Guidance Intervention In Counseling

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Guidance Intervention In Counseling

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Counselor: Basic Skills of a Counselor

The American Counseling Association ACA understands this and has a code of ethics, updated every 10 years, to help counselors navigate the challenging and sensitive aspects of their roles. Below we have compiled a basic summary of the ACA code of ethics, so counselors have the foundational knowledge to work in the field confidently and ethically. Ethics codes provide professional standards for counselors with the purpose of protecting the dignity and well-being of clients.

The main reasons for the code of ethics include informing professional counselors and counselors-in-training of their ethical guidelines, professional obligations, and responsibilities to their clients. This helps counselors decide an appropriate plan of action for their clients and provides the ethical standards by which complaints and inquiries can be made regarding ACA members. The five core professional values of the Counseling Northwestern program include:. The purpose of Section A is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on the counseling relationship such as client welfare, informed consent, and managing multiple relationships. The purpose of Section B is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on the importance of trust, boundaries, and confidential interactions.

The purpose of Section C is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on respecting the practice of counseling. The purpose of Section D is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on developing working relationships with those within and outside of the counseling field. The purpose of Section E is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on how to ethically use formal and informal assessments to guide treatment plans and intervention selection. The purpose of Section F is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on how to develop relationships with supervisees, students, and trainees in ways that support ethical boundaries in a learning environment.

The purpose of Section H is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on how to ethically use technology and social media within the field of counseling. The purpose of Section I is to provide ethical guidelines that focus on how to address and resolve ethical issues with other counselors. This summary of the ACA Code of Ethics is meant to introduce and review the main points of the code. Counselors are responsible for reading the entire document and understanding how to implement the ACA Code of Ethics in practice. Enhancing human development throughout the life span.

Honoring diversity and embracing a multicultural approach in support of the worth, dignity, potential, and uniqueness of people within their social and cultural contexts. Promoting social justice Safeguarding the integrity of the counselor-client relationship. Practicing in a competent and ethical manner. The Counseling Relationship Section A. Work hard to create and sustain a relationship with their clients based on trust.

Obtain informed consent from clients entering a counseling relationship. Additionally, a majority of states require applicants to have previous teaching experience. Some of these states allow students to gain experience through the graduate program by means of internships. Half of the states require standardized testing as part of the credentialing process. Many of these tests simply cover basic mathematics, writing, and reading skills, while some states require more specialized tests covering the field of guidance and counseling.

Nineteen states require a minimum number of course credit hours specifically related to guidance and counseling. Fourteen states require students to take courses in other subject areas, such as education of children with disabilities, multicultural issues, substance abuse, state and federal laws and constitutions, applied technology, and identification and reporting of child abuse. Thirty-eight states recognize credentials from other states. Another thirty-eight states require applicants to undergo a criminal background check. Among the many issues facing the school counseling profession are the following three: what the professional title should be, how counselors should be evaluated, and to what extent counselors should work on prevention instead of remediation.

Professional title. Some professionals in the field prefer to be called guidance counselor, while an increasing number prefer the term school counselor. The growing trend is for counselors to be seen as professionals in a large system, working fluidly with all aspects within the system. The expected duties are more extensive than those practiced by vocational guidance counselors of the past, hence the feeling of many school counselors that the name of the profession should reflect its expanded roles.

A major trend in education is the demand for accountability and evaluation. School counselors have not been immune to this demand. Since the early s there has been a growing concern with this issue and numerous criteria have been developed to help school counselors evaluate their specific intervention techniques. Similar to the academic standards used nationally by state departments of education, the counseling standards provide a blueprint of the tasks of and goals for school counselors.

The standards have not been adopted by every state. The average state student—counselor ratio varies from a high of about 1, to a low of about , so the evaluation of counselor performance with different workloads is a difficult undertaking. Prevention versus remediation. A growing trend in the field of counseling is the focus on prevention instead of remediation. In the past it was not uncommon for counselors to have interactions with students only after some crisis had occurred.

There is now a shift for school counselors to intercede prior to any incidents and to become more proactive in developing and enacting schoolwide prevention plans. The schools, community, and families are requesting assistance in preventing students from being involved with many difficulties, such as participating in gangs, dropping out of school, becoming a teenage parent, using drugs, and participating in or becoming victims of acts of violence.

Students as early as third grade are being taught gang-type activities. Students are more likely to end up in a gang if family members and peers are already involved in gang activity. It is difficult for children to leave a gang once they have been actively involved. Antigang resources are often focused on fourth and fifth graders—an age before most students join a gang. Counselors are in a position to ascertain whether a child is "at risk" of gang-type activity. The counselor can also be influential in working with the family to help the child avoid gang activity. In many large metropolitan school districts, over 25 percent of students do not complete their high school education.

Premature school termination is becoming an increasingly more difficult problem as more careers require education well beyond the high school level. Counselors are in a unique position to assist students with career guidance and help them establish meaningful goals including the completion of a basic education. Teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy continues to be a societal concern. Precipitating factors are visible prior to middle school. Counselors are often the liaison with community agencies that work to prevent student pregnancy and assist with students who do become pregnant. Substance abuse. Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, continue to be a serious problem for youth.

Despite national efforts to eradicate these problems, many students still find their way to these mindaltering chemicals. Counselors are trained to understand the effects of different drugs and can assist with interventions or community referrals. The counselor is also essential in developing substance abuse prevention programs in a school. School violence. School violence can range from bullying to gunfire. Counselors have training to assist teachers and students in cases of violence and to establish violence prevention programs. Counselor leadership in making teasing and bullying unacceptable school behaviors is a powerful way to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for students.

Tolerance of diversity is an important goal in a multicultural society. School counselors help all students to be accepting of others regardless of sex, age, race, sexual orientation, culture, disability, or religious beliefs. Child abuse. Those companies and government programs are bound by HIPAA to keep that information strictly confidential. Counselors are held to a higher standard than most professionals because of the intimacy of their therapeutic delivery. Counselors are not only to avoid fraternizing with their clients. They should avoid dual relationships, and never engage in sexual relationships. Counselors are to avoid receiving gifts, favors, or trade for therapy.

In some communities, it may be avoidable given the economic standing of that community. In cases of children, children and the mentally handicapped, they may feel personally rejected if an offering is something such as a "cookie". As counselors, a judgement call must be made, but in a majority of cases, avoiding gifts, favors, and trade can be maintained. The National Board for Certified Counselors states that counselors "shall discuss important considerations to avoid exploitation before entering into a non-counseling relationship with a former client.

Important considerations to be discussed include amount of time since counseling service termination, duration of counseling, nature and circumstances of client's counseling, the likelihood that the client will want to resume counseling at some time in the future; circumstances of service termination and possible negative effects or outcomes. Counseling outcome measures might look at a general overview of symptoms, symptoms of specific disorders, or positive outcomes, such as subjective well-being or quality of life. The Outcome Questionnaire is a item self-report measure of psychological distress. The Quality of Life Inventory is a item self-report life satisfaction measure. Research about the counseling process and outcome uses a variety of research methodologies to answer questions about if, how, and why counseling works.

Quantitative methods include randomly controlled clinical trials, correlation studies over the course of counseling, or laboratory studies about specific counseling process and outcome variables. Counseling psychologists are trained in graduate programs. Almost all programs grant a PhD, but a few grant a Psy. Most doctoral programs take 5—6 years to complete.

Graduate work in counseling psychology includes coursework in general psychology and statistics , counseling practice, and research. Students must also complete a one-year full-time internship at an accredited site before earning their doctorate. In order to be licensed to practice, counseling psychologists must gain clinical experience under supervision, and pass a standardized exam. To become registered as a counseling psychologist, one must meet the criteria for the area of practice endorsement. This includes an undergraduate degree in the science of psychology, an Honours degree or Postgraduate Diploma in Psychology, and a Master's or Doctorate degree in counseling psychology.

Graduates must then complete a registrar program to obtain an area of practice endorsement and use the title counseling psychologist. Counseling psychology includes the study and practice of counselor training and counselor supervision. As researchers, counseling psychologists may investigate what makes training and supervision effective. As practitioners, counseling psychologists may supervise and train a variety of clinicians. Counselor training tends to occur in formal classes and training programs. Part of counselor training may involve counseling clients under the supervision of a licensed clinician.

Supervision can also occur between licensed clinicians, as a way to improve clinicians' quality of work and competence with various types of counseling clients. As the field of counseling psychology formed in the midth century, initial training models included Robert Carkuff's human relations training model, [44] Norman Kagan's Interpersonal Process Recall, [45] and Allen Ivey's microcounseling skills.

Hill's three-stage model exploration, insight, and action. Like the models of how clients and therapists interact, there are also models of the interactions between therapists and their supervisors. Edward S. Bordin proposed a model of supervision working alliance similar to his model of therapeutic working alliance. The Systems Approach to Supervision views the relationship between supervisor and supervised as most important, in addition to characteristics of the supervisor's personal characteristics, counseling clients, training setting, as well as the tasks and functions of supervision.

The Critical Events in Supervision model focuses on important moments that occur between the supervisor and supervised. Problems can arise in supervision and training. First, supervisors are liable for malpractice. In general, conflicts between a counselor and his or her own supervisor can arise when supervisors demonstrate disrespect, lack of support, and blaming.

There are several types of theories of vocational choice and development. These types include trait and factor theories, social cognitive theories, and developmental theories. Two examples of trait and factor theories, also known as person—environment fit, are Holland's theory and the Theory of Work Adjustment. When a person's vocational interests match his or her work environment types, this is considered congruence. Congruence has been found to predict occupation and college major. Job satisfaction and personal satisfaction together should determine how long one remains at a job. When there is a discrepancy between a worker's needs or skills and the job's needs or skills, then change needs to occur either in the worker or the job environment.

Lent, Steven D. Brown and Gail Hackett. The theory takes Albert Bandura 's work on self-efficacy and expands it to interest development, choice making, and performance. Person variables in SCCT include self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations and personal goals. The model also includes demographics, ability, values, and environment. Efficacy and outcome expectations are theorized to interrelate and influence interest development, which in turn influences choice of goals, and then actions.

Environmental supports and barriers also affect goals and actions. Actions lead to performance and choice stability over time. Career development theories propose vocational models that include changes throughout the lifespan. Donald Super's model proposes a lifelong five-stage career development process. The stages are growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement. Throughout life, people have many roles that may differ in terms of importance and meaning. Super also theorized that career development is an implementation of self-concept. Gottfredson also proposed a cognitive career decision-making process that develops through the lifespan. During and after adolescence , people take abstract concepts into consideration, such as interests.

Career counseling may include provision of occupational information, modeling skills, written exercises, and exploration of career goals and plans. Assessments of skills, abilities, and values are also commonly assessed in career counseling. In Australia, counseling psychology articles are published in the counseling psychology section of the Australian Psychologist. In Europe , the scholarly journals of the profession include the European Journal of Counselling Psychology under the auspices of the European Association of Counselling Psychology [58] and the Counselling Psychology Review under the auspices of the British Psychological Society. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the academic journal, see The Counseling Psychologist. This article needs attention from an expert in psychology. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Psychology may be able to help recruit an expert. November Basic types. Applied psychology. Main article: Therapeutic relationship. This section includes a list of general references , but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations.

Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Counseling Psychology 3rd ed. Washington, D. A growing internationalization of counseling psychology.

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