Amanda Morrison Research Paper
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She is a child of her age, of depression, of war, of. Have you ever wondered how teen parents live and survive in the world we live in today? She found out when she went to the doctors for stomach aches. The next day she told her mother and her mother is very disappointed in her. The married couple has their two first children together and they are happily living.
This reigns true until their third child. While the couple try to have a third baby Patria doesn 't feel so good. The baby ends up being a miscarriage thus creating the turning point to Patrias life. She is devastated. To her, the baby is hope which she had with her own baby, but she died. She continued to look like that for three days. As a result of her deviation, Harriet is scared her husband would abandon her because this is the third time, her baby was born with a deviation. She was exclaiming over the legal implications of triplets. The law states that no newborn child could survive unless the parents of the child could find someone who would volunteer to die. Triplets if they were all to live, called for three volunteers.
The happy times of children being born is ruined by having people die. Khalieghya was diagnosed with biliary artesia as an infant-- blockage in the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder. She had many surgeries, but they were unsuccessful. Doctors informed her family that the only way that she would survive was if she received a liver transplant; with that being said, she was finally placed on the national transplant waiting list. Postpartum depression is something some mother 's get after having a baby.
For each block, outliers were removed in keeping with recommendations from Ratcliff : Response latencies less than ms Behav Res Ther. Page 5 or greater than ms were eliminated from analysis of the first block, and response latencies less than ms or greater than ms were eliminated from analysis of the second and third blocks. Furthermore, a comparison of the ratio of critical trials i. Attention Bias We examined bias either towards or away from threatening stimuli in the probe detection task by comparing response latencies for trials where the probe was in the vicinity of a Threat- related word i. Attention bias for threat is indicated if response latencies for probes in the vicinity of threat words are smaller than response latencies for probes in the vicinity of neutral words.
We calculated attention bias scores for the three blocks of trials using response latencies for critical trials as follows: 0. We conducted additional analyses specifically for the first block to test our hypothesis that, in early trials, the high-OC group will show a significantly larger bias toward threat than will the low-OC group. Consistent with our hypothesis, the attention bias score for the first block, and not for the second and third blocks, Behav Res Ther. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the temporal pattern of attention bias in individuals with OC symptoms. Results from our study suggest that attention bias towards threatening information diminished significantly after the first block of trials in individuals with OC symptoms, potentially reflecting habituation to threatening information over the course of the experiment.
The control group of individuals low in OC symptoms showed neither an initial attention bias, nor a significant change in bias over the course of the experiment. Given that different studies of attention bias in OCD have used different numbers of trials, it may well be the case that the attenuation of bias over time results in null findings in many of these experiments. Using the emotional Stroop task, McNally et al. These authors suggested that this attenuation of attention bias may be due to the habituation to the semantic content of the threatening words over the course of the experiment. Cohen et al. Finally, Liu et al.
Thus, it appears that the phenomenon of attenuation of attention bias towards threat is not specific to experimental task or clinical group. Monk et al. They found that attention bias away from threat increased over time in non-clinical participants, and that this change in attention bias over time was associated with increased activation in the occipitotemporal cortex. The authors interpreted their findings as indicating that top-down cortical processes that are associated with categorization of threat become increasingly engaged over time. However, Monk et al. Cognitive models of anxiety e.
Results of the present study are consistent with the concept of an initial attention bias towards personally relevant threat in individuals with OC symptoms. Results are partially consistent with the notion of a vigilance-avoidance pattern—an initial orienting of attention towards threat followed by attention bias away from threat—proposed by other researchers e. However, our experimental design based on the number of presentations of threat-related stimuli is different from the paradigm that has been used to study the vigilance-avoidance pattern based on the duration of presentation of the threat-related stimuli.
An equally likely explanation for our findings is that threatening stimuli lose their threat value with repeated presentation over time. Page 7 An alternative explanation for the null findings in the existing research on attention bias in OCD may be the considerable heterogeneity of subtypes in OCD. Since the content areas of threat can vary considerably between individuals with OCD symptoms, it is possible that many NIH-PA Author Manuscript experimental stimuli that are pre-selected by experimenters as threat-related are not in fact threatening to individual participants.
To address this issue, we used idiographic word selection to ensure that the participants were presented words that were threatening to them. Results from our study confirm that individuals with OC symptoms show an attention bias towards idiographically-selected, threat-relevant, information in the first block of trials: Response latencies for probes following threatening words were smaller than response latencies for probes following neutral words in individuals high in OC symptoms, but not in the control group.
Moreover, the degree of attention bias towards personally-relevant threatening material in the first block of trials was correlated with the severity of OC symptoms. Important to note is that the degree of attention bias was not correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms, although the high-OC group had higher BDI scores than did the low-OC group. This supports the idea that although higher OC symptoms tend to be comorbid with depressive symptoms, it is only the OC symptoms that predict attention bias towards OCD-related threat. Our study has limitations. First, to our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the temporal pattern of attention bias in OCD, and hence the evidence presented here should be treated as preliminary until our findings are replicated.
Second, our findings are in a non-clinical sample and therefore may not generalize to individuals with a clinical diagnosis of OCD. Third, the procedure we used for idiographic word selection resulted in an unequal number of trials ranging from to completed by each individual, and it is possible that the difference in total number of trials completed by the participants influenced their response. We addressed this issue by limiting our analyses to the first trials for each subject so that a comparable number of trials was considered for all participants. Furthermore, we confirmed that using the first trials for each participant yielded a comparable ratio of critical trials threat-neutral trials to filler trials neutral-neutral trials across groups high-OC, low-OC and blocks first, second, third.
Despite these limitations, results from this study add to the research on information processing in OCD, providing evidence for an attention bias towards OCD-related threat, and determining the temporal course of this bias. Furthermore, these results offer a note of caution to investigators of attention bias to consider the number of trials as a critical factor in the study design and a key variable to help explain failures of replication. Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin ;— Attention allocation and habituation to anger-related stimuli during a visual search task. Aggressive Behavior ;— Assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavior Modification ;— Information- processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Cognitive Therapy and Research ;— The validation of a new obsessive-compulsive disorder scale: The obsessive-compulsive inventory. Psychological Assessment ;— Sensitivity to feared stimuli in obsessive- compulsives: a dichotic listening analysis. Fox E. Attentional bias in anxiety: selective or not? Behaviour Research and Therapy ;— Obsessional-compulsive complaints. Automatic and strategic processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Attentional bias, cognitive avoidance or more complex phenomena?
Journal of Anxiety Disorders ;— Selective processing of emotional information in obsessive compulsive disorder. Repeating the stimulus exposure to investigate what happens after initial selective attention to threatening pictures. Performed on Dr. Crawford sang hymns, lost 20 pounds and went on to live another 31 years. Medicine in the United States during the Civil War era was almost at a standstill. There were some medical advancements to note: Chloric ether gas Chloroform was used regularly to anesthetize patients before tooth extractions and surgeries.
Localization of the pain was consistent from the T4 to T5dermatome on the right anterior, lateral and posterior chest wall. The patient also reported sleep disturbances due to the pain, which had begun 20 day earlier but had aggravated within the last 1 week. He had a 3-year history of taking anticoagulants for the management of arterial fibrillation. At our pain clinic we prescribed tramadol and low dose pregabalin, but they failed to provide pain relief.
Just three years earlier, Stewart sold her stocks that she had within the company. Stewart had controlled 4, shares of ImClone and by selling or getting rid of, depending on who you ask her shares, just before the FDA 's declaration, she kept away from. On the other hand, if Ward did not fail the test, then the police lied to him in an attempt to get him to confess.
What makes the use of the polygraph significant to Ward and Fontenot 's innocence is the role it played in the investigation. There are two options: either Ward truly failed the test, or the police lied to him to elicit a confession. Either way, there is no strong evidence that proves, or even indicates that Ward had anything to do with Denice Haraway. Her doctor told her the devastating news that her triplets would not survive when she was in the third month of her pregnancy because she did not have a functioning cervix. According to Daily Mail, Morrison described the feeling of finding out her babies would not live, saying: According to Kidspot, Morrison explained her triplets birth, saying: The new mother got to spend time with her babies and took pictures of them to mark the moment they were born.
After the loss of her three "angels," Morrison shared a picture of them, hoping to connect with other parents who experienced the tragic loss of a child. Morrison received a mixed response to the photo of her stillborn babies. Particularly prone to disease, vice, and crime, black Americans could not be helped by education or philanthropy. There is slight chance that it may never happen par. A drug designed to treat metastatic melanoma has produced dramatic results in patients with melanoma Silberman, par.
Leonard Lichtenfeld a medical officer at the American cancer society Stein, par. Sixty eight thousand Americans are diagnosed with melanoma every year; are dead from the disease. It is one of deadliest forms of cancer, despite years of research.Storch, Capitalism And Global Ecological Crisis. Download pdf. Controlling for depression, moderation remained evident although diminished. Finally, participants completed the main experimental probe Amanda Morrison Research Paper task using the idiographically-selected word pairs. There is slight chance that it may never Women In Charlotte Perkins Gilmans Short Stories par. Amanda Morrison Research Paper with SAD reported more fears of Capitalism And Global Ecological Crisis Xu et al. Although Persuasive Essay On Online Pharmacies differences exist Amanda Morrison Research Paper how people respond Women In Charlotte Perkins Gilmans Short Stories E-mail address: heimberg temple.