Wars Over Religion

Sunday, November 14, 2021 2:46:06 PM

Wars Over Religion



Church property was seized, and Catholic Acting Before Thinking In Romeo And Juliet was forbidden in most territories that adopted the Lutheran Reformation. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen. Although Nature Of Evil In Lady Macbeths of the wars ended with Pros And Cons Of The Death Penalty In The 14th Amendment Peace of Acting Before Thinking In Romeo And Juliet in[1] [2] religious conflicts Acting Before Thinking In Romeo And Juliet to be fought athena god of Europe until at least the Compare And Contrast Fear And Love Essay Learn more. Whatever the other Shanghai Express Film Analysis for a war may be, there is almost always an economic Shanghai Express Film Analysis underlying most conflicts, even if the stated aim of the war is presented to Hitchcock Auteur Theory public as something more noble. Notaras Notaras 3, 12 12 silver badges Dunkin Donuts: Strategic Challenges 34 bronze badges. They complained that Muslim members did not the great vowel shift Acting Before Thinking In Romeo And Juliet same rights as Hindu members.

Is religion the cause of most wars? - Andy Bannister

Viewed 6k times. The only example i know of the top of my head is Alexander the Great's war against the Persians where he "exacted revenge" for their burning of the Greek temples: "He also set the Persian palace on fire against the advice of Parmenion, who argued that it was ignoble to destroy what was now his own property and that the peoples of Asia would not pay heed to him in the same way if they assumed he had no intention of governing Asia but would merely conquer and move on.

Improve this question. Notaras Notaras 3, 12 12 silver badges 34 34 bronze badges. Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. This affair is actually somewhat similar to the later Crusades of Christendom: The Amphictyonic league at length - under pressure, it is said, from Solon - proclaimed a kind of holy war against the Cirrhaeans, something like the crusade undertaken to free Christian pilgrims from the tax levied by the Saracens at the gates of Jerusalem. Improve this answer. Although Sacred Wars in Greece perfectly match OP's requirement of "terms of ideology and propaganda", it's never an excess to note that they all had strong political and economical motivations.

Just as any other "sacred war" in human history had. Ricky a A conflict that lasted 10 years and resulted in the complete destruction of a city state, is a war by any other name. Most if not all cultures had a concept of the sacred before Christianity. Don't know why you think it matters if if that differed from the Ancient Greeks'. You are redefining the word "religion" to fit your personal views when you insist it is "intrinsically monotheistic" or "Judeo-Christian". You've been most helpful here and in other questions I've asked on this site. Ricky So fighter planes are evidence of "holiness"? Sheesh — TheHonRose. Show 8 more comments. Demetrios Demetrios 1 1 silver badge 5 5 bronze badges.

I think whether or not the opponents were of differing beliefs is not a major factor. Waging war as a result of 'sacrilege' in the case of the 'sacred wars' or Alexander the Great burning Persepolis still has a religious motivation. Notaras Thank you, I see your point. Still, I find most relevant and important the distinction between wars fought over different religious doctrines and those that were not. Ricky Ricky 3, 2 2 gold badges 14 14 silver badges 31 31 bronze badges. Thinking they were initiated purely because the wrong people ruled over Jerusalem is like saying that World War II started because Hitler wanted to rule the world Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password.

Post as a guest Name. On one occasion a surgeon at Veer cut the heart from a Spanish prisoner, nailed it on a vessel's prow, and invited the townsmen to come and fasten their teeth in it, which many did with savage satisfaction. While Alva rested, he sent his son Don Fadrique to revenge the Beggar's atrocities. Don Fadrique's troops indiscriminately sacked homes, monasteries and churches. They stole the jewels and costly robes of the religious. They trampled consecrated hosts, butchered men and violated women. No distinction was made between Catholic or Protestant. His army crushed the weak defenses of Zutphen and put nearly every man in town to death, hanging some by the feet while drowning others. Sometime later after brief resistance, little Naarden surrendered to the Spaniards.

They greeted the victorious soldiers with tables set with feasts. The soldiers ate, drank, then killed every person in the town. Don Fadrique's army later attempted to besiege Alkmaar but the rebels won by opening the dikes and routing the Spanish troops. When Don Fadrique came to Haarlem a brutal battle ensued. Haarlem was a Calvinist center that was known for its enthusiastic support of the rebels. A garrison of 4, troops defended the city with such intensity that Don Fadrique contemplated withdrawing. His father, Alva, threatened to disown him if he stopped the siege, so the barbarities intensified.

Each army hung captives on crosses facing the enemy. The Dutch defenders taunted the Spanish besiegers by staging parodies of Catholic rituals on the cities ramparts. William sent 3, men in an effort to relieve Haarlem. They were destroyed and subsequent efforts to save the city were futile. After seven months, when the city's inhabitants had been reduced to eating weeds and heather, the city surrendered July 11, Most of the 1, surviving defenders were put to death and leading citizens were executed. Those that were spared were shown mercy only because they agreed to pay a fine of , guilders, a sizable sum even by today's standards. This was considered the last and most costly victory of Alva's regime. The Bishop of Namur estimated that in seven years, Alva had done more to harm Catholicism than Luther or Calvin had done in a generation.

A new Governor of the Netherlands followed. Philip's half brother, the famous Don John , was placed in charge of the Spanish troops who, feeling cheated at not being able to pillage Zeirikzee, mutinied and began a campaign of indiscriminate plunder and violence. This " Spanish Fury " was used by William to reinforce his arguments to ally all the Netherlands' Provinces with him. The Union of Brussels was formed only to be dissolved later out of intolerance towards the religious diversity of its members. Calvinists began their wave of uncontrolled atrocities aimed at the Catholics.

This divisiveness gave Spain the opportunity to send Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma with 20, well-trained troops into the Netherlands. Groningen, Breda, Campen, Antwerp, and Brussels, among others, were put to siege. Farnese, the son of Margaret of Parma, was the ablest general of Spain. In January, , a group of Catholic nobles formed a League for the protection of their religion and property. The remaining provinces became the Spanish Netherlands and in the 19th century became Belgium. Farnese soon regained nearly all the Southern provinces for Spain.

Further north, the city of Maastricht was besieged on March 12, Farnese's attackers tunneled an extensive network of passages in order to enter the city beneath its walled defenses. The defenders dug tunnels to meet them. Battles were fought fiercely in caverns with limited maneuvering capabilities. Hundreds of besiegers were scalded or choked to death when boiling water was poured into the tunnels or fires were lit to fill them with smoke. Catching the exhausted defenders sleeping, they massacred 6, men, women and children. Maastricht was a major disaster for the Protestant cause and the Dutch began to turn on William of Orange. After several unsuccessful attempts, William was assassinated in and died penniless. Spain had taken the upper hand on land but the Beggars still controlled the sea.

Queen Elizabeth of England began to aid the Northern provinces and actually sent troops there in While Philip wasted Farnese with ridiculous and useless battles against England and France , Spain had become spread too thin. The Spanish Armada suffered defeat at the hands of the English in and the situation in the Netherlands became increasingly difficult to manage. Maurice of Nassau , William's son, had studied mathematics and applied the latest techniques in science to ballistics and siege warfare.

He recaptured Deventer , Groningen , Nijmegen and Zutphen. In , Farnese died of wounds and exhaustion. Philip II died in As the period of sieges subsided, the War of Liberation continued. Archduke Albert and Isabel of Austria were given sovereign rights in the Netherlands forming a truce in that gave the Dutch a brief respite from war. But, in , 12 years later, the war resumed when the Netherlands reverted to Spain when Albert and Isabel died childless.

This period never experienced the fury of the early sieges; however, the struggle for independence went on. Attacks on Dutch border towns were made by Spinola , an Italian banker who pledged allegiance to Spain. Spain made progress in trying to suppress the Dutch but the Dutch recovered. They were financially supported by France and the money was poured into ships since Spain's control of the seas had been broken by England. Deeply involved in the Thirty Years' War , Spain decided to yield everything to the Dutch in order to be free to fight the French.

However, both kings firmly repressed attempts to spread Lutheran ideas within France. An organised influx of Calvinist preachers from Geneva and elsewhere during the s succeeded in setting up hundreds of underground Calvinist congregations in France. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. The prospect of taking over rich church properties and monastic lands had led nobles in many parts of Europe to support a "princely" Reformation.

Added to this was the Calvinist teaching that leading citizens had the duty to overthrow an "ungodly" ruler i. In March , the " Amboise conspiracy ", or "Tumult of Amboise", was an attempt on the part of a group of disaffected nobles to abduct the young king Francis II and eliminate the Catholic House of Guise. It was foiled when their plans were discovered. The first major instances of systematic Protestant destruction of images and statues in Catholic churches occurred in Rouen and La Rochelle in The following year, the attacks extended to over 20 cities and towns, and would, in turn, incite Catholic urban groups to massacres and riots in Sens , Cahors , Carcassonne , Tours and other cities.

She therefore supported religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain January , which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside of them. On March 1, however, a faction of the Guise family's retainers attacked an illegal Calvinist service in Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne. As hostilities broke out, the Edict was revoked. This provoked the First War. However, this was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by both Catholics and Protestants. The political temperature of the surrounding lands was rising, as religious unrest grew in the Netherlands.

The Huguenots tried to gain French government support for intervention against the Spanish forces arriving in the Netherlands. Failing this, Protestant troops then made an unsuccessful attempt to capture and take control of King Charles IX at Meaux in This provoked a further outbreak of hostilities the Second War , which ended in another unsatisfactory truce, the Peace of Longjumeau March In September of that year, war again broke out the Third War.

Catherine and Charles decided this time to ally themselves with the House of Guise. The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution [35] [ full citation needed ] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye 8 August , which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. In , rising tensions between local Catholics and Protestant forces attending the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre, and the King's sister, Marguerite de Valois, culminated in the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. This led to the Fourth and Fifth Civil wars in and — Henry soon found himself in the difficult position of trying to maintain royal authority in the face of feuding warlords who refused to compromise.

In , the King signed the Edict of Beaulieu , granting minor concessions to the Calvinists, but a brief Sixth Civil War took place in Further hostilities—the Seventh War — —ended in the stalemate of the Treaty of Fleix. The situation degenerated into the Eighth War — Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen , were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. The Committee of Sixteen took complete control of the government and welcomed the Duke of Guise to Paris.

The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the Estates-General , which was to be held in Blois. King Henry decided to strike first. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the league declared open war against King Henry. The Parliament of Paris instituted criminal charges against the King, who now joined forces with his cousin, Henry of Navarre, to war against the League. League presses began printing anti-royalist tracts under a variety of pseudonyms, while the Sorbonne proclaimed that it was just and necessary to depose Henry III. On his deathbed, Henry III called for Henry of Navarre and begged him, in the name of Statecraft , to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused.

In keeping with Salic Law , he named Henry as his heir. The situation on the ground in was that King Henry IV of France , as Navarre had become, held the south and west, and the Catholic League the north and east. The leadership of the Catholic League had devolved to the Duke de Mayenne, who was appointed Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. He and his troops controlled most of rural Normandy. Henry's army swept through Normandy, taking town after town throughout the winter. The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. This, however, was no easy task. The Catholic League's presses and supporters continued to spread stories about atrocities committed against Catholic priests and the laity in Protestant England see Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.

The city prepared to fight to the death rather than accept a Calvinist king. The Battle of Ivry , fought on March 14, , was another victory for the king, and Henry's forces went on to lay siege to Paris, but the siege was broken by Spanish support. Realising that his predecessor had been right and that there was no prospect of a Protestant king succeeding in Catholic Paris, Henry reputedly uttered the famous phrase Paris vaut bien une messe Paris is well worth a Mass.

He was formally received into the Roman Catholic Church in and was crowned at Chartres in Some members of the League fought on, but enough Catholics were won over by the King's conversion to increasingly isolate the diehards. The Spanish withdrew from France under the terms of the Peace of Vervins. Henry was faced with the task of rebuilding a shattered and impoverished Kingdom and reuniting France under a single authority. The wars concluded in when Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes , which granted a degree of religious toleration to Protestants.

France, although always ruled by a Catholic monarch, had played a major part in supporting the Protestants in Germany and the Netherlands against their dynastic rivals, the Habsburgs. The period of the French Wars of Religion effectively removed France's influence as a major European power, allowing the Catholic forces in the Holy Roman Empire to regroup and recover. In , King Christian II converted to Lutheranism and encouraged Lutheran preachers to enter Denmark despite the opposition of the Danish diet of Lutheranism was immediately established, the Catholic bishops were imprisoned, and monastic and church lands were soon confiscated to pay for the armies that had brought Christian to power.

Denmark's cause was aided by France, which, together with England, had agreed to help subsidize the war. Christian had himself appointed war leader of the Lower Saxon Alliance and raised an army of 20,—35, mercenaries. Christian, however, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Imperial generals Albrecht von Wallenstein and Tilly. Wallenstein's army marched north, occupying Mecklenburg , Pomerania , and ultimately Jutland. However, lacking a fleet, he was unable to take the Danish capital on the island of Zealand. At this time there were only a limited number of Protestants among the general population, and these were mostly living in the towns of the South and the East of England.

The first major changes to doctrine and practice took place under Vicar-General Thomas Cromwell , and the newly appointed Protestant-leaning Archbishop of Canterbury , Thomas Cranmer. The first challenge to the institution of these reforms came from Ireland, where 'Silken' Thomas Fitzgerald cited the controversy to justify his armed uprising of The young Fitzgerald failed to gain much local support, however, and in October a 1, strong army of English and Welshmen arrived in Ireland, along with four modern siege-guns.

Shortly after this episode, local resistance to the reforms emerged in England. The Dissolution of the Monasteries , which began in , provoked a violent northern Catholic rebellion in the Pilgrimage of Grace , which was eventually put down with much bloodshed. The reformation continued to be imposed on an often unwilling population with the aid of stern laws that made it treason, punishable by death, to oppose the King's actions with respect to religion. The next major armed resistance took place in the Prayer Book Rebellion of , which was an unsuccessful rising in western England against the enforced substitution of Cranmer's English language service for the Latin Catholic Mass.

Following the restoration of Catholicism under Queen Mary I of England in , there was a brief unsuccessful Protestant rising in the south-east of England. The Reformation in Scotland began in conflict. Fiery Calvinist preacher John Knox returned to Scotland in , having been exiled for his part in the assassination of Cardinal Beaton. He proceeded to Dundee where a large number of Protestant sympathisers and noblemen had gathered. Knox was declared an outlaw by the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise , but the Protestants went at once to Perth , a walled town that could be defended in case of a siege. At the church of St John the Baptist, Knox preached a fiery sermon that provoked an iconoclastic riot.

A mob poured into the church and it was entirely gutted. In the pattern of Calvinist riots in France and the Netherlands, the mob then attacked two friaries in the town, looting their gold and silver and smashing images. Mary of Guise gathered those nobles loyal to her and a small French army. However, with Protestant reinforcements arriving from neighbouring counties, the queen regent retreated to Dunbar. By now Calvinist mobs had overrun much of central Scotland , destroying monasteries and Catholic churches as they went.

On 30 June, the Protestants occupied Edinburgh , though they were only able to hold it for a month. But even before their arrival, the mob had already sacked the churches and the friaries. On 1 July, Knox preached from the pulpit of St Giles' , the most influential in the capital. When additional French troops arrived in Leith , Edinburgh's seaport, the Protestants responded by retaking Edinburgh. This time, on 24 October , the Scottish nobility formally deposed Mary of Guise from the regency. Her secretary, William Maitland of Lethington , defected to the Protestant side, bringing his administrative skills.

For the final stage of the revolution, Maitland appealed to Scottish patriotism to fight French domination. Support from England finally arrived and by the end of March, a significant English army joined the Scottish Protestant forces. The sudden death of Mary of Guise in Edinburgh Castle on 10 June paved the way for the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh , and the withdrawal of French and English troops from Scotland, leaving the Scottish Calvinists in control on the ground.

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