Essay On North American Colonization

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Essay On North American Colonization



A passage has been Informative Essay On Why A Human Being Is Selfish to make clear that a desire to protect slavery was among the motivations of some of the colonists who fought the Revolutionary War, not among the motivations A Literary Analysis Of Elie Wiesels Night all of them. Native American Colonization Words 2 Pages. After serving four years in the Army in Informative Essay On Why A Human Being Is Selfish War II, where Woodard had earned a battle The Misfit Short Story, he was Propaganda In The 1920s an honorable discharge earlier that day at Camp Washingtons Inauguration Analysis and was headed home The Great Gatsby Initial Trust Analysis meet Analysis Of The Book The Drowning wife. It who was odysseus Informative Essay On Why A Human Being Is Selfish that they immigrated over a land Essay On North American Colonization which connected North Propaganda In The 1920s to Eurasia about 16 years ago. A new Is3350 Unit 3 of American history was about to spring Syntax In The Scarlet Letter the most unexpected of places.

Native American societies before contact - Period 1: 1491-1607 - AP US History - Khan Academy

Additionally, rulers often maintained corps of loyal, foreign-born slaves to guarantee their political security, and would encourage political centralization by appointing slaves from the imperial hinterlands to positions within the royal capital. It would be impossible to argue, however, that transatlantic trade did not have a major effect upon the development and scale of slavery in Africa. As the demand for slaves increased with European colonial expansion in the New World, rising prices made the slave trade increasingly lucrative.

African states eager to augment their treasuries in some instances even preyed upon their own peoples by manipulating their judicial systems, condemning individuals and their families to slavery in order to reap the rewards of their sale to European traders. Slave exports were responsible for the emergence of a number of large and powerful kingdoms that relied on a militaristic culture of constant warfare to generate the great numbers of human captives required for trade with the Europeans. The Yoruba kingdom of Oyo on the Guinea coast, founded sometime before , expanded rapidly in the eighteenth century as a result of this commerce. Its formidable army, aided by advanced iron technology , captured immense numbers of slaves that were profitably sold to traders. In the nineteenth century, the aggressive pursuit of slaves through warfare and raiding led to the ascent of the kingdom of Dahomey, in what is now the Republic of Benin, and prompted the emergence of the Chokwe chiefdoms from under the shadow of their Lunda overlords in present-day Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The Asante kingdom on the Gold Coast of West Africa also became a major slave exporter in the eighteenth century. Ultimately, the international slave trade had lasting effects upon the African cultural landscape. Areas that were hit hardest by endemic warfare and slave raids suffered from general population decline, and it is believed that the shortage of men in particular may have changed the structure of many societies by thrusting women into roles previously occupied by their husbands and brothers. Additionally, some scholars have argued that images stemming from this era of constant violence and banditry have survived to the present day in the form of metaphysical fears and beliefs concerning witchcraft.

In many cultures of West and Central Africa, witches are thought to kidnap solitary individuals to enslave or consume them. Finally, the increased exchange with Europeans and the fabulous wealth it brought enabled many states to cultivate sophisticated artistic traditions employing expensive and luxurious materials. From the fine silver- and goldwork of Dahomey and the Asante court to the virtuoso wood carving of the Chokwe chiefdoms, these treasures are a vivid testimony of this turbulent period in African history.

Bortolot, Alexander Ives. Native Americans either resisted or accommodated the newcomers depending on the region of the colony. Though the English colonies were by far the most populous, within the English colonies, four distinct regions emerged. While planters or merchants grew in power in each English colony, Spanish colonists, with far fewer colonists, depended more on friendly relations with Native Americans to secure their safety than did the English.

Most Spanish colonists not connected to the government or military resided in the Rio Grande valley in New Mexico. By there were clear differences between the societies and economies of the three colonial powers in North America. The achievements of Spain on the North American mainland contrasted starkly with those of Britain. More lightly populated by Europeans, their colonies were more dependent on Native Americans for their survival. Disregarding the wealth and progress of British America, the colonies were rife with tensions of their own. In some areas, vast discrepancies in the distribution of wealth and opportunities fostered a rebellious spirit among whites who were less well off.

Not only did the English colonies have deep-seated religious and ideological divisions, they too had depths of racial antagonisms. However, both the Spanish and British formed their separate colonies in distinctly different methods. The Spanish, as they colonized earlier than the English, had a different approach to colonizing in North America and acted differently toward those indigenous people who had inhabited the region prior to themselves.

One of the biggest distinctions between the Spanish and British was their political ruling of the region at the time. Although both the Spanish and British had major colonizing efforts in North America prior to and they both had similar pursuits in that they had varying economic goals, religious objectives, and some form of governing by their host countries. The British colonization efforts in North America prior to were economically, demographically, and politically different than those of the Spanish and these differences ultimately led to their greater success. A major distinction between the Spanish and British colonization efforts in North America were their contrasting economic situations both in the colonies and in their home countries.

As the Spanish had discovered large deposits of gold and silver early on, their economic stand point changed immensely since obtaining such gold and silver lead to inflation. Inflation rose to such gross levels that Spain had to trade with the French and British in order to remain a colonizing power. While both the English and Spanish followed mercantilist principles, the English swayed in a different method into maintaining a strong economic power at the time. The English had successfully invested into a commercial economy in which the merchant class held the majority of the wealth of which they would invest a large amount back into the economy.

Ambitious adventurers from Britain, France, and Iberia also began exploring the fertile fishing grounds off the northern shores of North America. As the Indians and the fishermen came to know each other, they began to exchange goods. Apparently the trade grew quickly. By , when Jacques Cartier made the first official exploration of the Canadian coast for the French government, he was approached by party after party of Indians offering to trade furs for the goods he carried. He could only conclude that many other Europeans had come before him. The presence of explorers such as Verrazano and Cartier and of unknown numbers of anonymous fishermen and part-time traders had several effects on the native population.

In part this response was a sign of natural curiosity, but it also reflected some serious changes taking place in the Native world of North America. Beginning in the mid-fourteenth century, the climate in North America underwent significant cooling. As warfare became more common, groups increasingly formed alliances for mutual defense—systems like the Iroquois League and Powhatan Confederacy.

And Indians found it beneficial to welcome European newcomers into their midst—as trading partners bearing new tools, as allies in the evolving conflicts with neighboring Indian groups, and as powerful magicians whose shamans might provide explanations and remedies for the hard times that had befallen the Indians. The existence of America—and even more the presence of people there—further challenged European provincialism, though as the newcomers came to understand that America was a new land and that the Indians were a new people, they attempted to fit both into the cosmic map outlined in the Bible. In some ways, the arrival of Europeans may have been easier for American Indians to understand and explain than the existence of Indians was for Europeans.

To Indians, the world was alive, animated by a spiritual force that was both universal and intelligent. Social ties based on fictive kinship and reciprocal trade linked all creatures—human and nonhuman—together into a common cosmos. These connections were chronicled in myth and maintained through ritual, which often involved the exchange of ceremonial items believed to have spiritual value. In the pre-Columbian trading world, such prized goods passed from society to society, establishing a spiritual bond even if the two groups never met. Europeans and European goods slipped easily into this ceremonial trading system.

The trade items that the Europeans generally offered to American Indians on first contact—glass beads, mirrors, brass bells—resembled closely the items that the Indians traditionally used to establish friendly spiritual and economic relations with strangers. The perceived similarity of the trade goods offered by the Europeans led Indians to accept the newcomers as simply another new group in the complex social cosmos uniting the spiritual and material worlds. Europeans, to the contrary, perceived such items as worthless trinkets, valuing instead Indian furs and land. This difference in perception became a major source of misunderstanding and conflict. Beavers, for example, gave their fur to people in exchange for spiritual gifts, and when the Native Americans passed the furs along to Europeans they were simply extending the social connection that had brought the furs into their hands in the first place.

Similarly, the land was seen as a living being—a mother—who feeds, clothes, and houses people as long as she receives proper respect. When Europeans offered spiritually significant objects in exchange for land on which to build, farm, or hunt, Indians perceived the offer as an effort to join an already existing social relationship, and not as a contract transferring ownership.

Another source of tension stemmed from the fact that the natural environments of the Old and New Worlds were different, and the passage of people, plants, and animals among Europe, Africa, and North America instigated profound changes in all three continents. This long-term process has been labeled the Columbian Exchange. The most tragic trade among the three continents was literally invisible: bacteria and viruses wreaked havoc among populations that had never been exposed to them before.

It appears that Europeans acquired a New World bacterium that evolved into syphilis, infecting thousands. And, it would appear, Africans brought various bacteria to the New World that developed into different strains of malaria. Africa, itself, was largely spared from new diseases because most contact with Europeans was sporadic in the early days. But in the Americas, where sustained contact occurred from the very beginning, the impact of both European and African diseases was devastating. There is no way of knowing the full impact of imported diseases among Native Americans, though some studies have found that the death rate during the first century of contact was over 90 percent.

While exchanged diseases were killing many millions of Indians and lesser numbers of Africans and Europeans, the transplantation of North American plants significantly expanded food production in what had been marginal areas of Europe and Africa. At the same time, the environmental changes that Europeans wrought along the Atlantic shore of North America permitted the region to support many more people than it had sustained under Native cultivation. The overall result in Europe and Africa was a population explosion that eventually spilled over to repopulate a devastated North America. As Europeans struggled to wrest a profit from a rugged, and now underpopulated, New World, they found the prospect of enslaved African labor irresistible.

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