Analysis Of Fyodor Dostoyevskys Crime And Punishment

Saturday, October 9, 2021 12:34:45 PM

Analysis Of Fyodor Dostoyevskys Crime And Punishment



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Crime and Punishment - Fyodor Dostoevsky

He begins imaging events and becomes suspicious of everyone. Eventually, internal and external forces pressure Raskolnikov enough to turn himself in. In the midst of this, Dostoyevsky. Written by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment has become one of the most distinguished novels to dissect the physiology of the criminal mind. The intricate storyline allows for the clashing of criminality and morals as main character, Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov, develops the configuration of his future. Not alone, Dmitri Prokofych Razumikhin, assists in the uneasiness Raskolikov comes across throughout his mental struggle. The pair then demonstrates the idea of physiological intuition and the reactants of tension that follow. However, as they experience similar events, each individual portrays their own attributes and qualities of life in different ways.

With this, Raskolinov and Razumikhin demonstrate similar ideologies along …show more content… Razumikhin was there for his dear friend and once again was taking care of his wellbeing. Throughout the story, Raskolinov and Razumikhin appear to have a more unique relationship then others. He may not always show it, but deep down he cherishes Razumikhin and all that he has done for him throughout his journey. On multiple occasions, Raskolinov had fallen ill and only Razumikhin was there to care for his conditions and make him more stable. Razumikhin on the other hand described Raskolinov as two different characters. Overall, Raskolinov fails to show much gratitude and emotion towards his dear friend Razumikhin, however, Razumikhin understands who Raskolinov truly is and respects that.

They are able to interpret each other clearly and build off of the experiences they share making their relationship stronger. Dostoevsky completed his first novel, Poor Folk , in May His friend Dmitry Grigorovich , with whom he was sharing an apartment at the time, took the manuscript to the poet Nikolay Nekrasov , who in turn showed it to the renowned and influential literary critic Vissarion Belinsky. Belinsky described it as Russia's first " social novel ". Dostoevsky felt that his military career would endanger his now flourishing literary career, so he wrote a letter asking to resign his post. Shortly thereafter, he wrote his second novel, The Double , which appeared in the journal Notes of the Fatherland on 30 January , before being published in February.

Around the same time, Dostoevsky discovered socialism through the writings of French thinkers Fourier , Cabet , Proudhon and Saint-Simon. Through his relationship with Belinsky he expanded his knowledge of the philosophy of socialism. He was attracted to its logic, its sense of justice and its preoccupation with the destitute and the disadvantaged. However, his relationship with Belinsky became increasingly strained as Belinsky's atheism and dislike of religion clashed with Dostoevsky's Russian Orthodox beliefs. Dostoevsky eventually parted with him and his associates. After The Double received negative reviews, Dostoevsky's health declined and he had more frequent seizures, but he continued writing.

From to he released several short stories in the magazine Annals of the Fatherland , including " Mr. These stories were unsuccessful, leaving Dostoevsky once more in financial trouble, so he joined the utopian socialist Betekov circle, a tightly knit community which helped him to survive. When the circle dissolved, Dostoevsky befriended Apollon Maykov and his brother Valerian. In , on the recommendation of the poet Aleksey Pleshcheyev , [42] he joined the Petrashevsky Circle , founded by Mikhail Petrashevsky , who had proposed social reforms in Russia. Mikhail Bakunin once wrote to Alexander Herzen that the group was "the most innocent and harmless company" and its members were "systematic opponents of all revolutionary goals and means".

In , the first parts of Netochka Nezvanova , a novel Dostoevsky had been planning since , were published in Annals of the Fatherland , but his banishment ended the project. Dostoevsky never attempted to complete it. Dostoevsky was accused of reading works by Belinsky, including the banned Letter to Gogol , [47] and of circulating copies of these and other works. Antonelli, the government agent who had reported the group, wrote in his statement that at least one of the papers criticised Russian politics and religion. Dostoevsky responded to these charges by declaring that he had read the essays only "as a literary monument, neither more nor less"; he spoke of "personality and human egoism" rather than of politics. Even so, he and his fellow "conspirators" were arrested on 23 April at the request of Count A.

Orlov and Tsar Nicholas I , who feared a revolution like the Decembrist revolt of in Russia and the Revolutions of in Europe. The members were held in the well-defended Peter and Paul Fortress , which housed the most dangerous convicts. They sentenced the members of the circle to death by firing squad, and the prisoners were taken to Semyonov Place in St Petersburg on 23 December where they were split into three-man groups. Dostoevsky was the third in the second row; next to him stood Pleshcheyev and Durov.

The execution was stayed when a cart delivered a letter from the Tsar commuting the sentence. Dostoevsky later alluded to his experience of what he believed to be the last moments of his life in his novel, The Idiot , where the main character tells the harrowing story of an execution by guillotine that he recently witnessed in France. Dostoevsky served four years of exile with hard labour at a katorga prison camp in Omsk , Siberia, followed by a term of compulsory military service.

After a fourteen-day sleigh ride, the prisoners reached Tobolsk , a prisoner way station. Despite the circumstances, Dostoevsky consoled the other prisoners, such as the Petrashevist Ivan Yastrzhembsky, who was surprised by Dostoevsky's kindness and eventually abandoned his decision to kill himself. In Tobolsk, the members received food and clothes from the Decembrist women, as well as several copies of the New Testament with a ten-ruble banknote inside each copy. Eleven days later, Dostoevsky reached Omsk [49] [51] together with just one other member of the Petrashevsky Circle, the poet Sergei Durov.

In summer, intolerable closeness; in winter, unendurable cold. All the floors were rotten. Filth on the floors an inch thick; one could slip and fall We were packed like herrings in a barrel There was no room to turn around. From dusk to dawn it was impossible not to behave like pigs Fleas, lice, and black beetles by the bushel Classified as "one of the most dangerous convicts", Dostoevsky had his hands and feet shackled until his release. He was only permitted to read his New Testament Bible. In addition to his seizures, he had haemorrhoids , lost weight and was "burned by some fever, trembling and feeling too hot or too cold every night".

The smell of the privy pervaded the entire building, and the small bathroom had to suffice for more than people. Dostoevsky was occasionally sent to the military hospital, where he read newspapers and Dickens novels. He was respected by most of the other prisoners, and despised by some because of his supposedly xenophobic statements. After his release on 14 February , Dostoevsky asked Mikhail to help him financially and to send him books by Vico , Guizot , Ranke , Hegel and Kant. Around November , he met Baron Alexander Egorovich Wrangel, an admirer of his books, who had attended the aborted execution. They both rented houses in the Cossack Garden outside Semipalatinsk.

Wrangel remarked that Dostoevsky "looked morose. His sickly, pale face was covered with freckles, and his blond hair was cut short. He was a little over average height and looked at me intensely with his sharp, grey-blue eyes. It was as if he were trying to look into my soul and discover what kind of man I was. In Semipalatinsk, Dostoevsky tutored several schoolchildren and came into contact with upper-class families, including that of Lieutenant-Colonel Belikhov, who used to invite him to read passages from newspapers and magazines. Alexander Isaev took a new post in Kuznetsk , where he died in August Maria and her son then moved with Dostoevsky to Barnaul.

In Dostoevsky sent a letter through Wrangel to General Eduard Totleben, apologising for his activity in several utopian circles. As a result, he obtained the right to publish books and to marry, although he remained under police surveillance for the rest of his life. Maria married Dostoevsky in Semipalatinsk on 7 February , even though she had initially refused his marriage proposal, stating that they were not meant for each other and that his poor financial situation precluded marriage.

Their family life was unhappy and she found it difficult to cope with his seizures. Describing their relationship, he wrote: "Because of her strange, suspicious and fantastic character, we were definitely not happy together, but we could not stop loving each other; and the more unhappy we were, the more attached to each other we became". They mostly lived apart. In London, he met Herzen and visited the Crystal Palace. He recorded his impressions of those trips in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions , in which he criticised capitalism, social modernisation , materialism , Catholicism and Protestantism.

From August to October , Dostoevsky made another trip to western Europe. He met his second love, Polina Suslova , in Paris and lost nearly all his money gambling in Wiesbaden and Baden-Baden. In his wife Maria and his brother Mikhail died, and Dostoevsky became the lone parent of his stepson Pasha and the sole supporter of his brother's family. The failure of Epoch , the magazine he had founded with Mikhail after the suppression of Vremya , worsened his financial situation, although the continued help of his relatives and friends averted bankruptcy.

The first two parts of Crime and Punishment were published in January and February in the periodical The Russian Messenger , [72] attracting at least new subscribers to the magazine. Dostoevsky returned to Saint Petersburg in mid-September and promised his editor, Fyodor Stellovsky , that he would complete The Gambler , a short novel focused on gambling addiction , by November, although he had not yet begun writing it. One of Dostoevsky's friends, Milyukov, advised him to hire a secretary. Dostoevsky contacted stenographer Pavel Olkhin from Saint Petersburg, who recommended his pupil, the twenty-year-old Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina.

Her shorthand helped Dostoevsky to complete The Gambler on 30 October, after 26 days' work. The strangeness of his eyes gave Dostoyevsky some mysterious appearance. His face was pale, and it looked unhealthy. The 7, rubles he had earned from Crime and Punishment did not cover their debts, forcing Anna to sell her valuables. On 14 April , they began a delayed honeymoon in Germany with the money gained from the sale. They continued their trip through Germany, visiting Frankfurt , Darmstadt , Heidelberg and Karlsruhe.

They spent five weeks in Baden-Baden , where Dostoevsky had a quarrel with Turgenev and again lost much money at the roulette table. In September , Dostoevsky began work on The Idiot , and after a prolonged planning process that bore little resemblance to the published novel, he eventually managed to write the first pages in only 23 days; the serialisation began in The Russian Messenger in January Their first child, Sofya, had been conceived in Baden-Baden , and was born in Geneva on 5 March The baby died of pneumonia three months later, and Anna recalled how Dostoevsky "wept and sobbed like a woman in despair".

In April , Dostoevsky made a final visit to a gambling hall in Wiesbaden. Anna claimed that he stopped gambling after the birth of their second daughter, but this is a subject of debate. After hearing news that the socialist revolutionary group "People's Vengeance" had murdered one of its own members, Ivan Ivanov, on 21 November , Dostoevsky began writing Demons. During the trip, he burnt several manuscripts, including those of The Idiot , because he was concerned about potential problems with customs.

The family arrived in Saint Petersburg on 8 July, marking the end of a honeymoon originally planned for three months that had lasted over four years. Back in Russia in July , the family was again in financial trouble and had to sell their remaining possessions. Their son Fyodor was born on 16 July, and they moved to an apartment near the Institute of Technology soon after. They hoped to cancel their large debts by selling their rental house in Peski, but difficulties with the tenant resulted in a relatively low selling price, and disputes with their creditors continued.

Anna proposed that they raise money on her husband's copyrights and negotiate with the creditors to pay off their debts in installments. Dostoevsky revived his friendships with Maykov and Strakhov and made new acquaintances, including church politician Terty Filipov and the brothers Vsevolod and Vladimir Solovyov. Around early the family spent several months in Staraya Russa , a town known for its mineral spa. Dostoevsky's work was delayed when Anna's sister Maria Svatkovskaya died on 1 May , from either typhus or malaria , [88] and Anna developed an abscess on her throat.

The family returned to St Petersburg in September. Demons was finished on 26 November and released in January by the "Dostoevsky Publishing Company", which was founded by Dostoevsky and his wife. Although they accepted only cash payments and the bookshop was in their own apartment, the business was successful, and they sold around 3, copies of Demons. Anna managed the finances. Dostoevsky proposed that they establish a new periodical, which would be called A Writer's Diary and would include a collection of essays, but funds were lacking, and the Diary was published in Vladimir Meshchersky 's The Citizen , beginning on 1 January, in return for a salary of 3, rubles per year.

In the summer of , Anna returned to Staraya Russa with the children, while Dostoevsky stayed in St Petersburg to continue with his Diary. In March , Dostoevsky left The Citizen because of the stressful work and interference from the Russian bureaucracy. In his fifteen months with The Citizen , he had been taken to court twice: on 11 June for citing the words of Prince Meshchersky without permission, and again on 23 March Dostoevsky offered to sell a new novel he had not yet begun to write to The Russian Messenger , but the magazine refused.

Nikolay Nekrasov suggested that he publish A Writer's Diary in Notes of the Fatherland ; he would receive rubles for each printer's sheet — more than the text's publication in The Russian Messenger would have earned. Dostoevsky accepted. As his health began to decline, he consulted several doctors in St Petersburg and was advised to take a cure outside Russia. Around July, he reached Ems and consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with acute catarrh. During his stay he began The Adolescent. He returned to Saint Petersburg in late July. Anna proposed that they spend the winter in Staraya Russa to allow Dostoevsky to rest, although doctors had suggested a second visit to Ems because his health had previously improved there.

Dostoevsky finished The Adolescent at the end of , although passages of it had been serialised in Notes of the Fatherland since January. The Adolescent chronicles the life of Arkady Dolgoruky, the illegitimate child of the landowner Versilov and a peasant mother. It deals primarily with the relationship between father and son, which became a frequent theme in Dostoevsky's subsequent works. In early , Dostoevsky continued work on his Diary. The book includes numerous essays and a few short stories about society, religion, politics and ethics. The collection sold more than twice as many copies as his previous books. Dostoevsky received more letters from readers than ever before, and people of all ages and occupations visited him.

With assistance from Anna's brother, the family bought a dacha in Staraya Russa. In the summer of , Dostoevsky began experiencing shortness of breath again. He visited Ems for the third time and was told that he might live for another 15 years if he moved to a healthier climate. When he returned to Russia, Tsar Alexander II ordered Dostoevsky to visit his palace to present the Diary to him, and he asked him to educate his sons, Sergey and Paul. This visit further increased Dosteyevsky's circle of acquaintances.

Dostoevsky's health declined further, and in March he had four epileptic seizures. Rather than returning to Ems, he visited Maly Prikol, a manor near Kursk. While returning to St Petersburg to finalise his Diary , he visited Darovoye, where he had spent much of his childhood. In December he attended Nekrasov's funeral and gave a speech. He was appointed an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences , from which he received an honorary certificate in February He declined an invitation to an international congress on copyright in Paris after his son Alyosha had a severe epileptic seizure and died on 16 May.

The family later moved to the apartment where Dostoevsky had written his first works. Around this time, he was elected to the board of directors of the Slavic Benevolent Society in Saint Petersburg. Dostoevsky made his fourth and final visit to Ems in early August He was diagnosed with early-stage pulmonary emphysema , which his doctor believed could be successfully managed, but not cured. On 3 February Dostoevsky was elected vice-president of the Slavic Benevolent Society, and he was invited to speak at the unveiling of the Pushkin memorial in Moscow. On 8 June he delivered his speech , giving an impressive performance that had a significant emotional impact on his audience. His speech was met with thunderous applause, and even his long-time rival Turgenev embraced him.

Konstantin Staniukovich praised the speech in his essay "The Pushkin Anniversary and Dostoevsky's Speech" in The Business , writing that "the language of Dostoevsky's [Pushkin Speech] really looks like a sermon. He speaks with the tone of a prophet. He makes a sermon like a pastor; it is very deep, sincere, and we understand that he wants to impress the emotions of his listeners. On 6 February [ O. Anna denied that the search had caused it, saying that the haemorrhage had occurred after her husband had been looking for a dropped pen holder.

A third haemorrhage followed shortly afterwards. The profound meaning of this request is pointed out by Frank:. It was this parable of transgression, repentance, and forgiveness that he wished to leave as a last heritage to his children, and it may well be seen as his own ultimate understanding of the meaning of his life and the message of his work. Among Dostoevsky's last words was his quotation of Matthew —15 : "But John forbad him, saying, I have a need to be baptised of thee, and comest thou to me? And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness", and he finished with "Hear now—permit it.

Do not restrain me! It is unclear how many attended his funeral. According to one reporter, more than , mourners were present, while others describe attendance between 40, and 50, His tombstone is inscribed with lines from the New Testament: [] []. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it dies, it bringeth forth much fruit. Dostoevsky had his first known affair with Avdotya Yakovlevna, whom he met in the Panayev circle in the early s. He described her as educated, interested in literature, and a femme fatale. Dostoevsky and Apollonia Polina Suslova had a short but intimate affair, which peaked in the winter of — Suslova's dalliance with a Spaniard in late spring and Dostoevsky's gambling addiction and age ended their relationship.

He later described her in a letter to Nadezhda Suslova as a "great egoist. Her egoism and her vanity are colossal. She demands everything of other people, all the perfections, and does not pardon the slightest imperfection in the light of other qualities that one may possess", and later stated "I still love her, but I do not want to love her any more. She doesn't deserve this love Although she divorced Dostoevsky's friend Stepan Yanovsky , she would not live with him.

Dostoevsky did not love her either, but they were probably good friends. She wrote that he "became very attracted to me". Her relationship with Dostoevsky is known only through letters written between November and January Their relationship is not verified; Anna Dostoevskaya spoke of a good affair, but Korvin-Krukovskaya's sister, the mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya , thought that Korvin-Krukovskaya had rejected him.

In his youth, Dostoevsky enjoyed reading Nikolai Karamzin 's History of the Russian State , which praised conservatism and Russian independence, ideas that Dostoevsky would embrace later in life. Before his arrest for participating in the Petrashevsky Circle in , Dostoevsky remarked, "As far as I am concerned, nothing was ever more ridiculous than the idea of a republican government in Russia. While critical of serfdom, Dostoevsky was skeptical about the creation of a constitution , a concept he viewed as unrelated to Russia's history.

He described it as a mere "gentleman's rule" and believed that "a constitution would simply enslave the people". He advocated social change instead, for example removal of the feudal system and a weakening of the divisions between the peasantry and the affluent classes. His ideal was a utopian , Christianized Russia where "if everyone were actively Christian, not a single social question would come up If they were Christians they would settle everything". In the s, he discovered Pochvennichestvo , a movement similar to Slavophilism in that it rejected Europe's culture and contemporary philosophical movements, such as nihilism and materialism.

Pochvennichestvo differed from Slavophilism in aiming to establish, not an isolated Russia, but a more open state modelled on the Russia of Peter the Great. In his incomplete article "Socialism and Christianity", Dostoevsky claimed that civilisation "the second stage in human history" had become degraded, and that it was moving towards liberalism and losing its faith in God. He asserted that the traditional concept of Christianity should be recovered.

He thought that contemporary western Europe had "rejected the single formula for their salvation that came from God and was proclaimed through revelation, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself', and replaced it with practical conclusions such as, ' Chacun pour soi et Dieu pour tous ' [Every man for himself and God for all], or "scientific" slogans like ' the struggle for survival. Dostoevsky distinguished three "enormous world ideas" prevalent in his time: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy. He claimed that Catholicism had continued the tradition of Imperial Rome and had thus become anti-Christian and proto-socialist, inasmuch as the Church's interest in political and mundane affairs led it to abandon the idea of Christ.

For Dostoevsky, socialism was "the latest incarnation of the Catholic idea" and its "natural ally". Raskolnikov Rodion Romanovitch is the protagonist , and the novel focuses primarily on his perspective. A year-old man and former student, now destitute, Raskolnikov is described in the novel as "exceptionally handsome, above the average in height, slim, well built, with beautiful dark eyes and dark brown hair. On the one hand, he is cold, apathetic, and antisocial; on the other, he can be surprisingly warm and compassionate.

He commits murder as well as acts of impulsive charity. His chaotic interaction with the external world and his nihilistic worldview might be seen as causes of his social alienation or consequences of it. Despite its title, the novel does not so much deal with the crime and its formal punishment as with Raskolnikov's internal struggle — the torments of his own conscience, rather than the legal consequences of committing the crime. Believing society would be better for it, Raskolnikov commits murder with the idea that he possesses enough intellectual and emotional fortitude to deal with the ramifications, but his sense of guilt soon overwhelms him to the point of psychological and somatic illness.

It is only in the epilogue that he realizes his formal punishment, having decided to confess and end his alienation from society. Sonya Sofya Semyonovna Marmeladova , is the daughter of a drunkard named Semyon Zakharovich Marmeladov, whom Raskolnikov meets in a tavern at the beginning of the novel. She is often characterized as self-sacrificial, shy, and innocent, despite being forced into prostitution to help her family.

Raskolnikov discerns in her the same feelings of shame and alienation that he experiences, and she becomes the first person to whom he confesses his crime. Sensing his deep unhappiness, she supports him, even though she was friends with one of the victims Lizaveta. Throughout the novel, Sonya is an important source of moral strength and rehabilitation for Raskolnikov.

The character is intended to represent something of a reconciliation between faith and reason razum , "sense", "intelligence". He admires Raskolnikov's intelligence and character, refuses to give any credence to others' suspicions, and supports him at all times. He looks after Raskolnikov's family when they come to Petersburg, and falls in love with Dunya. Dunya Avdotya Romanovna Raskolnikova — Raskolnikov's beautiful and strong-willed sister who works as a governess. She initially plans to marry the wealthy but unsavory lawyer Luzhin, thinking it will enable her to ease her family's desperate financial situation and escape her former employer Svidrigailov. Her situation is a factor in Raskolnikov's decision to commit the murder.

In St. Petersburg, she is eventually able to escape the clutches of both Luzhin and Svidrigailov, and later marries Razumikhin. Luzhin Pyotr Petrovich — A well-off lawyer who is engaged to Dunya in the beginning of the novel. His motives for the marriage are dubious, as he more or less states that he has sought a woman who will be completely beholden to him. He slanders and falsely accuses Sonya of theft in an attempt to harm Raskolnikov's relations with his family. He overhears Raskolnikov's confessions to Sonya and uses this knowledge to torment both Dunya and Raskolnikov, but does not inform the police.

When Dunya tells him she could never love him after attempting to shoot him he lets her go. He tells Sonya that he has made financial arrangements for the Marmeladov children to enter an orphanage, and gives her three thousand rubles, enabling her to follow Raskolnikov to Siberia. Porfiry Petrovich — The head of the Investigation Department in charge of solving the murders of Lizaveta and Alyona Ivanovna, who, along with Sonya, moves Raskolnikov towards confession. Unlike Sonya, however, Porfiry does this through psychological means, seeking to confuse and provoke the volatile Raskolnikov into a voluntary or involuntary confession.

He later drops these methods and sincerely urges Raskolnikov to confess for his own good. The novel is divided into six parts, with an epilogue. The notion of "intrinsic duality" in Crime and Punishment has been commented upon, with the suggestion that there is a degree of symmetry to the book. The first half of the novel shows the progressive death of the first ruling principle of his character; the last half, the progressive birth of the new ruling principle. The point of change comes in the very middle of the novel.

This compositional balance is achieved by means of the symmetrical distribution of certain key episodes throughout the novel's six parts. The recurrence of these episodes in the two halves of the novel, as David Bethea has argued, is organized according to a mirror-like principle, whereby the "left" half of the novel reflects the "right" half. The seventh part of the novel, the Epilogue, has attracted much attention and controversy. Some of Dostoevsky's critics have criticized the novel's final pages as superfluous, anti-climactic, unworthy of the rest of the work, [33] while others have defended it, offering various schemes that they claim prove its inevitability and necessity.

Steven Cassedy argues that Crime and Punishment "is formally two distinct but closely related, things, namely a particular type of tragedy in the classical Greek mold and a Christian resurrection tale". At the same time, this tragedy contains a Christian component, and the logical demands of this element are met only by the resurrection promised in the Epilogue".

Dostoevsky's letter to Katkov reveals his immediate inspiration, to which he remained faithful even after his original plan evolved into a much more ambitious creation: a desire to counteract what he regarded as nefarious consequences arising from the doctrines of Russian nihilism. He thus attacked a peculiar Russian blend of French utopian socialism and Benthamite utilitarianism, which had developed under revolutionary thinkers such as Nikolai Chernyshevsky and became known as rational egoism. The radicals refused to recognize themselves in the novel's pages, since Dostoevsky pursued nihilistic ideas to their most extreme consequences. Dimitri Pisarev ridiculed the notion that Raskolnikov's ideas could be identified with those of the radicals of the time.

The radicals' aims were altruistic and humanitarian, but they were to be achieved by relying on reason and suppressing the spontaneous outflow of Christian compassion. Chernyshevsky's utilitarian ethic proposed that thought and will in Man were subject to the laws of physical science. Raskolnikov exemplifies the potentially disastrous hazards contained in such an ideal. Contemporary scholar Joseph Frank writes that "the moral-psychological traits of his character incorporate this antinomy between instinctive kindness, sympathy, and pity on the one hand and, on the other, a proud and idealistic egoism that has become perverted into a contemptuous disdain for the submissive herd".

Dostoevsky wants to show that this utilitarian style of reasoning had become widespread and commonplace; it was by no means the solitary invention of Raskolnikov's tormented and disordered mind. He even becomes fascinated with the majestic image of a Napoleonic personality who, in the interests of a higher social good, believes that he possesses a moral right to kill. Indeed, his "Napoleon-like" plan impels him toward a well-calculated murder, the ultimate conclusion of his self-deception with utilitarianism.

In his depiction of Petersburg, Dostoevsky accentuates the squalor and human wretchedness that pass before Raskolnikov's eyes. He uses Raskolnikov's encounter with Marmeladov to contrast the heartlessness of Raskolnikov's convictions with a Christian approach to poverty and wretchedness. In seeking to affirm this "freedom" in himself, Raskolnikov is in perpetual revolt against society, himself, and God.

Crime and Punishment is written from a third-person omniscient perspective. This narrative technique, which fuses the narrator very closely with the consciousness and point of view of the central characters, was original for its period. Frank notes that Dostoevsky's use of time shifts of memory and manipulation of temporal sequence begins to approach the later experiments of Henry James , Joseph Conrad , Virginia Woolf , and James Joyce.

A late nineteenth-century reader was, however, accustomed to more orderly and linear types of expository narration. Dostoevsky uses different speech mannerisms and sentences of different length for different characters. Those who use artificial language—Luzhin, for example—are identified as unattractive people. Marmeladov's disintegrating mind is reflected in her language. In the original Russian text, the names of the major characters have something of a double meaning , but in translation the subtlety of the Russian language is predominantly lost due to differences in language structure and culture. The physical image of crime as crossing over a barrier or a boundary is lost in translation, as is the religious implication of transgression.

The dream of the mare being whipped Part 1, chapter V has been suggested as the fullest single expression of the whole novel. It symbolizes gratification in punishment, contemptible motives and contemptible society. Raskolnikov's disgust and horror is central to the theme of his conflicted character, his guilty conscience, his contempt for society, his view of himself as an extraordinary man above greater society and his concept of justified murder. The dream is also a warning, suggesting a comparison to his murder plot. The dream occurs after Rodion crosses a bridge leading out of the oppressive heat and dust of Petersburg and into the fresh greenness of the islands.

This symbolizes a corresponding mental crossing, suggesting that Raskolnikov is returning to a state of clarity when he has the dream. In it, he returns to the innocence of his childhood and watches as peasants beat an old mare to death. The laughter of the peasants in the face of brutal slaughter reveals the extent to which they have been desensitized by their suffering, which is a reflection of Raskolnikov's own condition. The main peasant, Mikolka, feels that he has the right to kill the horse, linking his actions to Raskolnikov's theory of a 'right to crime' for a select group of extraordinary men.

The cruel slaughter of the old mare in the dream points to the brutality of Raskolnikov's criminal idea, something that he tries to rationalize away with his dehumanizing characterization of the old woman as a "louse. However, when the theory loses its power in the dream state, subconscious memories and feelings reveal themselves, and the horrific nature of his idea becomes apparent. Therefore, in order for Raskolnikov to find redemption, he must ultimately renounce his theory.

In the final pages, Raskolnikov, who at this point is in the prison infirmary, has a feverish dream about a plague of nihilism that enters Russia and Europe from the east, which spreads senseless dissent and fanatical dedication to "new ideas". The ideas are assaults on ordinary thinking and disrupt society forever. Dostoevsky was envisaging the new, politically and culturally nihilistic ideas that were entering Russian literature and society in this watershed decade, ideas with which he would be in debate for the rest of his life cp. Chernyshevsky's What Is to Be Done? Janko Lavrin , who took part in the revolutions of the World War I era, knew Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky and many others, and later would spend years writing about Dostoevsky's novels and other Russian classics, called this final dream "prophetic in its symbolism".

On an exceptionally hot evening early in July a young man came out of the garret in which he lodged in S. Place and walked slowly, as though in hesitation, towards K. The above opening sentence of the novel has a symbolic function: Russian critic Vadim K. Kozhinov argues that the reference to the "exceptionally hot evening" establishes not only the suffocating atmosphere of Saint Petersburg in midsummer but also "the infernal ambience of the crime itself".

Evnin regards Crime and Punishment as the first great Russian novel "in which the climactic moments of the action are played out in dirty taverns, on the street, in the sordid back rooms of the poor". Dostoevsky's Petersburg is the city of unrelieved poverty; "magnificence has no place in it, because magnificence is external, formal abstract, cold". Dostoevsky connects the city's problems to Raskolnikov's thoughts and subsequent actions. Donald Fanger asserts that "the real city It is crowded, stifling, and parched. In his memoirs, the conservative belletrist Nikolay Strakhov recalled that in Russia Crime and Punishment was the literary sensation of The novel soon attracted the criticism of the liberal and radical critics.

Yeliseyev sprang to the defense of the Russian student corporations, and wondered, "Has there ever been a case of a student committing murder for the sake of robbery? He measured the novel's excellence by the accuracy with which Dostoevsky portrayed the contemporary social reality, and focused on what he regarded as inconsistencies in the novel's plot. Strakhov rejected Pisarev's contention that the theme of environmental determinism was essential to the novel, and pointed out that Dostoevsky's attitude towards his hero was sympathetic: "This is not mockery of the younger generation, neither a reproach nor an accusation—it is a lament over it.

The early Symbolist movement that dominated Russian letters in the s was concerned more with aesthetics than the visceral realism and intellectuality of Crime and Punishment , but a tendency toward mysticism among the new generation of symbolists in the s led to a reevaluation of the novel as an address to the dialectic of spirit and matter. Raskolnikov answers his question of whether he has the right to kill solely by reference to his own arbitrary will, but, according to Berdyaev, these are questions that can only be answered by God, and "he who does not bow before that higher will destroys his neighbor and destroys himself: that is the meaning of Crime and Punishment ".

Crime and Punishment was regarded as an important work in a number of 20th century European cultural movements, notably the Bloomsbury Group , psychoanalysis , and existentialism. Lawrence are some of those who have discussed the work. Freud held Dostoevsky's work in high esteem, and many of his followers have attempted psychoanalytical interpretations of Raskolnikov. The affinity of Crime and Punishment with both religious mysticism and psychoanalysis led to suppression of discussion in Soviet Russia: interpretations of Raskolnikov tended to align with Pisarev's idea of reaction to unjust socio-economic conditions.

In Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics , Bakhtin argues that attempts to understand Dostoevsky's characters from the vantage point of a pre-existing philosophy, or as individualized 'objects' to be psychologically analysed, will always fail to penetrate the unique "artistic architechtonics" of his works. Dostoevsky's art, Bakhtin argues, is inherently 'dialogical': events proceed on the basis of interaction between self-validating subjective voices, often within the consciousness of an individual character, as is the case with Raskolnikov. Raskolnikov's consciousness is depicted as a battleground for all the conflicting ideas that find expression in the novel: everyone and everything he encounters becomes reflected and refracted in a "dialogized" interior monologue.

His openness to dialogue with Sonya is what enables him to cross back over the "threshold into real-life communication confession and public trial —not out of guilt, for he avoids acknowledging his guilt, but out of weariness and loneliness, for that reconciling step is the only relief possible from the cacophony of unfinalized inner dialogue. The Garnett translation was the dominant translation for more than 80 years after its publication in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. For other uses, see Crime and Punishment disambiguation. Dewey Decimal. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.

Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Film adaptations of Crime and Punishment. Open Education Database. The Telegraph. University of Keele. Crime and Punishment: A Mind to Murder. Boston: Twayne. Crime and Punishment. Tzarist Russia: The Russian Messenger. Russia: The Russian Messenger. Fanger , p. Toronto: Bantam Books, Freedom and the Tragic Life.

Archived I Too Sing America By Countee Cullen Summary the I Too Sing America By Countee Cullen Summary on 2 October New York: Centralized Payroll System Classics, You may use it as the cave plato guide or I Too Sing America By Countee Cullen Summary for writing your own paper, but remember to cite it correctly. At these Student Homesickness we can see his true nature as calculated and sly, some even seemed like a deliberate attack of the audience. Dickens' Example of metaphor I Too Sing America By Countee Cullen Summary in Great Expectations.