Non Living Research Paper

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Non Living Research Paper



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The Structure of Scientific Research Papers

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Macbeth literature essay topics Business case study test. Thesis statements for essay essay on glory. Essay on importance of sports in kannada essay on health is wealth for class 2 an essay on recycling essay saving energy is important nowadays essay on teachers during lockdown. Concept map essay outline. In the Modern Language Association expressed hope that electronic publishing would solve the issue. Several models are being investigated, such as open publication models or adding community-oriented features. In academic publishing, a paper is an academic work that is usually published in an academic journal.

It contains original research results or reviews existing results. Such a paper, also called an article, will only be considered valid if it undergoes a process of peer review by one or more referees who are academics in the same field who check that the content of the paper is suitable for publication in the journal. A paper may undergo a series of reviews, revisions, and re-submissions before finally being accepted or rejected for publication.

This process typically takes several months. Next, there is often a delay of many months or in some fields, over a year before an accepted manuscript appears. Due to this, many academics self-archive a ' preprint ' or ' postprint ' copy of their paper for free download from their personal or institutional website. Some journals, particularly newer ones, are now published in electronic form only.

Paper journals are now generally made available in electronic form as well, both to individual subscribers, and to libraries. Almost always these electronic versions are available to subscribers immediately upon publication of the paper version, or even before; sometimes they are also made available to non-subscribers, either immediately by open access journals or after an embargo of anywhere from two to twenty-four months or more, in order to protect against loss of subscriptions.

Journals having this delayed availability are sometimes called delayed open access journals. Ellison in reported that in economics the dramatic increase in opportunities to publish results online has led to a decline in the use of peer-reviewed articles. Note: Law review is the generic term for a journal of legal scholarship in the United States , often operating by rules radically different from those for most other academic journals. Peer review is a central concept for most academic publishing; other scholars in a field must find a work sufficiently high in quality for it to merit publication. A secondary benefit of the process is an indirect guard against plagiarism since reviewers are usually familiar with the sources consulted by the author s. The origins of routine peer review for submissions dates to when the Royal Society of London took over official responsibility for Philosophical Transactions.

However, there were some earlier examples. While journal editors largely agree the system is essential to quality control in terms of rejecting poor quality work, there have been examples of important results that are turned down by one journal before being taken to others. Rena Steinzor wrote:. Perhaps the most widely recognized failing of peer review is its inability to ensure the identification of high-quality work. The list of important scientific papers that were initially rejected by peer-reviewed journals goes back at least as far as the editor of Philosophical Transaction's rejection of Edward Jenner 's report of the first vaccination against smallpox.

Experimental studies show the problem exists in peer reviewing. There are various types of peer review feedback that may be given prior to publication, including but not limited to:. The process of academic publishing, which begins when authors submit a manuscript to a publisher, is divided into two distinct phases: peer review and production. The process of peer review is organized by the journal editor and is complete when the content of the article, together with any associated images, data, and supplementary material are accepted for publication.

The peer review process is increasingly managed online, through the use of proprietary systems, commercial software packages, or open source and free software. A manuscript undergoes one or more rounds of review; after each round, the author s of the article modify their submission in line with the reviewers' comments; this process is repeated until the editor is satisfied and the work is accepted. The production process, controlled by a production editor or publisher, then takes an article through copy editing , typesetting , inclusion in a specific issue of a journal, and then printing and online publication.

Academic copy editing seeks to ensure that an article conforms to the journal's house style , that all of the referencing and labelling is correct, and that the text is consistent and legible; often this work involves substantive editing and negotiating with the authors. In much of the 20th century, such articles were photographed for printing into proceedings and journals, and this stage was known as camera-ready copy. With modern digital submission in formats such as PDF , this photographing step is no longer necessary, though the term is still sometimes used.

The author will review and correct proofs at one or more stages in the production process. The proof correction cycle has historically been labour-intensive as handwritten comments by authors and editors are manually transcribed by a proof reader onto a clean version of the proof. In the early 21st century, this process was streamlined by the introduction of e-annotations in Microsoft Word , Adobe Acrobat , and other programs, but it still remained a time-consuming and error-prone process. The full automation of the proof correction cycles has only become possible with the onset of online collaborative writing platforms, such as Authorea , Google Docs , and various others, where a remote service oversees the copy-editing interactions of multiple authors and exposes them as explicit, actionable historic events.

At the end of this process, a final version of record is published. Academic authors cite sources they have used, in order to support their assertions and arguments and to help readers find more information on the subject. It also gives credit to authors whose work they use and helps avoid plagiarism. The topic of dual publication also known as self-plagiarism has been addressed by the Committee on Publication Ethics COPE , as well as in the research literature itself. Each scholarly journal uses a specific format for citations also known as references. The CMS style uses footnotes at the bottom of page to help readers locate the sources. Technical reports , for minor research results and engineering and design work including computer software , round out the primary literature.

Secondary sources in the sciences include articles in review journals which provide a synthesis of research articles on a topic to highlight advances and new lines of research , and books for large projects, broad arguments, or compilations of articles. Tertiary sources might include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption or academic libraries. A partial exception to scientific publication practices is in many fields of applied science, particularly that of U. An equally prestigious site of publication within U. Publishing in the social sciences is very different in different fields. Some fields, like economics, may have very "hard" or highly quantitative standards for publication, much like the natural sciences.

Others, like anthropology or sociology, emphasize field work and reporting on first-hand observation as well as quantitative work. Some social science fields, such as public health or demography , have significant shared interests with professions like law and medicine , and scholars in these fields often also publish in professional magazines. Publishing in the humanities is in principle similar to publishing elsewhere in the academy; a range of journals, from general to extremely specialized, are available, and university presses issue many new humanities books every year.

The arrival of online publishing opportunities has radically transformed the economics of the field and the shape of the future is controversial. Unlike the sciences, research is most often an individual process and is seldom supported by large grants. Journals rarely make profits and are typically run by university departments. The following describes the situation in the United States. In many fields, such as literature and history, several published articles are typically required for a first tenure-track job, and a published or forthcoming book is now often required before tenure.

Some critics complain that this de facto system has emerged without thought to its consequences; they claim that the predictable result is the publication of much shoddy work, as well as unreasonable demands on the already limited research time of young scholars. To make matters worse, the circulation of many humanities journals in the s declined to almost untenable levels, as many libraries cancelled subscriptions, leaving fewer and fewer peer-reviewed outlets for publication; and many humanities professors' first books sell only a few hundred copies, which often does not pay for the cost of their printing.

Some scholars have called for a publication subvention of a few thousand dollars to be associated with each graduate student fellowship or new tenure-track hire, in order to alleviate the financial pressure on journals. Under Open Access, the content can be freely accessed and reused by anyone in the world using an Internet connection. The impact of the work available as Open Access is maximised because, quoting the Library of Trinity College Dublin: [46]. Open Access is often confused with specific funding models such as Article Processing Charges APC being paid by authors or their funders, sometimes misleadingly called "open access model".

The reason this term is misleading is due to the existence of many other models, including funding sources listed in the original the Budapest Open Access Initiative Declaration : "the foundations and governments that fund research, the universities and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments set up by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, profits from the sale of add-ons to the basic texts, funds freed up by the demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access fees, or even contributions from the researchers themselves". For more recent open public discussion of open access funding models, see Flexible membership funding model for Open Access publishing with no author-facing charges.

Prestige journals using the APC model often charge several thousand dollars. The online distribution of individual articles and academic journals then takes place without charge to readers and libraries. Most open access journals remove all the financial, technical, and legal barriers that limit access to academic materials to paying customers. Fee-based open access publishing has been criticized on quality grounds, as the desire to maximize publishing fees could cause some journals to relax the standard of peer review. Although, similar desire is also present in the subscription model, where publishers increase numbers or published articles in order to justify raising their fees.

It may be criticized on financial grounds as well because the necessary publication or subscription fees have proven to be higher than originally expected. Open access advocates generally reply that because open access is as much based on peer reviewing as traditional publishing, the quality should be the same recognizing that both traditional and open access journals have a range of quality.

It has also been argued that good science done by academic institutions who cannot afford to pay for open access might not get published at all, but most open access journals permit the waiver of the fee for financial hardship or authors in underdeveloped countries. In any case, all authors have the option of self-archiving their articles in their institutional repositories or disciplinary repositories in order to make them open access , whether or not they publish them in a journal.

If they publish in a Hybrid open access journal , authors or their funders pay a subscription journal a publication fee to make their individual article open access. The other articles in such hybrid journals are either made available after a delay or remain available only by subscription. The fraction of the authors of a hybrid open access journal that makes use of its open access option can, however, be small. It also remains unclear whether this is practical in fields outside the sciences, where there is much less availability of outside funding.

In , several funding agencies , including the Wellcome Trust and several divisions of the Research Councils in the UK announced the availability of extra funding to their grantees for such open access journal publication fees. In May , the Council for the European Union agreed that from all scientific publications as a result of publicly funded research must be freely available. It also must be able to optimally reuse research data. To achieve that, the data must be made accessible, unless there are well-founded reasons for not doing so, for example, intellectual property rights or security or privacy issues. In recent decades there has been a growth in academic publishing in developing countries as they become more advanced in science and technology.

Although the large majority of scientific output and academic documents are produced in developed countries, the rate of growth in these countries has stabilized and is much smaller than the growth rate in some of the developing countries. The fastest scientific output growth rate over the last two decades has been in the Middle East and Asia with Iran leading with an fold increase followed by the Republic of Korea, Turkey, Cyprus, China, and Oman.

By , it was noted that the output of scientific papers originating from the European Union had a larger share of the world's total from However, the United States' output dropped from Iran, China, India , Brazil , and South Africa were the only developing countries among the 31 nations that produced The remaining countries contributed less than 2. The report predicted that China would overtake the United States sometime before , possibly as early as China's scientific impact, as measured by other scientists citing the published papers the next year, is smaller although also increasing.

There is increasing frustration amongst OA advocates, with what is perceived as resistance to change on the part of many of the established academic publishers. Publishers are often accused of capturing and monetising publicly-funded research, using free academic labour for peer review, and then selling the resulting publications back to academia at inflated profits. However, scholarly publishing is not a simple process, and publishers do add value to scholarly communication as it is currently designed.

However, others provide direct value to researchers and research in steering the academic literature. This includes arbitrating disputes e. The latter is a task that should not be underestimated as it effectively entails coercing busy people into giving their time to improve someone else's work and maintain the quality of the literature. Not to mention the standard management processes for large enterprises, including infrastructure, people, security, and marketing.

All of these factors contribute in one way or another to maintaining the scholarly record. It could be questioned though, whether these functions are actually necessary to the core aim of scholarly communication, namely, dissemination of research to researchers and other stakeholders such as policy makers, economic, biomedical and industrial practitioners as well as the general public.

Above, for example, we question the necessity of the current infrastructure for peer review, and if a scholar-led crowdsourced alternative may be preferable. In addition, one of the biggest tensions in this space is associated with the question if for-profit companies or the private sector should be allowed to be in charge of the management and dissemination of academic output and execute their powers while serving, for the most part, their own interests.

This is often considered alongside the value added by such companies, and therefore the two are closely linked as part of broader questions on appropriate expenditure of public funds, the role of commercial entities in the public sector, and issues around the privatisation of scholarly knowledge. Publishing could certainly be done at a lower cost than common at present. There are significant researcher-facing inefficiencies in the system including the common scenario of multiple rounds of rejection and re submission to various venues as well as the fact that some publishers profit beyond reasonable scale.

This would allow authors to make informed choices, rather than decisions based on indicators that are unrelated to research quality, such as the JIF. Yet, in the current system, publishers still play a role in managing processes of quality assurance, interlinking and findability of research. As the role of scholarly publishers within the knowledge communication industry continues to evolve, it is seen as necessary [58] that they can justify their operation based on the intrinsic value that they add, [62] [63] and combat the perception that they add no value to the process. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. For broader coverage of this topic, see Scholarly communication. List of academic fields. Research design. Research proposal Research question Writing Argument Referencing.

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