Early Child Care Observation

Friday, December 17, 2021 4:52:56 PM

Early Child Care Observation

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Day Care Observation Sample Childcare Tool - 1-3 years old

Recent study showed that children in low end classrooms saw the activities as forced while the children in high end classrooms had more memorable experiences. These early ages of the child's life are crucial or it would otherwise have a negative impact on their future paths. She said that one of the major weaknesses of the press coverage of the Commission's report in The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Financial Times was the omission of underappreciated unpaid work, such as that of caregivers who make society function.

The way in which a child is nurtured at a young age and through adolescence has both psychological and developmental effects that effect their future. Not only does the child depend on caregiving, but schools and employers depend on the childcare. The government also benefits because these children turn into productive members of society. Eventually, they will be the ones running the country.

According to a January 29, article in Bloomberg , in the United States—unlike many other wealthy countries—a full economy recovery from the COVID pandemic crisis has been "hampered" by one of its "most daunting obstacles"—"America's already fragile child-care system". By , New Zealand began to use learning stories as a learning model in their curriculum called "Te Whaariki". It highlights children's learning outcomes as 'disposition' which are "situated learning strategies plus motivation-participation repertoires from which a learner recognize, selects, edits, responds to, resists, searches for and constructs learning opportunities".

Learning stories [41] are documents that are used by caregivers and educators in childcare settings. They use a storytelling format instead of a traditional 'observation' report to document the different ways that young children learn, and capture the moment in greater detail and provide parents with a greater insight into the events that occur in their child's time in childcare. Learning stories include the story of the child's progress, pictures of the experiences, the child's strengths, interests and needs, and spaces for parent feedback [42].

At home, care is typically provided by nannies , au pairs , or friends and family. This is done with a motive to avoid illnesses from outside interactions. Depending on the number of children in the home, the children utilizing in-home care could enjoy the greatest amount of interaction with their caregiver, in turn forming a close bond. There are no required licensing or background checks for in-home care, making parental vigilance essential in choosing an appropriate caregiver.

Nanny and au pair services provide certified caregivers and the cost of in-home care is the highest of childcare options per child, though a household with many children may find this the most convenient and affordable option. Many nannies study towards childcare qualifications. This training is intended to teach a carer how to create a safe and stimulating environment for children to enjoy and thrive in. Typically, au pairs or nannies provide more than routine child care, often providing assistance with daily household activities which include running errands, shopping, doing laundry, fixing meals, and cleaning the house. The most now common way to find a nanny is online on dedicated websites specializing in carer services, or through a nanny agency.

Nanny agencies may provide a more thorough check of an applicant's references and run a criminal background check on the successful candidate. Proponents believe in-home care may provide stability for the child provided the same carer is retained over time. Nannies often work overtime and babysit. Some also care for sick children whereas nurseries typically do not. This enables the parents to continue working normally without being interrupted. Depending on local laws, some carers can be subject to visits from their local childcare regulatory bodies.

Proponents also claim nannies could also be well socialized as nannies could be able to take them out and attend more playdates. Family child care providers care for children in the provider's own home. The children could be in a mixed age group with a low adult-to-child ratio. Care can also potentially be personalized and individual.

The hours may be more flexible and the provider may offer evening and weekend care for parents who work shifts. The cost in a family child care could be significantly lower on average than that of a center. Child care facilities in the US have the option of becoming accredited. This standard is set and regulated by an outside agency. Licensed or unlicensed home daycare is also referred to as family child care, or in home care. It refers to the care provided to a group of children in the home of a caregiver.

State laws differ regarding rules for licensed versus unlicensed care. In Canada, most home daycares are unlicensed, and this is completely lawful. Licensing home daycares in Canada can help greatly with oversight, but at the cost of a large portion of the daycare provider's pay. Family child cares are small in size and provide families the same securities as a daycare center, and also has the benefits of flexible hours, lower costs, accessibility, and cultural compatibility. Home-based providers can give more individualized care and therefore better meet the needs of working families.

In addition, family care generally has a small ratio of children in care, allowing for more interaction between child and provider than would be had at a commercial care center. Family child care helps foster emotionally secure interpersonal relationships for everyone involved. The providers are able to communicate each day with parents on a personal level and share information about the development of the child. Providers care for multi-aged groups of children allowing children to remain with one caregiver for many years which helps children develop a sense of trust and security.

Multi-aged settings allow children to learn from one another and allow siblings to stay together. Some family child care providers may offer parents more flexibility with hours of operation such as evening, weekend, overnight, and before and after school care. In a childcare center, teachers focus on the physical and mental developments of their students. In order to have a greater understanding of the student, teachers in centers must incorporate a relationship with their students that benefits their wants and needs while pushing them toward a higher set of values. This type of teaching with a caring relationship will improve a student's moral and incidental learning.

Commercial care center also known as daycares are open for set hours, and provide a standardized and regulated system of care for children. Parents may choose from a commercial care center close to their work, and some companies may even offer care at their facilities. A form in which parents pick the child care facility can be based on their mission statement and the objectives they find necessary to be addressed. Center based child care should have their mission written out and include one of the main components which is health promotion.

The child care provider must see how these objectives are most fit for the child and mend them case by case to their specific needs. In setting up activities for these objectives, both indoor and outdoor activities must be taken into account. This may then cause discussion between the parents and the caregivers. The parents tend to give their input on what they deem as necessary when the needs of their children may be different.

Even though this being the case between high and low end classrooms, other aspects such as the child's background and living situation can play an important role in their development. Some positive aspects of commercial care are that children may gain a sense of independence, academic achievement, and socialization. Childcare is seen as a reasonable option because it is different from parenting, since it can be seen as more of a routine for the child. Pre-school is often the term used to refer to child care centers that care primarily for 3 and 4-year-old children.

Preschool can be based in a center, family child care home or a public school. Older children, in their turn, in most countries are cared in an educational setting, usually a primary school environment. The children are supervised by a teacher all day long, who is responsible for their physical, intellectual, emotional and social development. In this regard, most western countries have compulsory education during which the great majority of children are at school starting from five or six years of age.

The school will act in loco parentis meaning "in lieu of parent supervision. Laws may mandate staffing ratios for example 6 weeks to 12 months, ; 12 to 18 months, ; 18 to 24 months, ; et and even higher ratios for older children. Legislation may mandate qualifications of supervisors. Staff typically do not require any qualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may require supervision. Typically, once the child reaches the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by daycare legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated. Many employees are at local minimum wage and are typically paid by the hour rather than salaried. In the United States, "child care worker" is the fifth most female-dominated occupation Local governments, often municipalities, may operate non-profit day care centers.

In non-profits, the title of the most senior supervisor is typically "executive director", following the convention of most non-profit organizations. Family child care homes can be operated by a single individual out of their home. In most states, the legal age of 18 is only required. There may be occasions when more than one individual cares for children in a family childcare home. This can be a stay-at-home parent who seeks supplemental income while caring for their own child.

There are also many family childcare providers who have chosen this field as a profession. Both state and county agency legislation regulate the ratios number and ages of children allowed per family child care home. Some counties have more stringent quality standards that require licensing for family child care homes while other counties require little or no regulations for childcare in individuals' homes. Some family child care homes operate illegally with respect to tax legislation where the care provider does not report fees as income and the parent does not receive a receipt to qualify for childcare tax deductions.

However, licensing a family child care home is beneficial for family child care home providers so that they can have access to financial benefits from their state government, or the federal government where they are allowed to accept children from parents who meet the criterion to benefit from the government childcare subsidy funding. Examples of such benefits are: free Professional Development and training courses, Child and adult Care Food Program which allows eligible childcare and family childcare home providers to claim a portion of costs relating to nutritious meals served to children , and more.

Family childcare may be less expensive than center-based care because of the lower overhead lower ratios mean less staff are required to maintain regulated ratios. Many family childcare home providers may be certified with the same credentials as center based staff potentially leading to higher level of care. Franchising of family child care home facilities attempts to bring economies of scale to home daycare. A central operator handles marketing, administration and perhaps some central purchasing while the actual care occurs in individual homes.

The central operator may provide training to the individual care providers. Some providers even offer enrichment programs to take the daycare experience to a more educational and professional level. Informal childcare is a childcare system that utilizes both family and community members. This includes but is not limited to grandparents, siblings, and both children and adult neighbors.

This system is inexpensive and many cultures utilize and embrace informal childcare as beneficial to a child's upbringing and education. In monetary- and production-based societies such as in the United States , informal childcare is seen in families who do not have enough funds to finance placing their children in a more expensive child care facility. A study done by Roberta Iversen and Annie Armstrong explains that due to long and irregular working hours of working parents, low- socioeconomic families are more likely to utilize informal childcare. Many types of childcare discuss the different ways in which children are cared for by adults or older children.

One additional type of child care involves children caring for adults. Children as caretakers are most often seen in developing countries with restricted or hard-to-access medical assistance. Developmentally, these child caretakers have shown certain positive associations that affect their future resilience in the face of adversity. Caring for disabled parents raises their sense of responsibility and maturity, increases social and life skills, fosters closer parent-child relationships, and enhances a child's early sense of purpose.

Children caring for sick or disabled parents also experience less anxiety surrounding their parents compared to children who have an additional caregiver for their disabled parent. This is because the children understand more about the illness and feel more in control over the situation. Child development researcher, Lian Tong, analysed the results from a Haley and Stansbury experiment saying, "Parent responsiveness also facilitates cognitive, social, and emotional development and reduces negative emotions in infants.

Whether that child receives the majority of his or her care at a center or at its house, the biggest factor in deciding what will have the best effect on the child will be those willing to put in the time and effort it takes to properly develop a child's social, physical, and academic skills. The quality of childcare given by a facility is generally indicated by the center's cost of enrollment. If the center charges more for the service, it will generally provide better care to the children. Centers that charge more for their services can provide quality education, more current resources, and nicer facilities. These are all helpful when trying to educate a child academically. A higher standard for teachers, such as requiring a degree in early childhood education or a degree of the like, has shown to result in improved growth in the development of a child.

Whether at an expensive facility or relatively inexpensive, children who attend daycare facilities tend to develop social skills more quickly than children of the same age group that are reared at home. They communicate better with children of the same age and often try harder to communicate with those that are younger than them, by using patience and taking different approaches at presenting the data. By studying a large selection of children from the Norwegian childcare system he concluded that the number of hours a child spends at a daycare and their behavior have no dependent relations.

There are links between the income, education, and importance of consistency and the well-being of the child, to the parents, and the development of their child. Higher educated parents place more importance on the education of their children than the parents who do not have a college degree or have not graduated from high school. Likewise, parents who have a higher income level are more willing to part with their money to purchase a private tutor or nanny to assist the parent in the education of their child. They also tend to stress the importance of being socially inept.

Consistency of approach, skills and qualifications of caregivers have been shown in many studies to improve the chances of a child reaching his or her full potential. Child care in much of western society is currently in crisis: there are not enough daycare spots, the cost for most parents is beyond their means, and child care staff are grossly underpaid. A The New Republic cover story entitled, "The Hell of American Day Care", said that there potential benefits and harm related to formal child care. A study that followed up on the randomized Abecedarian Early Intervention Project showed that 5 years of high-quality, targeted cognitively and linguistically stimulating center-based care starting between 3 and 21 weeks of age resulted in significant changes in midlife brain structure in males.

MRI scans showed that several brain region and total brain volumes were substantially larger in participants of the child care program than in the control group. Childcare infection is the spread of infection during childcare , typically because of contact among children in daycare or school. Commonly spread diseases include influenza-like illness and enteric illnesses, such as diarrhea among babies using diapers.

Illnesses and diseases may also include ringworm, head lice, and hand, feet, mouth disease. It is uncertain how these diseases spread, but hand washing reduces some risk of transmission and increasing hygiene in other ways also reduces risk of infection. Due to social pressure, parents of sick children in childcare may be willing to give unnecessary medical care to their children when advised to do so by childcare workers and even if it is against the advice of health care providers. Caregivers nurture and develop their children into being functional members of society. For centuries it has been assumed that women will stay home and take care of the children while their husbands go out and work.

In most cases, the husbands get all the credit for providing for the family. However, the homemaker deserves credit for care work. Caregivers do not receive monetary compensation and, because they spend a significant amount of time raising their children, must pay a 'care-penalty' the opportunity costs in both time and money that one pays for doing care work for a family member. Care penalties are not strictly related to childcare - they can also refer to taking care of a sick family member, babysitting a younger sibling, or taking an elderly family member on errands such as grocery shopping or doctor's appointments. Studies have been done to get an annual salary estimate for a female caregiver.

Some of these job functions are poorly paid, including cleaning, driving, caring for children, and washing laundry, but others, especially financial and managerial tasks that the survey equated with being the chief executive officer of a company, are highly paid. Neither a nanny nor a housekeeper makes nearly as much money, and almost all of these tasks except direct child care also have to be done by non-parents. The value of unpaid childcare is also an important figure in various legal entities. Expert witnesses most often economists are occasionally brought into court cases to give estimates on the value of unpaid labor.

By giving estimation, the plaintiff or defendant can be fairly compensated for their labor. Developmental benefits are also seen for older siblings or relatives tasked to care for younger children. For example, children with siblings are more likely to exhibit prosocial behaviors such as the ability to take another's perspective or sharing with others than children without siblings. According to Chris Knight , the first humans were few; then the population "exploded Population expansion on such a scale is inconsistent with female tolerance of infanticide, harassment, or the heavy costs to mothers of male philandering and double standards. If unusually large numbers of unusually large-brained offspring were being successfully raised to maturity, the quality of childcare must have been exceptional.

We know what the optimal solution would have been. There can be no doubt that mothers would have done best by taking advantage of every available childcare resource. Plato , according to Elaine Hoffman Baruch, around B. Nursing of Infants , Originating in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th century, day cares were established in the United States by private charities in the s, such as the Charity Organization Society founded by Ansley Wilcox.

Another at that time was the New York Day Nursery in In English-speaking and other conservative countries, the vast majority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in-house nannies or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends, but most children are in daycare centers for most of the day in Nordic Countries, for example. Child care in the child's own home is traditionally provided by a nanny or au pair , or by extended family members including grandparents, aunts and uncles. It can also take on a more formal structure, with education, child development, discipline and even preschool education falling into the fold of services. The day care industry is a continuum from personal parental care to large, regulated institutions.

Some childminders care for children from several families at the same time, either in their own home commonly known as "family day care" in Australia or in a specialized child care facility. Some employers provide nursery provisions for their employees at or near the place of employment. For-profit day care corporations often exist where the market is sufficiently large or there are government subsidies.

Independent studies suggest that good daycare is not harmful. The vast majority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in-house nanny or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends. However, for-profit day care corporations often exist where the market is sufficiently large or there are government subsidies. For instance, in North America, KinderCare Learning Centers , one of the largest of such companies, has approximately 1, centers located in 39 states and the District of Columbia.

Another factor favoring large corporate daycares is the existence of childcare facilities in the workplace. Large corporations will not handle this employee benefit directly themselves and will seek out large corporate providers to manage their corporate daycares. Most smaller, for-profit daycares operate out of a single location. In general, the geographic limitations and the diversity in type of daycare providers make child daycare a highly fragmented industry.

The largest providers own only a very small share of the market. The availability of child care, whether with other family members or professional care, affects the ability of parents to work. This includes both single parents and families where both parents need or want to earn money. Many governments in higher-income countries provide subsidies for child care programs for the benefit of low-income families or parents in general. In the United States, where few subsidies are provided, there is a political debate over whether universal child care services should be provided by the government.

Related debates include those over universal preschool and paid family leave. Parents may also turn to independent rating services, or rely on recommendations and referrals. Some places develop voluntary quality networks, for example in Australia most childcare services are part of a national Quality Assurance system. Some places require caregivers to take classes in pediatric CPR and first aid.

Most countries have laws relating to childcare, which seek to keep children safe and prevent and punish child abuse. Such laws may add cost and complexity to childcare provision and may provide tools to help ensure quality childcare. Additionally, legislation typically defines what constitutes daycare e. It may specify details of the physical facilities washroom, eating, sleeping, lighting levels, etc. The minimum window space may be such that it precludes day cares from being in a basement. It may specify the minimum floor space per child for example 2.

It may mandate minimum outdoor time for example 2 hours for programs 6 hours or longer. Some legislation also establishes rating systems, the number and condition of various toys, and documents to be maintained. Legislation may mandate staffing ratios for example, 6 weeks to 12 months, ; 12 to 18 months, ; 18 to 24 months, ; etc. The caregiver-to-child ratio is one factor indicative of quality of care. Ratios vary greatly by location and by daycare center. Potential consequences of a caregiver:child ratio which is too high could be very serious [ citation needed ].

However, many states allow a higher numbers of toddlers to caregivers and some centers do not comply consistently. For example, within the US: Pennsylvania, ages 1—3, 1 teacher to 5 children; [78] Missouri: age 2, 1 teacher to 8 children; [79] North Carolina: 1 teacher to 10 children. Many organizations in the developed world campaign for free or subsidized childcare for all. Others campaign for tax breaks or allowances to provide parents a non-finance driven choice.

Many of the free or subsidized childcare programs in the United States are also Child Development programs, or afterschool programs which hire certified teachers to teach the children while they are in their care. There are often local industry associations that lobby governments on childcare policy, promote the industry to the public [80] or help parents choose the right daycare provider.

In the United States, childcare in regulated commercial or family childcare home setting is administered or led by teachers who may have a Child Development Associate or higher credentials. Although childcare professionals may obtain a degree, many states require that they attend workshops yearly to upgrade their knowledge and skill levels. Many day cares require a teacher to obtain a certain amount of training. For example, Texas requires a minimum of 25 hours a year, and the first year as a teacher, you are required to have 50 hours.

Several studies undertaken in the United States from to , said that good daycare for non-infants is not harmful. Bad daycare puts the child at physical, emotional and attachment risk. Higher quality care was associated with better outcomes. They were also somewhat more cooperative than those who experienced lower quality care during the first 3 years of life.

The National Institute of Health released a study in March, after following a group of children through early childhood to the 6th grade. The study also reported that teachers found children from childcare to be "disobedient", fight more frequently, and more argumentative. The study reported the increases in both aggression and vocabulary were small. As a matter of social policy, consistent, good daycare, may ensure adequate early childhood education for children of less skilled parents.

From a parental perspective, good daycare can complement good parenting. One American study appearing in Child Development said that the amount of time spent in daycare before four-and-a-half tended to correspond with the child's tendency to be less likely to get along with others, to be disobedient, and to be aggressive, although still within the normal range. In their Thomas S. Weisner and Ronald G. Gallimore article said that by there had been no crosscultural work reference to caretaking of children by anyone other than parents published in The Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research included in its 1, pages virtually no reference to caretaking of children by anyone other than parents.

That is, the type of work performed by adult caretakers in a given community strongly influence the type of childcare used. Weisner said that children that receive informal care may or may not receive the same educational and preparatory regimens as those in a center- or home-based center often do. In many situations, there will be no curriculum or teaching schedule, and instead learning occurs informally as a direct result of the caretaker and charge's interactions. Learning and development occur differently for every individual.

Different periods of a child's growth are known to affect the care taking styles associated with them, from the care of an infant to that of an older adolescent. Other influences on caretaking include the expectations of the three parties involved- the parents, caretakers, and children. Many agricultural communities highly value sibling- and peer- caretaking. Accounts from the Idakho tribe in Kenya portray infants being left to the care and guidance of other relatively young children in the community with adults and other tribe members merely within shouting distance should a problem arise.

The same pattern of caregiving is seen in the Kikuyu people in Kenya, where mothers in the horticultural society are often away working, which relies on siblings, cousins, and neighbors to care for children as young as 4 months old. In most cases children are taken care of by their parents, legal guardians, or siblings. In some cases, it is also seen that children care for other children.

This informal care includes verbal direction and other explicit training regarding the child's behavior, and is often as simple as "keeping an eye out" for younger siblings. Care given by unpaid providers in an informal setting affect multiple developmental and psychological dimensions in children. More specifically, further research indicates that children being cared for by siblings or similarly aged children a trend more commonly seen in agriculturally-based cultural communities have certain psychological and developmental effects on those being cared for.

These effects include but are not limited to: mother-child attachment, emergence of childhood developmental stages, formation of playgroups, development of social responsibility, sex differences, personality differences, cognition, and motivation and performance in the classroom. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Care and supervision of children. Main article: Child care in the United Kingdom. Main article: Childcare infection. Main article: Child development. These pressures to implement more stringent early structured curriculum are evident in the UK as well. In their report titled, Bold Beginnings, Ofsted, the Office for Standards in Education, argued for less free play and more reading in math in the Readiness Year for year olds equivalent to US kindergarten.

The report went so far as to say that "Some headteachers did not believe in the notion of 'free play'". In opposition to the Bold Beginnings report, Beard published a report on a Cambridge study that compared two groups of children. One group began formal reading lessons with phonics emphasis at age five and the other group did not begin until age seven. The study found that there was no difference at all in the reading ability of the two groups of children by age eleven. However, the study did conclude that "the children who started at five developed less positive atitudes to reading and showed poorer text comprehension than those who started later. When learning what behavior to associate with a set action can help lead children on to a more capable future.

They are exploring different roles, learning how things work, and learning to communicate and work with others. These things cannot be taught by a standard curriculum, but have to be developed through the method of play. Many preschools understand the importance of play and have designed their curriculum around that to allow children to have more freedom. Once these basics are learned at a young age, it sets children up for success throughout their schooling and their life. Based on their Tools of the Mind curriculum for early childhood education centers and Sesame Workshop, Bodrova and Leong argue for including more play in early childhood education, but increasing guided play experiences to encourage academic development. Many [ who? They can follow through when a task is difficult and listen to directions for a few minutes.

These skills are linked to self-control, which is within the social and emotional development that is learned over time through play among other things. The approach focuses on learning through discovery. Maslow's hierarchy of needs showcases the different levels of needs that must be met the chart to the right showcases these needs. Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky proposed a "socio-cultural learning theory" that emphasized the impact of social and cultural experiences on individual thinking and the development of mental processes.

In Vygotsky's theories of learning, he also postulated the theory of the zone of proximal development. This theory ties in with children building off prior knowledge and gaining new knowledge related to skills they already have. In the theory it describes how new knowledge or skills are taken in if they are not fully learned but are starting to emerge.

A teacher or older friend lends support to a child learning a skill, be it building a block castle, tying a shoe, or writing one's name. This is done within that activity's zone—the distance between where the child is, and where he potentially will be. They build on the skills by being guided by teachers and parents. They must build from where they are in their zone of proximal development. Vygotsky argued that since cognition occurs within a social context, our social experiences shape our ways of thinking about and interpreting the world.

Although Vygotsky predated social constructivists, he is commonly classified as one. Social constructivists believe that an individual's cognitive system is a resditional learning time. Vygotsky advocated that teachers facilitate rather than direct student learning. It is important to do this because students' levels of interest and abilities will vary and there needs to be differentiation. However, teachers can enhance understandings and learning for students. Vygotsky states that by sharing meanings that are relevant to the children's environment, adults promote cognitive development as well.

Their teachings can influence thought processes and perspectives of students when they are in new and similar environments. Since Vygotsky promotes more facilitation in children's learning, he suggests that knowledgeable people and adults in particular , can also enhance knowledges through cooperative meaning-making with students in their learning. Teachers can help students achieve their cognitive development levels through consistent and regular interactions of collaborative knowledge-making learning processes.

Jean Piaget's constructivist theory gained influence in the s and '80s. Although Piaget himself was primarily interested in a descriptive psychology of cognitive development , he also laid the groundwork for a constructivist theory of learning. He said that "if logic itself is created rather than being inborn, it follows that the first task of education is to form reasoning. According to Piaget's theory, when young children encounter new information, they attempt to accommodate and assimilate it into their existing understanding of the world. Accommodation involves adapting mental schemas and representations to make them consistent with reality. Assimilation involves fitting new information into their pre-existing schemas.

Through these two processes, young children learn by equilibrating their mental representations with reality. They also learn from mistakes. A Piagetian approach emphasizes experiential education; in school, experiences become more hands-on and concrete as students explore through trial and error. Subsequent reflection on these experiences is equally important. Piaget's concept of reflective abstraction was particularly influential in mathematical education. This allows children to develop mathematical constructs that cannot be learned through equilibration — making sense of experiences through assimilation and accommodation — alone.

According to Piagetian theory, language and symbolic representation is preceded by the development of corresponding mental representations. Research shows that the level of reflective abstraction achieved by young children was found to limit the degree to which they could represent physical quantities with written numerals. Piaget held that children can invent their own procedures for the four arithmetical operations, without being taught any conventional rules. Piaget's theory implies that computers can be a great educational tool for young children when used to support the design and construction of their projects.

McCarrick and Xiaoming found that computer play is consistent with this theory. David Kolb 's experiential learning theory, which was influenced by John Dewey, Kurt Lewin and Jean Piaget, argues that children need to experience things to learn: "The process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combinations of grasping and transforming experience. As a child explores and observes, teachers ask the child probing questions. The child can then adapt prior knowledge to learning new information. Kolb breaks down this learning cycle into four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. Children observe new situations, think about the situation, make meaning of the situation, then test that meaning in the world around them.

In recent decades, studies have shown that early childhood education is critical in preparing children to enter and succeed in the grade school classroom, diminishing their risk of social-emotional mental health problems and increasing their self-sufficiency later in their lives. There is no subject to be considered taboo, starting with the most basic knowledge of the world that they live in, and ending with deeper areas, such as morality, religion and science. Visual stimulus and response time as early as 3 months can be an indicator of verbal and performance IQ at age 4 years.

This allows children the opportunity to build and nurture trusting relationships with educators and social relationships with peers. By providing education in a child's most formative years, ECE also has the capacity to pre-emptively begin closing the educational achievement gap between low and high-income students before formal schooling begins. The study also concluded that any formal early childhood education contributed to higher levels of cognitive development in language, mathematics, and non-verbal reasoning skills.

Especially since the first wave of results from the Perry Preschool Project were published, there has been widespread consensus that the quality of early childhood education programs correlate with gains in low-income children's IQs and test scores, decreased grade retention, and lower special education rates. Several studies have reported that children enrolled in ECE increase their IQ scores by 4—11 points by age five, while a Milwaukee study reported a point gain. In , researchers reported that children who participate in ECE graduate high school at significantly greater rates than those who do not.

Additionally, those who participate in ECE require special education and must repeat a grade at significantly lower rates than their peers who did not receive ECE. Nathaniel Hendren and Ben Sprung-Keyser, two Harvard economists, found high Marginal Values of Public Funds MVPFs for investments in programs supporting the health and early education of children, particularly those that reach children from low-income families. Beyond benefitting societal good, ECE also significantly impacts the socioeconomic outcomes of individuals. For example, by age 26, students who had been enrolled in Chicago Child-Parent Centers were less likely to be arrested, abuse drugs, and receive food stamps; they were more likely to have high school diplomas, health insurance and full-time employment.

The World Bank 's World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work [85] identifies early childhood development programs as one of the most effective ways governments can equip children with the skills they will need to succeed in future labor markets. The Perry Preschool Project, which was conducted in the s in Ypsilanti, Michigan , is the oldest social experiment in the field of early childhood education and has heavily influenced policy in the United States and across the globe. The intervention for children in the treatment group included active learning preschool sessions on weekdays for 2.

The intervention also included weekly visits by the teachers to the homes of the children for about 1. Initial evaluations of the Perry intervention showed that the preschool program failed to significantly boost an IQ measure. However, later evaluations that followed up the participants for more than fifty years have demonstrated the long-term economic benefits of the program, even after accounting for the small sample size of the experiment, flaws in its randomization procedure, and sample attrition.

Research points to improvements in non-cognitive skills, executive functioning, childhood home environment, and parental attachment as potential sources of the observed long-term impacts of the program. The intervention's many benefits also include improvements in late-midlife health for both male and female participants. This pattern is particularly evident for females. Treated females received less special education, progressed more quickly through grades, earned higher GPAs, and attained higher levels of education than their control group counterparts. Research also demonstrates spillover effects of the Perry program on the children and siblings of the original participants.

A study concludes, "The children of treated participants have fewer school suspensions, higher levels of education and employment, and lower levels of participation in crime, compared with the children of untreated participants. Impacts are especially pronounced for the children of male participants. These treatment effects are associated with improved childhood home environments.

Evidence from the Perry Preschool Project is noteworthy because it advocates for public spending on early childhood programs as an economic investment in a society's future, rather than in the interest of social justice. The overarching goals of the conference are to:. According to UNESCO, a preschool curriculum is one that delivers educational content through daily activities and furthers a child's physical, cognitive, and social development. Generally, preschool curricula are only recognized by governments if they are based on academic research and reviewed by peers. Preschool for Child Rights have pioneered into preschool curricular areas and is contributing into child rights through their preschool curriculum. In early childhood, these may be programs for children or parents, including health and nutrition interventions and prenatal programs, as well as center-based programs for children.

Children's learning potential and outcomes are negatively affected by exposure to violence, abuse and child labour. Thus, protecting young children from violence and exploitation is part of broad educational concerns. Due to difficulties and sensitivities around the issue of measuring and monitoring child protection violations and gaps in defining, collecting and analysing appropriate indicators, [99] data coverage in this area is scant. However, proxy indicators can be used to assess the situation. However, many of these ratifications are yet to be given full effect through actual implementation of concrete measures.

Globally, million children aged 5—14 are estimated to be engaged in child labour. In both developed and developing countries , children of the poor and the disadvantaged remain the least served. This exclusion persists against the evidence that the added value of early childhood care and education services are higher for them than for their more affluent counterparts, even when such services are of modest quality. While the problem is more intractable in developing countries, the developed world still does not equitably provide quality early childhood care and education services for all its children. In many European countries , children, mostly from low-income and immigrant families, do not have access to good quality early childhood care and education.

A lack of education during the early childhood years for orphans is a worldwide concern. Orphans are at higher risk of "missing out on schooling, living in households with less food security, and suffering from anxiety and depression. Nearly 12 million of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The teaching of children from birth to age eight. For the related UK qualification, see City and Guilds. Main article: History of early childhood care and education. See also: Child development. Main article: Kolb's experiential learning. Main article: HighScope.

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