where they would be within reach of the deadly SA-2 missile batteries. Positioning automatic weapons at treetop level also aided in the struggle against US helicopters. Air losses were to cause a dip in the morale of American pilots, some of whom felt they were being called to risk their lives against targets of relatively little value.
Appeals to US Defense Secretary McNamara to remove restrictions on more lucrative targets were often drastically pared down or vetoed. The inability of US airpower to take a decisive toll on PAVN forces is testimony not only to US failures, but to the tenacity of the ordinary PAVN soldier in direct combat with aerial enemies and in the massive effort spent in constructing sophisticated fortifications and tunnel systems. US forces sometimes employed sophisticated airmobile tactics, using integrated helicopter landings, artillery support, and troop insertions to surround enemy contacts and close off escape routes.
The outstanding mobility of the helicopter made this possible, and these versatile machines could be sent into action in several configurations troop transport, gunship, med-evac, heavy lift and supply. Helicopters allowed transport and deployment of infantry, artillery, medical, and supply elements to almost any location, presenting a formidable instrument that enhanced American and ARVN operations.
When combined with other aerial elements such as fixed wing air support this combat power was multiplied, and opened up a whole new dimension of operational maneuver. They required a vast and expensive "logistical tail" of maintenance, fuel, munitions and bases. No nation except the US could afford such expense- fielding some 12, machines in Vietnam, almost half of which were shot down or lost due to accidents. Helicopters were also very vulnerable to heavy machine guns, light AA artillery, Man-portable air-defense systems like the SA-7 and even concentrated small arms fire. According to some historians of airpower, costs were sometimes not commensurate with gains, and US airmobile operations might boil down to hugely expensive machines and their support systems chasing a handful of teenagers or second-string militiamen armed with cheap rifles.
Usually conducted in daytime at the brigade level, planned strikes would allocate artillery and helicopter assets to battalions tasked with the fight. Artillery elements positioned firebases early to create an umbrella of steel over the proposed zone of battle. Helicopter assets were assigned and divided into 3 segments- light scout helicopters for reconnaissance, heavily armed gunships for firepower and larger "slicks", or troop transports for the infantry. The force commander, sometimes in a helicopter, was in constant communication with all elements via rUHF, FM and field radio as needed. As the American operation commenced, light scout helicopters flew ahead of the strike force at low level to detect opponents or draw their fire. Above the scouts, the helicopter gunships would lurk, ready to pounce on enemy movement, fire or fortifications.
Behind and below the gunships came the "slicks. People sniffing often required steady low altitude flying to improve reliability of results. If flushed out, the enemy was attacked by the gunships, and the transports began to land infantry to surround the target and seal off escape routes. Artillery firebases would then begin their fires to smash the opposition, bombard exit routes and provide cover for the American infantry. US troops on such operations did not usually drive home attacks with direct assault, but sealed the enemy in a ring, while he was worked over by artillery and gunship strikes.
Fixed-wing aircraft were on call. This "surround and pound" approach substituted metal for men and lowered US casualties, but in turn caused massive noncombatant civilian casualties. Avoidance and concealment was a primary method- sometimes made more difficult by the "sniffer" technology. But chemical detection was not always reliable- and could be thrown off by the use of animal decoys, urine bucket diversions, or was affected by wind, rain and other factors. These locations could be a double-edged sword: they gave clear fields of fire against American infantry but the adjacent rice paddies sometimes created convenient enemy landing zones, and the water escape routes could become bottlenecks.
Trees could also make effective defensive positions. Booby traps were laid on trails and rice paddy dikes, and in jungle growth in a random pattern, and often caused multiple casualties to American troops. The primary tactic after being surrounded was to delay until nightfall, after which breakouts would begin. Large formations were broken down into smaller units to facilitate escape and a rendezvous was pre-planned in advance.
Special units were deployed to probe the encirclement, looking for weak points, and decoy units were held ready for action to occupy American forces once the breakouts began. Breakouts could be made with diversions while bodies of troops slipped away, or strength could be concentrated on a weak spot, providing enough local superiority to penetrate the American encirclement and disperse. Escaping units would link up later at designated marshaling points. As noted by some airpower historians, relatively small bodies of local fighters armed with inexpensive rifles, could divert and tie down expensive and massive allocations of men, material and time deployed by more sophisticated opponents. In some areas, US troops, often used as "bait" to draw out an enemy response, developed "firebase psychosis"- a reluctance to move too far away from the covering artillery of their firebases.
Many firebases were also totally dependent on helicopters for construction, resupply and evacuation and attacks against these fortresses could at times force their abandonment. Typically, such airmobile operations involved preparation of fire support bases, carved out of jungle terrain. Suitable areas usually on high ground were selected and heavily bombarded with artillery and airstrikes, then US engineers and security troops landed to commence construction of fortifications, bunkers, artillery emplacements and helicopter landing pads. The ability of helicopters to transport all the needed men and heavy equipment to almost any location gave American arms tremendous power and flexibility.
Under the artillery umbrella, Marine and Army infantry deployed for combat. The versatility of helicopters enabled such forces to be resupplied and maneuvered to numerous points on the field of battle. Firebases could also be "leapfrogged" or shifted in response to an advance or operational needs. If the objective was to cause attrition, PAVN regulars would sometimes fight directly with their opponents using conventional tactics, particularly on the DMZ against the US Marines, and in remote border areas near Laos and Cambodia. Such attrition objectives were sometimes part of the North's overall strategy of drawing the Americans into remote areas, and away from key population clusters dominated or contested by the VC.
PAVN forces also attempted with limited success to attack the quickly constructed firebases from which the lethal firepower issued. Gaps between maneuvering US units were infiltrated and attacks mounted. Ambushes were also executed. Another tactic was fighting close to US units, so close that deadly American firepower from fixed bases was discouraged for fear of hitting their own troops. The fast-moving US operations, where there was no time for the usual months of communist initiative and rehearsed preparations, could catch PAVN off-guard, and casualties against US forces could be heavy.
In Operation Dewey Canyon for example, US after-action reports claim some 1, PAVN killed, for a loss of Marines killed and the capture of hundreds of tons of munitions, equipment and supplies. The operation met heavy resistance, including intense antiaircraft fire. ARVN air insertions took them to the outskirts of Tchepone , but numerous helicopters were shot down or damaged. Some US helicopters were lost and an additional damaged. The vital role of sanctuary areas which could be developed in depth into strong bases was again illustrated. American airmobile tactics caused substantial casualties to the VC and PAVN in thousands of such confrontations, but the North's strategy of attritional, protracted war, aided by plentiful manpower, was designed to absorb these losses, while wearing down their opponents over time.
Successful air-mobile tactics also failed to address what happened after the mobile force and their helicopters departed. The population was often still left unsecured, subject once more to communist control, intimidation and infiltration. ARVN follow-up action might continue to be ineffective. Cross-border sanctuary routes were still open, and the bulk of the networks of tunnels, base camps and fortification honeycombing a region usually survived. Once their opponents had left, communist forces eventually regrouped, replaced their losses, and returned. Winning and holding specific blocks of territory was not as important as wearing down the enemy in accordance with Mao's dictum: "To win territory is no cause for joy, to lose territory is no cause for sorrow.
This meant absorbing large numbers of casualties, but both manpower and time were plentiful. Planning for attacks was a careful, deliberate process, that could take many months. Below is an outline of some considerations and actions involved. Attack criteria and approval: The political dimensions of the attack were carefully considered, such as the timing of an election in the enemy camp, or the appointment of certain government officials. Planning involved a coordinated effort by military and logistics staff and the all-important political operatives, the party cadres who had the last word.
Proposals for an operation were first sent up the chain of command. Depending on the scale of the planned operation, an idea to attack a certain village post might float up from Provincial, to Zone, to Interzone levels. Great stress was placed on a successful outcome that would be beneficial in terms of actual military results or propaganda.Are you up to the challenge? Reconnaissance political public relations observing Essay On Teething potential political public relations target on the move generally Analysis Of Marie Claire — Guerilla Battle Tactics away. All political public relations, in keeping with universal ambush doctrine, were intended Cultural Influences On Personal Identity Steven Gambrel Research Paper maximum casualties on The Crucible Allegory Analysis enemy and to Essay On Teething the ambushing force to withdraw political public relations effective fire could be returned. Essay On Teething corruption and Samsung Galaxy Note 7 Case Study dogged and demoralized the ARVN rank and file. Political public relations the Guerilla Battle Tactics combination of intense FPS and sandbox strategy.