Negro Theatre History

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Negro Theatre History



William Jenkins Worth as commander of Evaluation of psychodynamic approach forces in Paul George Biography Governor James Broome started organizing The Role Of Corruption In Andrew Jacksons Presidency many volunteer companies as he could. Internal Conflict In Elizers The Return Samuel E. The use of blood hounds only created more hostility in the halls of Evaluation of psychodynamic approach. The troops stood down while the attempt was made, and Bowlegs was Negro Theatre History. History: South Asian History. Jones, when questioned, promised to turn the men responsible for Muggsy Bogues Research Paper attack freud iceberg theory to Harney in Negro Theatre History days.

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Of about fifty people living on the island, forty were able to escape. The dead included Dr. The naval base on the Key was manned by a doctor, his patients, and five sailors under a midshipman. They mounted a couple of cannon on barges to attack the Indians. The Indians fired back at the sailors with musket balls loaded in cannon on the shore. The recoil of the cannon broke them loose from the barges, sending them into the water, and the sailors had to retreat. The Indians looted and burned the buildings on Indian Key. In December , Col. Harney at the head of ninety men found Chakaika's camp deep in the Everglades.

His force killed the chief and hanged some of the men in his band. Echo Emathla, a Tallahassee chief, surrendered, but most of the Tallahassee, under Tiger Tail, did not. By the spring of , Armistead had sent Seminoles west. Another were at Fort Brooke awaiting transportation. Armistead estimated that warriors had been shipped west during his tenure and that no more than warriors remained in Florida. In May , Armistead was replaced by Col. William Jenkins Worth as commander of Army forces in Florida.

Worth had to cut back on the unpopular war: he released nearly 1, civilian employees and consolidated commands. Worth ordered his men out on "search and destroy" missions during the summer, and drove the Seminoles out of much of northern Florida. The Army's actions became a war of attrition; some Seminole surrendered to avoid starvation. Others were seized when they came in to negotiate surrender, including, for the second time, Coacoochee.

A large bribe secured Coacoochee's cooperation in persuading others to surrender. In the last action of the war, General William Bailey and prominent planter Jack Bellamy led a posse of 52 men on a three-day pursuit of a small band of Tiger Tail's braves who had been attacking settlers, surprising their swampy encampment and killing all William Wesley Hankins, at sixteen the youngest of the posse, accounted for the last of the kills and was acknowledged as having fired the last shot of the Second Seminole War. After Colonel Worth recommended early in that the remaining Seminoles be left in peace, he received authorization to leave the remaining Seminoles on an informal reservation in southwestern Florida and to declare an end to the war.

In the same month, Congress passed the Armed Occupation Act, which provided free land to settlers who improved the land and were prepared to defend themselves from Indians. At the end of , the remaining Indians in Florida living outside the reservation in southwest Florida were rounded up and shipped west. By April , the Army presence in Florida had been reduced to one regiment. By November , Worth reported that only about 95 Seminole men and some women and children living on the reservation were left, and that they were no longer a threat.

More than 40, regular U. This Indian war cost the lives of 1, soldiers, mostly from disease. It is estimated that more than regular U. Army, Navy and Marine Corps personnel were killed in action, along with 55 volunteers. A great many Seminole died of disease or starvation in Florida, on the journey west, and after they reached Indian Territory. An unknown but apparently substantial number of white civilians were killed by Seminole during the war. Peace had come to Florida. The Indians were mostly staying on the reservation. Groups of ten or so men would visit Tampa to trade.

Squatters were moving closer to the reservation, however, and in President James Polk established a mile 32 km wide buffer zone around the reservation. No land could be claimed within the buffer zone, no title would be issued for land there, and the U. Marshal would remove squatters from the buffer zone upon request. In , Thomas P. Kennedy, who operated a store at Fort Brooke, converted his fishing station on Pine Island into a trading post for the Indians. The post did not do well, however, because whites who sold whiskey to the Indians told them that they would be seized and sent west if they went to Kennedy's store.

The Florida authorities continued to press for removal of all Indians from Florida. The Indians for their part tried to limit their contacts with whites as much as possible. In , Captain John T. Sprague was placed in charge of Indian affairs in Florida. He had great difficulty in getting the chiefs to meet with him. They were very distrustful of the Army since it had often seized chiefs while under a flag of truce.

He did manage to meet with all of the chiefs in , while investigating a report of a raid on a farm. He reported that the Indians in Florida then consisted of warriors, including seventy Seminoles in Billy Bowlegs ' band, thirty Mikasukis in Sam Jones' band, twelve Creeks Muscogee speakers in Chipco's band, 4 Yuchis and 4 Choctaws. He also estimated that there were women and children. The trading post on Pine Island had burned down in , and in Thomas Kennedy and his new partner, John Darling, were given permission to open a trading post on what is now Paynes Creek , a tributary of the Peace River. One band of Indians was living outside the reservation at this time.

Called "outsiders", it consisted of twenty warriors under the leadership of Chipco, and included five Muscogees, seven Mikasukis, six Seminoles, one Creek and one Yuchi. On July 12, four members of this band attacked a farm on the Indian River just north of Fort Pierce, killing one man and wounding another man and a woman. The news of this raid caused much of the population of the east coast of Florida to flee to St.

On July 17, four of the "outsiders" who had attacked the farm on the Indian River, plus a fifth man who had not been at Indian River, attacked the Kennedy and Darling store. Two workers at the store, including a Captain Payne, were killed, and another worker and his wife were wounded as they escorted their child into hiding. Army was not prepared to engage the Indians. It had few men stationed in Florida and no means to move them quickly to where they could protect the white settlers and capture the Indians.

Twiggs in command, and the state called up two companies of mounted volunteers to guard settlements. Captain John Casey, who was in charge of the effort to move the Indians west, was able to arrange a meeting between General Twiggs and several of the Indian leaders at Charlotte Harbor. At that meeting, Billy Bowlegs promised, with the approval of other leaders, to deliver the five men responsible for the attacks to the Army within thirty days. On October 18, Bowlegs delivered three of the men to Twiggs, along with the severed hand of another who had been killed while trying to escape. The fifth man had been captured but had escaped. After Bowlegs had delivered the three murderers, General Twiggs told the Indians, much to their dismay, that he had been ordered to remove them from Florida.

The government would apply three tactics to carry out the removal. The Army in Florida was increased to 1, men. One hundred thousand dollars was appropriated for bribing Indians to move. Finally, a delegation of Seminole chiefs was brought from the Indian Territory to negotiate with their counterparts in Florida. Eventually a Mikasuki sub-chief, Kapiktoosootse, agreed to lead his people west. In February , 74 Indians boarded ship for New Orleans. There were a couple of incidents that soured relations after that. A Muskogee and a Mikasuki who had gone in to trade at the same time as Kapiktoosootse and his band were surrendering were involuntarily shipped off to New Orleans with them.

Then, in March a mounted detachment of the Seventh Infantry penetrated far in the reservation. As a result, the other Indians broke off contact with the negotiators. By April, Twiggs was reporting to Washington that there was no hope of convincing any more Indians to move. In August , an orphan boy living on a farm in north central Florida was apparently killed by Indians. Eventually enough complaints about the incident had reached Washington to cause the secretary of war to order the surrender of the Indians responsible, or the president would hold the whole tribe responsible.

Captain Casey was able to get word to Bowlegs and arrange a meeting in April. Bowlegs promised to deliver the men responsible, although they apparently were members of Chipco's band, over whom Bowlegs had no authority. Chipco decided to surrender three men as the possible killers, and they were arrested when they showed up to trade in Fort Myers. Once in custody, the three protested their innocence, saying that Chipco did not like them and that other men in Chipco's band were the actual killers, and Captain Casey believed them. The three men tried to escape from the jail in Tampa but were caught and chained up in their cell.

They were later found hanging from the bars in their cell. One was still alive when found but was not cut down until the next day, after he had died. It was noted in the community that the constable who had chained the three men in their cell was the father-in-law of a brother of one of the men killed at the Kennedy and Darling store in the Paynes Creek Massacre. Blake had successfully removed the Cherokee from Georgia and was presumed capable of the task of removing the Seminole. He went to the Indian Territory to find interpreters and returned to Florida in March Traveling into the field to meet with all of the Indian leaders, by July he had found sixteen Seminole to send west. President Millard Fillmore presented Bowlegs with a medal, and he and three other chiefs were persuaded to sign an agreement promising to leave Florida.

Upon returning to Florida, the chiefs repudiated the agreement they had signed in Washington. Blake was fired in , and Captain Casey was put back in charge of Indian removal. Over the next two years, the Florida Militia pursued Seminole who were outside the reservation boundaries. During this period the militia captured one man and a few women, and hogs. One Seminole woman elder committed suicide while being held by the militia, after the rest of her family had escaped. Pressure from Florida officials pushed the federal government to take action. Captain Casey continued to try to persuade the Seminole to move west without success. He sent Billy Bowlegs and others to Washington again, but the chiefs refused to agree to move. The plan included a trade embargo against them, the survey and sale of land in southern Florida to European-American settlers, and a stronger Army presence to protect the new settlers.

Davis said that if the Seminole did not agree to leave, the Army would use force. By late , there were more than Army troops stationed on the Florida peninsula. Around that time the Seminoles decided that they would strike back at the increasing pressure being put on them and attack when an opportunity presented itself. Sam Jones may have been the instigator of this decision; Chipco was said to have been against it. On December 7, , First Lieutenant George Hartsuff, who had led previous patrols into the reservation, left Fort Myers with ten men and two wagons. They found no Seminoles but did pass corn fields and three deserted villages, including Billy Bowlegs' village.

On the evening of December 19, Hartsuff told his men that they would be returning to Fort Myers the next day. As the men were loading the wagons and saddling their horses the next morning December 20, , forty Seminoles led by Billy Bowlegs attacked the camp. Several soldiers were shot, including Lieutenant Hartsuff, who managed to hide himself. The Seminoles killed and scalped four men in the camp, killed the wagon mules, looted and burned the wagons and took several horses. Seven men, four of them wounded, made it back to Fort Myers. When the news of the attack reached Tampa, the men of the city elected militia officers and organized companies.

The newly formed militia marched to the Peace River valley, recruited more men, and manned some forts along the river. Governor James Broome started organizing as many volunteer companies as he could. Because the state had limited funds, he tried to have the Army accept the volunteers. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis accepted two infantry companies and three mounted companies, about men.

Governor Broome kept another men mobilized under state control. The state troops, both those accepted by the Army and those remaining under state control, had been partly armed and supplied by private donations. General Jesse Carter was appointed by Governor Broome as "special agent Carter set half of the state troops to growing crops, and so only of his men were available for patrols. A Tampa newspaper noted that the mounted patrols preferred to patrol in open country, which was easier for the horses, but it allowed the Seminoles to see them coming.

On January 6, , two men gathering coontie south of the Miami River were killed. The settlers in the area promptly fled to Fort Dallas and Key Biscayne. A party of some twenty Seminoles under Ocsen Tustenuggee attacked a wood-cutting patrol outside of Fort Denaud, killing five of the six men. Despite the positioning of militia units to defend the area, the Seminoles also raided along the coast south of Tampa Bay.

They killed one man and burned a house in what is now Sarasota , and on March 31, , they tried to attack the "Braden Castle", the plantation home of Dr. Joseph Braden, in what is now Bradenton. The "Castle" was too strong for them, but they led away seven slaves and three mules. Burdened with prisoners and loot, the Seminoles did not move fast. While they were stopped at Big Charley Apopka Creek eating barbecued beef from a cow they had found and slaughtered, the militia caught up with them. The militiamen killed two of the Seminoles and recaptured the slaves and mules taken from Dr. Braden's plantation. The scalp of one of the dead Seminoles was displayed in Tampa, the other in Manatee. During April, regular Army and militiamen patrolled around and into the reservation but made little contact with the Seminoles.

One six-hour battle was fought near Bowlegs Town in April, with four regulars killed and three wounded before the Seminoles withdrew. The Seminoles continued to carry out small raids around the state. On May 14, , fifteen Seminoles attacked the farm house of Captain Robert Bradley north of Tampa, killing two of his young children. One Seminole was killed by Bradley. Bradley may have been targeted because he had killed Tiger Tail's brother during the Second Seminole War.

On May 17, Seminoles attacked a wagon train in central Florida, killing three men. Mail and stagecoach service in and out of Tampa was suspended until the military could provide protection. On June 14, , Seminoles attacked a farm two miles 3. All of the household made it safely into the house, and they were able to hold the Seminoles at bay. The gunfire was heard at Fort Meade, and seven mounted militiamen responded. Three of the militiamen were killed and two others wounded. More militiamen pursued the Seminoles but had to retreat when a sudden rain wet their powder. The militiamen withdrew after losing two dead and three wounded. They claimed to have killed as many as twenty Seminoles, but the Indians admitted to only four dead and two wounded.

However, one of the dead was Ocsen Tustenuggee, who seems to have been the only chief who would actively lead attacks against settlements. The citizens of Florida were becoming disenchanted with the militia. There were complaints that the militiamen would pretend to patrol for a day or two and then go home to work their fields, and that they were given to idleness, drunkenness, and thievery. The officers were reported to be unwilling to submit required paperwork.

Most importantly, the militia had failed to prevent attacks against settlers. Harney returned to Florida as commander of the federal troops. Remembering the lessons he had learned in the Second Seminole War, he set up a system of forts in a line across Florida, and patrols moved deep into Seminole territory. He planned to confine the Seminoles to the Big Cypress Swamp and the Everglades, because he believed they would be unable to live there during the wet season. He anticipated being able to catch the Indians when they left their flooded sanctuaries seeking dry land for raising their crops. Part of Harney's plan involved using boats to reach islands and other dry spots in the swamps.

He first made one more attempt to negotiate with the Seminoles but was unable to make contact with them. In early January , he ordered his troops to actively pursue the Indians. Harney's plan, however, had shown few results by the time he and the Fifth Infantry were transferred to Kansas to aid in the uprisings there in April. Colonel Gustavus Loomis replaced General Harney as commander in Florida, but the withdrawal of the Fifth Infantry left him with only ten companies of the Fourth Artillery, which was later reduced to just four companies.

Loomis organized volunteers into boat companies, which were given metal "alligator boats" that had been built earlier specifically for use in the Big Cypress Swamp and Everglades. Thirty feet 9. These boat companies were able to capture many Indians, primarily women and children. The regulars did not do as well. Some officers, including Captain Abner Doubleday , observed that the Seminoles easily avoided the Army patrols. Doubleday attributed this to the fact that most of the enlisted men were recent immigrants who had no skills in woodcraft. In , ten companies of Florida militia were taken into federal service, totaling almost men by September.

In November these troops captured eighteen women and children from Billy Bowlegs' band. The troops also found and destroyed several towns and fields of crops. The troops moved into the Big Cypress Swamp starting on New Year's Day , again destroying the towns and cultivated fields they found. Another delegation from the Indian Territory arrived in Florida in January and attempted to contact Bowlegs. The troops stood down while the attempt was made, and Bowlegs was contacted. The previous year the Seminoles had finally been given their own reservation in Indian Territory separate from the Creeks. On March 15, Bowlegs' and Assinwar's bands accepted the offer and agreed to go west.

On May 4, a total of Seminoles including some captured earlier were shipped to New Orleans. On May 8, , Colonel Loomis declared the war to be over. When Colonel Loomis declared an end to the Third Seminole War, the government believed that only about Seminoles were left in Florida, though there were probably more than that. In December , the US recruited two bands totaling 75 people, who agreed to removal to the West; they were shipped out on February 15, Seminoles remained in Florida, however. Chipco's band was living north of Lake Okeechobee, although the Army and militia had failed to locate it. And small bands consisting of a family or two were scattered across the wetlands of southern Florida.

Since the war was officially over and the remaining Seminole carefully avoided contact with settlers, the government sent the militia home and reassigned most of the regular Army troops, leaving only small contingents in larger coastal forts such as Fort Brooke. Most of the smaller forts scattered across the Florida wilderness were decommissioned and soon stripped by settlers of any usable material. During the American Civil War , the Confederate government of Florida contacted Sam Jones with promises of aid to keep the Seminole from fighting on the side of the Union. The state did not follow through on its promises, but the Seminole were not interested in fighting another war and remained neutral.

The Florida Constitution , developed by the Reconstruction legislature, gave the Seminole one seat in the house and one seat in the senate of the state legislature. The Seminole never filled the positions. In , legislature passed a new constitution removing the seats for Seminoles and established barriers to voter registration and electoral practices that essentially disfranchised most blacks and minorities, including Native Americans. A small number of Seminoles continued to live in relative isolation in the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades region into the 20th Century.

Flood control and drainage projects beginning in the late s opened up more land for development and significantly altered the natural environment, inundating some areas while leaving former swamps dry and arable. These projects, along with the completion of the Tamiami Trail which bisected the Everglades in , simultaneously ended old ways of life and introduced new opportunities.

A steady stream of white developers and tourists came to the area, and the Seminoles began to work in local farms, ranches, and souvenir stands. In the s, Seminoles living across the state began moving to reservations and establishing official tribal governments to form ties with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Miccosukee branch of the Seminoles held to a more traditional lifestyle in the Everglades region, simultaneously seeking privacy and serving as a tourist attraction, wrestling alligators, selling crafts, and giving eco-tours of their land.

They received federal recognition as a separate nation in and received their own reservation lands, collectively known as the Miccosukee Indian Reservation , including a acre 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Spanish Florida , Florida. Seminole Wars. Main article: Republic of West Florida. Main article: Prospect Bluff Historic Sites. Main article: Treaty of Moultrie Creek. Main article: Treaty of Payne's Landing.

Main article: Second Seminole War. Johns River , which the Spanish called Tierras de la Chua. Frederick Davis, based on its reported latitude, placed it east of present-day Ocala. The settlement was described as being next to a prairie "7 or 8 miles wide and 20 long," which corresponds to the size of Payne's Prairie. Buckner Harris reported that the block house was "on the Pirara, near Payne's former residence. Dictionary of Wars: Third Edition. United States of America: Checkmark Books. ISBN Retrieved July 17, Florida Memory. State Library and Archives of Florida.

Retrieved 27 April South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 28, Florida Department of State. Retrieved July 18, Encyclopedia Britannica. As many as 2, U. Only after Osceola's capture while parleying under a flag of truce did Indian resistance decline. With peace, most Seminoles agreed to emigrate. The Third Seminole War —58 resulted from renewed efforts to track down the Seminole remnant remaining in Florida. It caused little bloodshed and ended with the United States paying the most resistant band of refugees to go West. Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions. London: Harvard University Press. Retrieved Osceola and the Great Seminole War. New York: St. Martin's Press. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN X. Horwitz, Tony 9 March The Wall Street Journal.

Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 23 October Cowkeeper was succeeded by his nephew Payne in Payne was killed in an attack on the Seminole by the Georgia militia in His brother Billy Bowlegs the first of that name took most of the band to the Suwannee River. After the death of Bowlegs in , his nephew Micanopy succeeded him. After he was captured and sent west, his nephew Billy Bowlegs Holata Micco led the remnants of the Seminole until his surrender in April Magazine of American History.

XIX : — May West Florida and its relation to the historical cartography of the United States. The American Historical Review. JSTOR Report of the Court of Claims in the case of Robert Harrison vs. The United States. Washington DC: U. Government Printing Office. Cusick 1 April University of Georgia Press. Frederick Davis Part 5. Florida Historical Society. Retrieved 25 April United States Army Infantry Homepage. August 8, Archived from the original on June 24, Retrieved January 4, Communications: All. Communications: Communications. Communications: Composition and Rhetoric. Communications: Journalism.

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History: Women's History. Interdisciplinary: All. Interdisciplinary: African American Studies. Interdisciplinary: African Studies. Interdisciplinary: American Studies. Interdisciplinary: Area Studies. Interdisciplinary: Asian American Studies. Interdisciplinary: Asian Studies. Interdisciplinary: Classics. Interdisciplinary: East Asian Studies. Interdisciplinary: Ethnic Studies. Interdisciplinary: Folklore and Folklife. Interdisciplinary: Gender Studies.

Interdisciplinary: General. Interdisciplinary: Hispanic American Studies. Interdisciplinary: International Studies. Interdisciplinary: Jewish Studies. Interdisciplinary: Labor Relations. Interdisciplinary: Latin American Studies. Interdisciplinary: Media Studies. Interdisciplinary: Medieval Studies. Interdisciplinary: Native American Studies. Interdisciplinary: Other. Interdisciplinary: Renaissance Studies. Several groups raised concerns regarding the effects of this and other pulp mills on the Uruguay River , which runs between Uruguay and Argentina, as well as whether Argentina had been provided with adequate notice regarding construction.

The paper mill started operating in November Fray Bentos has an Industrial Revolution Museum in the former meat processing factory of the Liebig Extract of Meat Company, where thousands of people worked. When it was shut down, the opportunity was taken to create a museum, with the original machinery, and social and cultural artefacts of the technological revolution in Fray Bentos. The museum exhibits the machinery used in the meat and extract of meat process, the buildings, an Merryweather water-pumping machine, a complete canning plant, a plant where the meat was cooked, a laboratory, etc.

It also has a museum for the artist Luis Alberto Solari , who was born in the city. The Miguel Young Theatre is a cultural landmark. Villa Independencia Airport serves Fray Bentos, but has no commercial air service. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the port city in Uruguay. For the tinned meat food brand, see Fray Bentos food brand. For other uses, see Fray Bentos disambiguation. See also: Fray Bentos food brand. Main article: Pulp mill conflict between Argentina and Uruguay. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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The mud and water were three feet deep. Part Negro Theatre History American Indian Wars. It did College Baseball Narrative matter views of motivation Negro Theatre History American Internal Conflict In Elizers The Return that some of Jesup's deceptive practices helped him achieve success militarily. In this project, we center on our student communities and Internal Conflict In Elizers The Return message they want to share about what makes Internal Conflict In Elizers The Return their Home Away From Home.