Role Ambiguity Essay
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Intro to Soc: statuses and roles, role conflict, role strain
Within the years, liminal times include equinoxes when day and night have equal length, and solstices , when the increase of day or night shifts over to its decrease. This "qualitative bounding of quantitatively unbounded phenomena"  marks the cyclical changes of seasons throughout the year. Where the quarter days are held to mark the change in seasons, they also are liminal times. New Year's Day , whatever its connection or lack of one to the astrological sky, is a liminal time.
Customs such as fortune-telling take advantage of this liminal state. In a number of cultures, actions and events on the first day of the year can determine the year, leading to such beliefs as first-foot. Many cultures regard it as a time especially prone to hauntings by ghosts — liminal beings , neither alive nor dead. Liminal existence can be located in a separated sacred space , which occupies a sacred time. Examples in the Bible include the dream of Jacob Genesis —19 where he encounters God between heaven and earth and the instance when Isaiah meets the Lord in the temple of holiness Isaiah —6. Worship can be understood in this context as the church community or communitas or koinonia enter into liminal space corporately.
The congregation is transformed in the liminal space and as they exit, are sent out back into the world to serve. Various minority groups can be considered liminal. In reality illegal immigrants present but not "official" , and stateless people, for example, are regarded as liminal because they are "betwixt and between home and host, part of society, but sometimes never fully integrated". Teenagers, being neither children nor adults, are liminal people: indeed, "for young people, liminality of this kind has become a permanent phenomenon Postmodern liminality".
The " trickster as the mythic projection of the magician—standing in the limen between the sacred realm and the profane"  and related archetypes embody many such contradictions as do many popular culture celebrities. The category could also hypothetically and in fiction include cyborgs , hybrids between two species, shapeshifters. The spatial dimension of liminality can include specific places, larger zones or areas, or entire countries and larger regions. In mythology and religion or esoteric lore liminality can include such realms as Purgatory or Da'at , which, as well as signifying liminality, some theologians deny actually existing, making them, in some cases, doubly liminal.
For a hotel worker an insider or a person passing by with disinterest a total outsider , the hotel would have a very different connotation. To a traveller staying there, the hotel would function as a liminal zone, just as "doors and windows and hallways and gates frame More conventionally, springs, caves, shores, rivers, volcanic calderas—"a huge crater of an extinct volcano Major transformations occur at crossroads and other liminal places, at least partly because liminality—being so unstable—can pave the way for access to esoteric knowledge or understanding of both sides.
In architecture , liminal spaces are defined as "the physical spaces between one destination and the next. In contemporary culture viewing the nightclub experience dancing in a nightclub through the liminoid framework highlights the "presence or absence of opportunities for social subversion, escape from social structures, and exercising choice". Enhancing the consumer experience of these liminoid aspects may heighten experiential feelings of escapism and play, thus encouraging the consumer to more freely consume".
There are a number of stories in folklore of those who could only be killed in a liminal space: Lleu could not be killed during the day or night, nor indoors or outdoors, nor riding or walking, nor clothed or naked and is attacked at dusk, while wrapped in a net with one foot on a cauldron and one on a goat. Likewise, in Hindu text Bhagavata Purana , Vishnu appears in a half-man half- lion form named Narasimha to destroy the demon Hiranyakashipu who has obtained the power never to be killed in day nor night, in the ground nor in the air, with weapon nor by bare hands, in a building nor outside it, by man nor beast.
Narasimha kills Hiranyakashipu at dusk, across his lap, with his sharp claws, on the threshold of the palace, and as Narasimha is a god himself, the demon is killed by neither man nor beast. In the Mahabharata , Indra promises not to slay Namuci and Vritra with anything wet or dry, nor in the day or in the night, but instead kills them at dusk with foam. The classic tale of Cupid and Psyche serves as an example of the liminal in myth, exhibited through Psyche's character and the events she experiences. She is always regarded as too beautiful to be human yet not quite a goddess, establishing her liminal existence.
Beyond this, her transition to immortality to live with Cupid serves as a liminal rite of passage in which she shifts from mortal to immortal, human to goddess; when Psyche drinks the ambrosia and seals her fate, the rite is completed and the tale ends with a joyous wedding and the birth of Cupid and Psyche's daughter. In ethnographic research, "the researcher is The researcher must consider the self in relation to others and his or her positioning in the culture being studied. In many cases, greater participation in the group being studied can lead to increased access of cultural information and greater in-group understanding of experiences within the culture.
However increased participation also blurs the role of the researcher in data collection and analysis. This liminal state of being betwixt and between is emotional and uncomfortable as the researcher uses self-reflexivity to interpret field observations and interviews. Some scholars argue that ethnographers are present in their research, occupying a liminal state, regardless of their participant status. A researcher, often unconsciously, selects what to observe, how to record observations and how to interpret observations based on personal reference points and experiences.
For example, even in selecting what observations are interesting to record, the researcher must interpret and value the data available. To explore the liminal state of the researcher in relation to the culture, self-reflexivity and awareness are important tools to reveal researcher bias and interpretation. For many students, the process of starting University can be seen as a liminal space. Student orientation often includes activities that act as a Rite of Passage, making the start of university as a significant period.
This can be reinforced by the split of Town and Gown , where local communities and the student body maintain different traditions and codes of behaviour. This means that many University Students are no longer seen as school children, but have not yet achieved the status of independent adults. This creates an environment where risk-taking is balanced with safe spaces that allow students to try out new identities and new ways of being within a structure that provides meaning. Possession by A. Byatt describes how postmodern "Literary theory. In The Phantom Tollbooth , Milo enters "The Lands Beyond", a liminal place which explains its topsy-turvy nature , through a magical tollbooth. When he finishes his quest, he returns, but changed, seeing the world differently.
The giver of the tollbooth is never seen and name never known, and hence, also remains liminal. Liminality is a major theme in Offshore by Penelope Fitzgerald , in which the characters live between sea and land on docked boats, becoming liminal people. Saul Bellow 's "varied uses of liminality She can first be seen when she hides herself behind a large red curtain to read, closing herself off physically and existing in a paracosmic realm. At Gateshead, Jane is noted to be set apart and on the outside of the family, putting her in a liminal space in which she neither belongs nor is completely cast away.
Brooks states that the story "Caravan Park" in Berridge's short story collection is an example of a story with a "liminal" setting, as it is set in a mobile home park; since mobile homes can be relocated, she states that setting a story in a mobile home " Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead , a play by Tom Stoppard , takes place both in a kind of no-man's-land and the actual setting of Hamlet.
They alternate between hope and hopelessness. At times one forgets what they are even waiting for, and the other reminds him: "We are waiting for Godot". The identity of 'Godot' is never revealed, and perhaps the men do not know Godot's identity. The men are trying to keep up their spirits as they wander the empty stage, waiting. The Twilight Zone — is a US television anthology series that explores unusual situations between reality and the paranormal.
The Terminal , is a US film in which the main character Viktor Navorski is trapped in a liminal space; since he can neither legally return to his home country Krakozhia nor enter the United States, he must remain in the airport terminal indefinitely until he finds a way out at the end of the film. In the film Waking Life , about dreams, Aklilu Gebrewold talks about liminality. Primer , is a US science fiction film by Shane Carruth where the main characters set up their time travelling machine in a storage facility to ensure it will not be accidentally disturbed. The hallways of the storage facility are eerily unchanging and impersonal, in a sense depicted as outside of time, and could be considered a liminal space. When the main characters are inside the time travel box, they are clearly in temporal liminality.
A recent trend in online photography communities has been the imaging of liminal spaces, with the intent to convey "a sense of nostalgia, lostness, and uncertainty. A large unadorned room can convey a sense of abandonment. Surrealism is a hallmark of liminal spaces in photography, as a common is goal to give viewers a feeling of both familiarity and alienation. Liminality is present in the transitory nature of the highway ecosystem—stores and gas stations that are often only entered in order to get somewhere else.
Many popular images of liminal spaces online stem from the urban exploration community. Low image resolution can give a "timeless" or nostalgic quality to an image, which is often deliberately invoked. A partially collapsed tunnel in the Kyminlinna fortress in Kotka , Finland. Thresholds are a popular object of study in both the philosophy and photography of liminality. An unadorned white room with white lighting with no clearly defined purpose, leaving the viewer in a state of liminal uncertainty.
Liminal Space is an album by American breakcore artist Xanopticon. Coil mention liminality throughout their works, most explicitly with the title of their song "Batwings A Limnal Hymn " sic from their album Musick to Play in the Dark Vol. In the lyrics of french rock band Little Nemo 's song "A Day Out Of Time", the idea of liminality is indirectly explored by describing a transitional moment before the returning of "the common worries". In , Victor Turner coined the term liminoid from the Greek word eidos, meaning "form or shape"  to refer to experiences that have characteristics of liminal experiences but are optional and do not involve a resolution of a personal crisis.
With the rise in industrialization and the emergence of leisure as an acceptable form of play separate from work, liminoid experiences have become much more common than liminal rites. The fading of liminal stages in exchange for liminoid experiences is marked by the shift in culture from tribal and agrarian to modern and industrial. In these societies, work and play are entirely separate whereas in more archaic societies, they are nearly indistinguishable. Examples of liminal spaces are childhood images that have poor lighting, often looking old school and never have people in them. Ritual and myth were, in the past, exclusively connected to collective work that served holy and often symbolic purposes; liminal rites were held in the form of coming-of-age ceremonies, celebrations of seasons, and more.
Industrialization cut the cord between work and the sacred, putting "work" and "play" in separate boxes that rarely, if ever, intersected. First, society began to move away from activities concerning collective ritual obligations, placing more emphasis on the individual than the community; this led to more choice in activities, with many such as work and leisure becoming optional. Second, the work done to earn a living became entirely separate from his or her other activities so that it is "no longer natural, but arbitrary.
Sporting events such as the Olympics, NFL football games, and hockey matches are forms of liminoid experiences. They are optional activities of leisure that place both the spectator and the competitor in in-between places outside of society's norms. Sporting events also create a sense of community among fans and reinforces the collective spirit of those who take part. One scholar, Alexandra Murphy, has argued that airplane travel is inherently liminoid—suspended in the sky, neither here nor there and crossing thresholds of time and space, it is difficult to make sense of the experience of flying.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Quality of ambiguity, disorientation, or state of transition. For other uses, see Liminal. A hallway is an example of a liminal space, serving as a transitory location between one destination and the next. Basic concepts. Case studies. Related articles. Major theorists. Augustin Calmet Akbar S. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Simpson and E. We deliver papers as early as after 3 hours of ordering. You only have to indicate the short deadline and our support team will help pick the best and most qualified writer in your field.
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