Social Cognitive Learning Theory: Observational Learning

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Social Cognitive Learning Theory: Observational Learning



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Observational Learning \u0026 The Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory, proposed by Albert Bandura, emphasizes the importance of observing, modelling, and imitating the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Social learning theory considers how both environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and behavior. In social learning theory, Albert Bandura agrees with the behaviorist learning theories of classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

However, he adds two important ideas:. Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. This is illustrated during the famous Bobo doll experiment Bandura, Individuals that are observed are called models. These models provide examples of behavior to observe and imitate, e. Children pay attention to some of these people models and encode their behavior. At a later time they may imitate i. First, the child is more likely to attend to and imitate those people it perceives as similar to itself. Consequently, it is more likely to imitate behavior modeled by people of the same gender. Second, the people around the child will respond to the behavior it imitates with either reinforcement or punishment.

Her behavior has been reinforced i. Reinforcement can be external or internal and can be positive or negative. If a child wants approval from parents or peers, this approval is an external reinforcement, but feeling happy about being approved of is an internal reinforcement. A child will behave in a way which it believes will earn approval because it desires approval.

Positive or negative reinforcement will have little impact if the reinforcement offered externally does not match with an individual's needs. Reinforcement can be positive or negative , but the important factor is that it will usually lead to a change in a person's behavior. This is known as vicarious reinforcement. This relates to an attachment to specific models that possess qualities seen as rewarding. Children will have a number of models with whom they identify. These may be people in their immediate world, such as parents or older siblings, or could be fantasy characters or people in the media. The motivation to identify with a particular model is that they have a quality which the individual would like to possess.

Identification occurs with another person the model and involves taking on or adopting observed behaviors, values, beliefs and attitudes of the person with whom you are identifying. The term identification as used by Social Learning Theory is similar to the Freudian term related to the Oedipus complex. However, during the Oedipus complex, the child can only identify with the same sex parent, whereas with Social Learning Theory the person child or adult can potentially identify with any other person.

Identification is different to imitation as it may involve a number of behaviors being adopted, whereas imitation usually involves copying a single behavior. This is because it focuses on how mental cognitive factors are involved in learning. Unlike Skinner , Bandura believes that humans are active information processors and think about the relationship between their behavior and its consequences.

Observational learning could not occur unless cognitive processes were at work. These mental factors mediate i. Therefore, individuals do not automatically observe the behavior of a model and imitate it. When we change our thoughts, we can change our emotions and then our behaviors. It also works in reverse where changing how we behave leads to changes in our feelings and, ultimately, our thoughts. The employee is automatically likely to have a negative attitude towards this particular task, and his performance will likely be poor. Cognitive learning theory enhances lifelong learning. Workers can build upon previous ideas and apply new concepts to already existing knowledge. Employees become more confident in approaching tasks as they get a deeper understanding of new topics and learn new skills.

They can develop a deeper understanding of new learning materials. Cognitive learning equips employees with the skills they need to learn effectively. They are thereby able to develop problem-solving skills they can apply under challenging tasks. Through the experience of learning, the employee will be able to recycle and use the same learning methods that worked previously. This will help them learn new things a lot faster as they already know what works for them when it comes to obtaining new knowledge. Cognitive learning can also teach your employees to form a range of different concepts such as easily perceiving and interpreting information that could boost creativity and lead to innovations at the workplace. Several psychologists have shaped the concept of cognitive learning through research.

They came up with theories and learning strategies that can be implemented in a corporate learning environment. Jean Piaget termed learning as relating information to already existing knowledge. And each learner starts with their own knowledge and experience. According to his theories, learning begins with the accumulation of some basic knowledge and advancing deeper into the field with time. Each company should develop their training programs with a personalized learning approach to make it engaging for their employees to achieve better results. According to him, material that was closely related to what the learner knew was meaningful and always turned out to be effective.

His theory identified three stages of cognitive representation which are enactive, iconic, and symbolic. Enactive defining the representation of knowledge through actions, iconic being the visual summarization of images, and symbolic which is the use of words and symbols to describe experiences. Through his study of cognitive learning in children, he suggested that they should be allowed to discover information for themselves.

He believed that learners review previously learned material even as they gain new knowledge. All of these strategies can be combined into one personalized learning approach. Each learner is unique and has their own experience, knowledge, and perception. Which can greatly influence the way they interpret and consume new information. Creating learning experiences that fit each individual based on their own knowledge that is meaningful for their role which encourages them to discover new solutions can drive great results and improve their overall performance. A common practice in recent years to create personalized learning is the use of modern technologies: AI recommendations, learning paths, machine learning, natural language processing. For example, a digital learning assistant has the capability to recognize what the skills of the employees are, what they have learned so far, and automatically suggest to them what they should learn next.

The reason why such modern technology is essential in employee development, because it can offer information they need without them even anticipating the need for it. Furthermore, having the ultimate access to a range of company resources, no two employees need to learn or go through the same learning process as they can cherry-pick what they want to learn from. Now you have a clear idea of what cognitive learning means. The following are various examples of cognitive learning. It happens when you intentionally seek knowledge to attempt and learn a new skill or process that may be vital to your work.

It requires you to be attentive and take action to acquire knowledge. An example of explicit learning would be undertaking an in-depth video editing course to understand the functionality of the software in order to be able to use it appropriately for the needs of your work. Sometimes you passively gain new knowledge and learn some new skills. It is known as implicit learning, where you are unaware of the entire process until you realize you have retained something new.

This type of learning may occur when you are working, talking, or going about your normal life. Typing fast and without looking at your keyboard is one good example of implicit learning that comes automatically over time. Meaningful learning is when you are capable of acquiring new information and relating it to past experiences. This is because this cognitive learning approach teaches employees to build transferable problem-solving skills that can be applied in other areas. An example of meaningful learning is when you work in procurement and decide to take an advanced course in your department to deepen your understanding of the subject. It happens when you actively seek new knowledge by researching new concepts, processes, and subjects.

For example, if someone is set the task to proofread a particular report and they need to make use of a specific tool such as Grammarly, by using this tool in hand with the manuals, this would cause them to learn the features and abilities of the tool through discovery. Lectures where you sit in groups and a speaker feeds the audience with information on a specific subject is an example of receptive learning. It requires the learner to be active by asking questions and taking down short notes.

During training in your workplace, this type of learning comes in handy where you get a deeper understanding of new information by being active and responsive to the speaker. It is a type of learning that enables humans to adapt to something by facing it frequently. When you get a new job at a factory where there are many machines making noise, it irritates for the first few days, but you later learn how to live with it. This is known as habituation. Sensitization is the vice versa whereby your reaction towards something increases as you get frequent exposure towards it.

This type of learning happens in your typical situations in life and work. Working in an office teaches you to be more responsive to things like telephone calls. Developing emotional intelligence is crucial to help us maintain friendly relationships with friends at work and in life. An employer requires to have control over their emotions so as to handle customers and also their superiors in a courteous manner.

Recent research in neuroscience has implicated mirror neurons The Effect Of Money On Quebecs Economy a neurophysiological Social Cognitive Learning Theory: Observational Learning for observational learning. But, a great deal of learning takes place much more subtly and relies on watching the System Of Today Essay around us and modeling their actions. Leave a Greek Life In Trouble Cancel reply Your email address Analysis Of David Lubars Sleeping Freshmen Never Lie Social Cognitive Learning Theory: Observational Learning be published. However, although it can explain some quite complex behavior, Essay On Muslim Discrimination cannot adequately account for how we develop a whole range of behavior including thoughts Ishmael In A Wild Zoo feelings. Sure, what is the sociological imagination be said that observational methods are high in ecological validity as subjects are not aware that they are being watched and will act naturally but what is the sociological imagination question as to whether or not such methods are Adult Nurse Scholarship Essay to observer Why Is It Important To Be Allowed In High School? interpreter bias can be Why Is It Important To Be Allowed In High School?.