Essay On Media And Propaganda Effects On War

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Essay On Media And Propaganda Effects On War



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Media Trial in India and its impact on judicial system explained - Role of media in democracy - UPSC

The campaign was active on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, as well as a range of other social media platforms that catered to particular constituencies, such as BlackPlanet, AsianAve, and Glee. The campaign pioneered digital microtargeting tactics. The new media trends established in the campaign have carried over to the realm of government and politics more generally. Social media have become a pervasive force in politics, altering the communication dynamics between political leaders, journalists, and the public.

They have opened up wider avenues for instantaneous political discourse and debate. However, there also has been backlash when social media discourse has become too nasty, and users have blocked content or dropped out of their social media networks Linder, Social media allow people to efficiently organize and leverage their collective influence. Thus, political leaders are held more accountable because their actions are constantly probed on social media. At the same time, legacy media organizations have come to rely on aspects of new media. Newspapers, in particular, have experienced financial hardships due adverse financial market conditions, declining advertising revenues, and competition from proliferating news sources.

The size of traditional newsrooms in the U. Legacy news organizations have cut investigative units, and only around one-third of reporters are assigned to political beats Mitchell and Holcomb, Mainstream journalists have come to rely heavily on new media content as a source of news. These trends have seriously influenced the quality and nature of news content as well as the style of political reporting, which has become more heavily infused with infotainment and quotes from Twitter feeds. The complexities of the new media system are reflected in the diversity of available content.

In the new media era, the boundaries that separate these disparate types of information have become increasing muddled. Professional media editors who regulate the flow of information by applying news principles and standards associated with the public good have become scarce Willis, They have been replaced by social media and analytics editors whose primary motivation is to draw users to content regardless of its news value. Audience members have to work hard to distinguish fact from fiction, and to differentiate what matters from what is inconsequential. A number of explanations can be offered for the shift in the quality and quantity of political information.

The technological affordances of new media allow content to propagate seemingly without limits. Social media have a dramatically different structure than previous media platforms. Content can be relayed with no significant third-party filtering, fact-checking, or editorial judgement. Individuals lacking prior journalism training or reputation can reach many users at lightningfast speed. Messages multiply as they are shared across news platforms and via personal social networking accounts Allcott and Gentzkow, In addition, the economic incentives underpinning new media companies, such as Google, Facebook, and Twitter, are predicated on attracting large audiences that will draw advertising revenue. Political content is used to drive consumers to social media products, rather than to perform the public service function of informing the citizenry.

Commercial pressures lead media organizations to feature incendiary stories that receive the most attention. Further, while platforms proliferate, similar content is dispersed widely as media power is concentrated in a small number of old and new media corporations McChesney, Search engines direct users to a limited selection of heavily trafficked and well-financed sites Hindman, ; Pariser, Other explanations focus on the nature of the American political environment that has become extremely polarized, prompting the emergence of political agendas that promote rogue politics. A Pew Research Center study revealed that the gap between Democrats and Republicans on core political values, including the role of government, race, immigration, the social safety net, national security, taxes, and environmental protection, have grown to epic proportions for the modern era.

Two-thirds of Americans fall solidly in the liberal or conservative camp, with few holding a mix of ideological positions Pew Research Center, ; Kiley, Speech on new media reflects these stark political divisions, and frequently devolves into expressions of hostility and ad hominem attacks. President Donald Trump used Twitter to ignite a controversy over NFL players who protested racial oppression during the playing of the national anthem before games.

He used a derogatory term to refer to players, who are predominantly African American, and urged team owners to fire those supporting the demonstration. Modern-day new media echo chambers began to form during the first phase of new media, as conservative talk radio hosts, like Rush Limbaugh, attracted dedicated followers Jamieson and Cappella, Even politically disinterested social media users frequently encounter news articles unintentionally as they scan their feed Gottfried and Shearer, The ability of social media to isolate people from exposure to those with differing viewpoints exacerbates political polarization. A significant segment of the public perceives journalists as removed elites who do not share their conservative values.

He maintains that the mainstream media are out-of-touch with a wide swath of the public. During the recent election this became clear as legacy media institutions are unable to connect effectively with the frustration and anger of people outside of high education and income circles Camosy, Some scholars argue that new media are closing the gap between distant journalists and the mass public by giving voice to those who have felt left out Duggan and Smith, The Tea Party, a conservative political movement focused around issues about taxation and the national debt, used social networks for political mobilization in the midterm elections.

Tea Party candidates employed social media to reshape public discourse around the campaign, forging a sense of solidarity among groups who previously felt disenfranchised Williamson, Skocpol, and Coggin, Candidates pushing an extreme agenda have amplified this trend. Highly partisan, flamboyant congressional candidates, on both sides of the aisle, who spark political disagreement and indignant rhetoric garner the most supporters on Facebook. They use social media to solidify their political base Messing and Weisel, American author Ralph Keyes observes that society has entered a posttruth era. Deception has become a defining characteristic of modern life, and is so pervasive that people are desensitized to its implications. He laments the fact that ambiguous statements containing a kernel of authenticity, but falling short of the truth, have become the currency of politicians, reporters, corporate executives, and other power-brokers.

Journalist Susan Glasser argues that journalism has come to reflect the realities of reporting in post-truth America. Objective facts are subordinate to emotional appeals and personal beliefs in shaping public opinion. The public has difficulty distinguishing relevant news about weighty policy issues from the extraneous clamor that permeates the media. The work of investigative journalists has in some ways has become more insightful and informed than in the past due to the vast resources available for researching stories, including greater access to government archives and big data analysis.

However, well-documented stories are obscured by the constant drone of repetitive, sensationalized trivia-bites that dominate old and new media. Post-truth media was prominent during the presidential election. Media accounts of the election were infused with misinformation, baseless rumors, and outright lies. False stories and unverified factoids emanated from fabricated news sites as well as the social media accounts of the candidates and their surrogates.

Republican nominee Donald Trump used his Twitter feed to push out sensational, unverified statements that would dominate the news agenda, a practice he maintained after assuming the presidency. He alleged that the father of Ted Cruz, his challenger for the nomination, was involved in the assassination of President John F. False news stories infiltrated reports by legacy media organizations as they relied heavily on digital sources for information. Contrived controversies detract from coverage of important issues related to policy, process, and governance Horton, The feud dominated coverage of the battle over tax legislation on new media, and commanded the front page of The New York Times. The most extreme illustration of the concept of post-truth reporting is the rise of fake news.

The definition of fake news has shifted over time, and continues to be fluid. During the campaign, the concept of fake news was attached to fictitious stories made to appear as if they were real news articles. These stories were disseminated on websites that had the appearance of legitimate news platforms or blogs, such as Infowars , The Rightest , and National Report. A compilation documented sites that routinely publish fake news Chao, et al. Authors are paid—sometimes thousands of dollars—to write or record false information. Some of these authors are based in locations outside of the United States, including Russia Shane, They make use of social media interactions and algorithms to disseminate content to specific ideological constituencies.

Fabricated stories are spread virally by social bots, automated software that replicates messages by masquerading as a person Emerging Technology from the arXiv, While some fake news stories are outright fabrications, others contain elements of truth that make them seem credible to audiences ensconced in echo chambers. Conspiracy theories, hoaxes, and lies were spread efficiently through Facebook, Snapchat, and other social media, and reached millions of voters in the election Oremus, For example, a fabricated story on The Denver Gardian , a fake site meant to emulate the legitimate newspaper, The Denver Post , reported that an F.

Conditions in the new media age have been ripe for the proliferation of fake news. The new media system has lifted many of the obstacles to producing and distributing news that were present in the previous mass media age. While vestiges of the digital divide persist, especially among lower-income families Klein, , barriers to new media access have been lowered. The cost of producing and distributing information on a wide scale have been reduced.

The logistics and skills necessary to create content are less formidable. Social networking sites make it possible to build and maintain audiences of like-minded people who will trust posted content. Fake news proliferates widely through social media, especially Facebook and Twitter. In fact, fake news stories are spread more widely on Facebook than factual mainstream media reports Silverman, Audiences are fooled and confused by fake news, which confounds basic facts about politics and government with fiction. Finally, legal challenges to fake news and the distribution of false content are much more difficult to pose, as it is costly and time-consuming to sue publishers for spreading false information. An alternative meaning of fake news emerged after the presidential election.

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Our writers always follow your instructions and bring fresh ideas to the table, which remains a huge part of success in writing an essay. For instance, George Fitzhugh 's Cannibals All! Another, Frederick A. Ross 's Slavery Ordained of God , used divine will to justify slavery and controversially equated slavery to the treatment of women i. Lastly came Augusta Jane Evans Wilson's Macaria; or, Altars of Sacrifice , popular in the North and South, persuasively defended Confederate policy and predicted horrible consequences if the slaves were freed. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, propaganda techniques became more refined and effective due to, on the one hand, the growth of new communication technologies e.

Hitler's Mein Kampf is heavily influenced by Le Bon's theories. The first large-scale and organised propagation of government propaganda was occasioned by the outbreak of war in In the war's initial stages, propaganda output was greatly increased by the British and German governments, to persuade their populace in the justness of their cause , to encourage voluntary recruitment, and above all to demonise the enemy. At the start of the war, Germany expanded its unofficial propaganda machinery, establishing the Central Office for Foreign Services, which among other duties was tasked with propaganda distribution to neutral nations, persuading them to either side with Germany or to maintain their stance of neutrality.

After the declaration of war, Britain immediately cut the undersea cables that connected Germany to the outside world, thereby cutting off a major propaganda outlet. The Germans relied instead on the powerful wireless Nauen Transmitter Station to broadcast pro-German news reports to the world. Among other techniques used to keep up the morale of the troops, mobile cinemas were regularly dispatched to the front line for the entertainment of the troops.

Newsreels would portray current events with a pro-German slant. German propaganda techniques heavily relied on emphasising the mythological and martial nature of the Germanic ' Volk ' and the inevitability of its triumph. Germany published several newspapers and magazines for the occupied areas. The 'Gazette des Ardennes,' was designed for French readers in Belgium and France, Francophone prisoners of war, and generally as a propaganda vehicle in neutral and even enemy countries. Editor Fritz H. Schnitzer had a relatively free hand, and he tried to enhance his credibility by factual information.

He realized until the closing days of the war that it was necessary to produce an increasingly optimistic report to hide the weakening position of the Central Powers in the summer and fall of The British made a careful analysis of the German propaganda campaigns. In terms of content, the official propaganda had multiple themes: [17] A It proclaimed that German victory was a certainty.

B It explained Germany was fighting a war of defence. C Enemy atrocities in were denounced, including its starvation plan for German civilians, use of dum dum bullets, and the use of black soldiers. D The rhetoric exalted Germany's historic mission to promote high culture and true civilization, celebrating the slogan "work, order, duty" over the enemy's "liberty, equality, fraternity. It explained that German victory would benefit all of mankind, freeing the seas for all nations, and enabling the downtrodden colonies of the Allies to liberate themselves. Germany needed to land to expand, as an outlet for its surplus population, talent, organizing ability, financial capital, and manufacturing output.

The riches of the world, especially raw materials, controlled by the British and the French, must be disgorged by the enemy to the benefit of Germany. The propaganda designed for the home market included points A through G. The Germans realized they needed to appeal to vocal supporters in countries allied with the Central Powers, especially Austria, Bulgaria, and Turkey. They put special emphasis on the Muslim world, using Turkey as their leverage.

Much of the propaganda was oriented toward minorities in the Allied countries, as they tried to stir up Muslims in India and Russia and ethnic groups in Eastern Europe, especially the Poles. In prioritizing the goal of destabilizing the enemy, Berlin realized that it was often counterproductive to promote German glories. Other elements that were hostile or indifferent to Germany, especially among the far left and the Muslims, could best be reached through their own spokesman. Hence large sums—upwards of nine tons of gold—were given the Bolsheviks to spread their own anti-tsarist propaganda. British propaganda during World War I — called "an impressive exercise in improvisation" — was hastily expanded at the beginning of the war and was rapidly brought under government control as the War Propaganda Bureau Wellington House , under the overall leadership of journalist Charles Masterman.

The Bureau began its propaganda campaign on 2 September when Masterman invited 25 leading British authors to Wellington House to discuss ways of best promoting Britain's interests during the war. Trevelyan and H. After January the Bureau's activities were subsumed under the office of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. In May Masterman began recruiting artists, including Muirhead Bone , Francis Dodd , Eric Kennington and others, to paint pictures of the war in France and the home front. In early it was decided that a senior government figure should take over responsibility for propaganda and on 4 March Lord Beaverbrook , owner of the Daily Express newspaper, was made Minister of Information. The British effort soon far surpassed the German in its quality and ability to sway the public mood both at home and abroad.

A variety of propaganda methods were used by the British during the war, with emphasis on the need for credibility. They were targeted at influential individuals, such as journalists and politicians, rather than a mass audience. By , 7 million copies had been circulated by Wellington House in various languages. British propagandists also sought to influence the foreign press, by providing it with information through the Neutral Press Committee and the Foreign Office. Special telegraph agencies were established in various European cities, including Bucharest , Bilbao and Amsterdam , in order to facilitate the spread of information. Recruitment was a central theme of domestic propaganda until the introduction of conscription in January The most common theme for recruitment posters was patriotism, which evolved into appeals for people to do their 'fair share'.

One major propaganda avenue was the use of atrocity stories. These aimed to mobilise hatred of the German enemy by spreading details of their atrocities, real or alleged, and was used extensively by Britain, reaching a peak in , with much of the atrocities related to Germany's invasion of Belgium. This pamphlet documented atrocities both actual and alleged committed by the German army against Belgian civilians. These had a significant impact both in Britain and in America, making front-page headlines in major newspapers. Before the United States declared war in , the Woodrow Wilson administration established a propaganda department along similar lines.

Propaganda experts Walter Lippmann and Edward Bernays participated in the Committee on Public Information CPI , which was tasked with swaying popular opinion to encourage enlistment and war bond sales. The American press played an unwitting role too by relying on daily war news cables controlled by the British government and by spreading false stories of German atrocities in Belgium and German-occupied eastern France supplied by the British as well. Also, exposure of fact that the atrocity stories were false created public distrust. The war propaganda campaign of the CPI "produced within six months such an intense anti-German hysteria as to permanently impress American business and Adolf Hitler, among others with the potential of large-scale propaganda to control public opinion.

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion , a fraudulent anti-Semitic conspiracy text, was first printed in a Black Hundreds newspaper shortly before the Revolution of As the October Revolution unfolded, causing White movement -affiliated Russians to flee to the West, The Protocols was carried along with them and assumed a new purpose. Until then, The Protocols had remained obscure; [34] it now became an instrument for blaming Jews for the Russian Revolution. It was a directly political weapon, used against the Bolsheviks who were depicted as overwhelmingly Jewish, allegedly executing the Judeo-Bolshevist "plan" embodied in The Protocols.

The purpose was to discredit communism, prevent the West from recognizing the Soviet Union , and bring about the downfall of Vladimir Lenin 's regime. Russian revolutionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries distinguished two different aspects covered by the English term propaganda. Soviet propaganda meant dissemination of revolutionary ideas, teachings of Marxism, and theoretical and practical knowledge of Marxist economics , while agitation meant forming favourable public opinion and stirring up political unrest. These activities did not carry negative connotations as they usually do in English and were encouraged. Expanding dimensions of state propaganda, the Bolsheviks actively used transportation such as trains, aircraft and other means.

Joseph Stalin 's regime built the largest fixed-wing aircraft of the s, Tupolev ANT , exclusively for this purpose. Named after the famous Soviet writer Maxim Gorky who had recently returned from fascist Italy , it was equipped with a powerful radio set called "Voice from the sky", printing and leaflet-dropping machinery, radio stations , photographic laboratory , film projector with sound for showing movies in flight, library, etc. The aircraft could be disassembled and transported by railroad if needed. The giant aircraft set a number of world records. Bernays, a nephew of Freud, who wrote the book Propaganda early in the 20th century, [36] later coined the terms "group mind" and "engineering consent", important concepts in practical propaganda work.

He wrote: [37]. The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organised habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organised. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.

The file Century of the Self by Adam Curtis documents the immense influence of these ideas on public relations and politics throughout the last century. Lippmann, in Public Opinion also worked on the subject, as well as the American advertising pioneer and founder of the field of public relations Edward Bernays , a nephew of Freud, who wrote the book Propaganda early in the 20th century. According to Alex Carey , one distinctive feature of the 20th century was "the professionalising and institutionalising of propaganda", as it became an increasingly prominent, sophisticated, and self-conscious tactic of both government and business. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War , military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat.

Later, the Nazis adapted many British propaganda techniques during their time in power. Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in All journalists, writers and artists were required to register with one of the Ministry's subordinate chambers for the press, fine arts, music, theatre, film, literature or radio. Hitler met nearly every day with Goebbels to discuss the news, and Goebbels would obtain Hitler's thoughts on the subject. Goebbels then met with senior Ministry officials to pass down the official Party line on world events.

Broadcasters and journalists required prior approval before their works were disseminated. Along with posters, the Nazis produced a number of films and books to spread their beliefs. Goals were to establish external enemies countries that allegedly inflicted the Treaty of Versailles on Germany — by territorial claims and ethnocentrism and internal enemies, such as Jews , Romani , homosexuals , Bolsheviks and topics like degenerate art. A major political and ideological cornerstone of Nazi policy was the unification of all ethnic Germans living outside of the Reich's borders under one Greater Germany e. Austria and Czechoslovakia.

He stated that pain and misery were being forced upon ethnic Germans outside of Germany, and that they dream of common fatherland. He finished by stating they needed to fight for one's nationality. Nazi propaganda used the Heim ins Reich policy for this, which began in For months prior to the beginning of World War II in , German newspapers and leaders had carried out a national and international propaganda campaign accusing Polish authorities of organizing or tolerating violent ethnic cleansing of ethnic Germans living in Poland. Its credibility doesn't matter. The victor will not be asked whether he told the truth. The main part of this propaganda campaign was the false flag project, Operation Himmler , which was designed to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany, which was subsequently used to justify the invasion of Poland.

In , racist laws in Nazi Germany were introduced known as the Nuremberg Laws , the laws forbade non-Aryans and political opponents of the Nazis from the civil-service and any sexual relations and marriage between people classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan" Jews, Gypsies, blacks was prohibited as Rassenschande or "race defilement". Hitler and Nazi propagandists played on the anti-Semitism and resentment present in Germany. The Jews were blamed for things such as robbing the German people of their hard work while themselves avoiding physical labour.

Soon after the takeover of power in , Nazi concentration camps were established for political opponents. The first people that were sent to the camps were Communists. France, a democratic society in the s, but the people were kept in the dark about critical issues of foreign policy. The government tightly controlled all of the media to promulgate propaganda to support the government's foreign policy of appeasement to the aggressions of Italy and especially Nazi Germany.

There were daily newspapers, all owned separately. The five major national papers based in Paris were all under the control of special interests, especially right-wing political and business interests that supported appeasement. They were all venal, taking large secret subsidies to promote the policies of various special interests. Many leading journalists were secretly on the government payroll.

The regional and local newspapers were heavily dependent on government advertising and published news and editorials to suit Paris. Most of the international news was distributed through the Havas agency, which was largely controlled by the government. Radio was a potentially powerful new medium, but France was quite laggard in consumer ownership of radio sets, and the government impose very strict controls. After , stations were allowed only three brief daily bulletins, of seven minutes each, to cover all the day's news. The Prime Minister's office closely supervised the news items that were to be broadcast. Newsreels were tightly censored; they were told to feature none controversial but glamorous entertainers, film premieres, sporting events, high-fashion, new automobiles, an official ceremonies.

Motion pictures likely likewise were censored, and were encouraged to reinforce stereotypes to the effect that the French were always lovers of liberty and justice, contending against cruel and barbarous Germans. The government-subsidized films that glorified military virtues and the French Empire. The goal was to tranquilize public opinion, to give it little or nothing to work with, so as not to interfere with the policies of the national government. When serious crises emerged such as the Munich crisis of , people were puzzled and mystified by what was going on. When war came in , Frenchman had little understanding of the issues, and little correct information. They suspiciously distrusted the government, with the result that French morale in the face of the war with Germany was badly prepared.

Within the US, the British Security Coordination activities worked to counter pro-German sentiment, and isolationist opinion. The British broadcast black propaganda through fake German-language radio stations to Europe. It was disguised to sound like legitimate German radio broadcasts, but it had a negative twist designed to undermine German morale. The Germans undertook a similar program. In the US, animation became popular, especially for winning over youthful audiences and aiding the U. Some American war films in the early s were designed to create a patriotic mindset and convince viewers that sacrifices needed to be made to defeat the Axis Powers.

Apart from its war films, Hollywood did its part to boost American morale in a film intended to show how stars of stage and screen who remained on the home front were doing their part not just in their labors, but also in their understanding that a variety of peoples worked together against the Axis menace: Stage Door Canteen features one segment meant to dispel Americans' mistrust of the Soviets , and another to dispel their bigotry against the Chinese. During the Cold War , propaganda became highly ideological rather than tactical, and the rivalry among the United States , Soviet Union , and People's Republic of China generated the most pervasive and intense propaganda seen thus far.

All sides used film, television, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty , which were, in part, supported by the Central Intelligence Agency , provided grey propaganda in news and entertainment programs to Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union respectively. The Soviet Union's official government station, Radio Moscow, broadcast white propaganda , while Radio Peace and Freedom broadcast grey propaganda.

Both sides also broadcast black propaganda programs in periods of special crises. In , the United Kingdom 's Foreign Office created the IRD Information Research Department , which took over from wartime and slightly post-war departments such as the Ministry of Information and dispensed propaganda via various media such as the BBC and publishing. Its main targets were in the Third World. As well as supplying material to the BBC World Service , secret lists were compiled of approved journalists and trade unionists to whom material was offered, if not always accepted.

Possibly its most notorious "project" was the joint operation with the CIA to set up Encounter magazine, edited by Stephen Spender from to Spender resigned after it emerged that the Congress for Cultural Freedom , which published the magazine, was being covertly funded by the CIA. The ideological and border dispute between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China resulted in a number of cross-border operations. One technique developed during this period was the "backwards transmission," in which the radio program was recorded and played backwards over the air. This was done so that messages meant to be received by the other government could be heard, while the average listener could not understand the content of the program. When describing life in capitalist countries, in the US in particular, propaganda focused on social issues such as poverty and anti-union action by the government.

Workers in capitalist countries were portrayed as "ideologically close". Propaganda claimed rich people from the US derived their income from weapons manufacturing , and claimed that there was substantial racism or neo-fascism in the US. When describing life in Communist countries, western propaganda sought to depict an image of a citizenry held captive by governments that brainwash them. The West also created a fear of the East, by depicting an aggressive Soviet Union. In the Americas, Cuba served as a major source and a target of propaganda from both black and white stations operated by the CIA and Cuban exile groups.

Though not set in the Soviet Union, these books are about totalitarian regimes that constantly corrupt language for political purposes. These novels were, ironically, used for explicit propaganda. The CIA , for example, secretly commissioned an animated film adaptation of Animal Farm in the s with small changes to the original story to suit its own needs. We must never abandon propaganda. From the beginning of its involvement in Vietnam , the United States government engaged in covert psychological operations. The refugee surge from North to South appeared spontaneous to the American public, but was partly engineered by Lansdale's hoax threats of dropping nuclear bombs on Hanoi.

Although celebrated for independent humanitarian activities, after his death the public learned that Thomas Dooley had been recruited as an intelligence operative by the Central Intelligence Agency , and numerous descriptions of atrocities by the Viet Minh in his book Deliver Us From Evil had been fabricated. Dooley later did similar propaganda work in Laos. Lansdale went on to run black propaganda operations out of Saigon in collaboration with dictator Ngo Diem. The agency also manipulated astrology reports in the North in order to negatively effect the morale of the population. Propaganda was used extensively by Communist forces in the Vietnam War as means of controlling people's opinions.

Communist Vietnamese politician Mai Chi Tho, commenting on the use of propaganda, stated:. The Americans may have had the just cause; we may not have had the just cause. But we won and the Americans were defeated because we convinced the people that Ho Chi Minh is the great man, that Nixon is a murderer and the Americans are the invaders The key factor is how to control people and their opinions. Only Marxism—Leninism can do that. On the U. However, during the Nixon administration , revelations from the Pentagon Papers and about the My Lai Massacre and the war's expansion into Cambodia and Laos, exposed the government's secrecy and manipulation of information.

During the Yugoslav wars , propaganda was used as a military strategy by governments of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Propaganda was used to incite fear and hatred, and particularly incite the Serb population against the other ethnicities Bosniaks , Croats , Albanians and other non-Serbs. Serb media made a great effort in justifying, revising or denying mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during these wars. According to the ICTY verdicts against Serb political and military leaders, during the Bosnian war , the propaganda was a part of the Strategic Plan by Serb leadership, aimed at linking Serb-populated areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina together, gaining control over these areas and creating a sovereign Serb nation state , from which most non-Serbs would be permanently removed.

The Serb leadership was aware that the Strategic Plan could only be implemented by the use of force and fear , thus by the commission of war crimes. Croats also used propaganda against Serbs throughout [ citation needed ] and against Bosniaks during the — Croat—Bosniak War , which was part of the larger Bosnian War. They also seized the public institutions, raised the Croatian flag over public institution buildings and imposed the Croatian Dinar as the unit of currency. The HVO controlled all roads leading into Mostar and international organisations were denied access. Radio Mostar announced that all Bosniaks should hang out a white flag from their windows.

The HVO attack had been well prepared and planned.

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