Causes Of Vicious Violence

Friday, November 19, 2021 3:35:40 PM

Causes Of Vicious Violence



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Violence: Causes and Effects in Society

American leaders, political and military, lost their own moral grounding and were dishonest with the citizenry they theoretically represented. But we citizens also share in that culpability. Why were Americans so willing to go along with the unremitting violence of those conflicts year after year, despite failure after failure? The unending violence of our war culture became a kind of security blanket, money in the bank. Few protested the outlandish Pentagon budgets overwhelmingly approved by Congress each year, even as defeats in distant lands multiplied.

Violence would protect us; it would save us. Such a deep, if remarkably unexamined, belief in the efficacy of violence also served to legitimate our wars, even as it helped conceal their true beneficiaries, the corporate weapons producers, those titans of the military-congressional-industrial complex. Just listen to morally injured military service members to understand how deep and lasting violence turns out to be — and how much harder it is to control than people imagine.

Once out of the service, his moral compass eventually compelled him to leak classified information about drone warfare to a reporter and speak out against the drone brutality and inhumanity he had witnessed and helped perpetrate. I believe that any person either called upon or coerced to participate in war against their fellow man is promised to be exposed to some form of trauma. In that way, no soldier blessed to have returned home from war does so uninjured. There was a deep conviction that, through such violence, we could purchase the world we wanted and not just the weapons the military-industrial complex wanted us to pay for. The world was grieving with us, but the dominant urge for violent revenge took shape with breathtaking speed, so quickly that it all seemed the natural course of events.

Such is the nature of violence. Within a few days, for instance, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was already talking about a global war on terror targeting 60 countries! Most Americans blithely believed that we could strike in such a fashion without being truly affected ourselves. To act violently against the other, people must believe that the object of violence is somehow less worthy, of less value than themselves. No wonder military training always includes a process of being schooled in dehumanizing others. The sharp assault on their own values, their own humanity, is too great. With rare exceptions , there was a disparity when it came to grief.

Countless reports mourned the victims and first responders who died here that day, but few were the ones who extended remembrance and grief to the hundreds of thousands, perhaps even millions who have died in our wars in distant lands ever since. Where was the grief for them? Where was the sense of regret or introspection about what 20 years of unmitigated violence has wrought around the world and what it has undoubtedly changed in the moral character of this country itself?

As a theologian, an American, and a human being, I find myself filled with dread when I attempt to sort this out. One thing I do know, though. I may be a civilian, but along with the members of the U. I remain part of the group that committed those crimes over so many seemingly endless years and that truth weighs ever more heavily on my conscience. This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to falls, burns, drowning and other causes. In armed conflict and refugee settings, girls are particularly vulnerable to sexual violence, exploitation and abuse by combatants, security forces, members of their communities, aid workers and others.

Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences. Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disruption in early brain development. Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems. Consequently, as adults, maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural, physical and mental health problems such as:. Via these behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can contribute to heart disease, cancer, suicide and sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the health and social consequences of child maltreatment, there is an economic impact, including costs of hospitalization, mental health treatment, child welfare, and longer-term health costs.

A number of risk factors for child maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts, but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment. It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for maltreatment. A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated:. A number of characteristics of a parent or caregiver may increase the risk of child maltreatment. These include:. A number of characteristics of relationships within families or among intimate partners, friends and peers may increase the risk of child maltreatment.

A number of characteristics of communities and societies may increase the risk of child maltreatment. Preventing child maltreatment requires a multisectoral approach. Effective programmes are those that support parents and teach positive parenting skills. Such programmes are effective at strengthening protective factors against child sexual abuse e. The earlier such interventions occur in children's lives, the greater the benefits to the child e. In addition, early case recognition coupled with ongoing care of child victims and families can help reduce reoccurrence of maltreatment and lessen its consequences.

To maximize the effects of prevention and care, WHO recommends that interventions are delivered as part of a four-step public health approach:. Pneumonia is caused by a number of infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi. The most common are:. Pneumonia can be spread in a number of ways. The viruses and bacteria that are commonly found in a child's nose or throat, can infect the lungs if they are inhaled. They may also spread via air-borne droplets from a cough or sneeze.

In addition, pneumonia may spread through blood, especially during and shortly after birth. More research needs to be done on the different pathogens causing pneumonia and the ways they are transmitted, as this is of critical importance for treatment and prevention. The presenting features of viral and bacterial pneumonia are similar. However, the symptoms of viral pneumonia may be more numerous than the symptoms of bacterial pneumonia. Wheezing is more common in viral infections. Very severely ill infants may be unable to feed or drink and may also experience unconsciousness, hypothermia and convulsions. While most healthy children can fight the infection with their natural defences, children whose immune systems are compromised are at higher risk of developing pneumonia.

A child's immune system may be weakened by malnutrition or undernourishment, especially in infants who are not exclusively breastfed. Pre-existing illnesses, such as symptomatic HIV infections and measles, also increase a child's risk of contracting pneumonia. Pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. The antibiotic of choice is amoxicillin dispersable tablets. Most cases of pneumonia require oral antibiotics, which are often prescribed at a health centre. These cases can also be diagnosed and treated with inexpensive oral antibiotics at the community level by trained community health workers. Hospitalization is recommended only for severe cases of pneumonia. Preventing pneumonia in children is an essential component of a strategy to reduce child mortality.

Immunization against Hib, pneumococcus, measles and whooping cough pertussis is the most effective way to prevent pneumonia. Adequate nutrition is key to improving children's natural defences, starting with exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. In addition to being effective in preventing pneumonia, it also helps to reduce the length of the illness if a child does become ill. Addressing environmental factors such as indoor air pollution by providing affordable clean indoor stoves, for example and encouraging good hygiene in crowded homes also reduces the number of children who fall ill with pneumonia.

In children infected with HIV, the antibiotic cotrimoxazole is given daily to decrease the risk of contracting pneumonia. The price includes the antibiotics and diagnostics for pneumonia management. A number of countries including Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia have developed district, state and national plans to intensify actions for the control of pneumonia and diarrhoea.

Many more have integrated diarrhoea and pneumonia specific action into their national child health and child survival strategies. For many countries the post Millenium Development Goal agenda has explicitly included ending preventable diarrhoea and pneumonia deaths as a priority action. The 48 hours immediately following birth is the most crucial period for newborn survival. This is when the mother and child should receive follow-up care to prevent and treat illness. Globally, the number of neonatal deaths declined from 5. This pattern applies to most low- and middle-income countries.

If current trends continue, around half of the 69 million child deaths between and will occur during the neonatal period. Moreover, 63 countries need to accelerate progress to reach the Sustainable Development Goal SDG target of a neonatal mortality rate of 12 deaths per live births by Prior to birth, a mother can increase her child's chance of survival and good health by attending antenatal care consultations, being immunized against tetanus, and avoiding smoking and use of alcohol. At the time of birth, a baby's chance of survival increases significantly with delivery in a health facility in the presence of a skilled birth attendant.

After birth, essential care of a newborn should include:. Identifying and caring for illnesses in a newborn is very important, as a baby can become very ill and die quickly if an illness is not recognized and treated appropriately. Sick babies must be taken immediately to a trained health care provider. Substantial global progress has been made in reducing child deaths since The number of under-5 deaths worldwide has declined from The world as a whole has been accelerating progress in reducing the under-5 mortality rate. Promisingly, sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest under-5 mortality rate in the world, has also registered a substantive acceleration. Its annual rate of reduction increased from 1. The remarkable decline in under-5 mortality since has saved the lives of 48 million children under age 5.

Between and , 62 of the countries with available estimates met the Millennium Development Goal MDG 4 target of a two-thirds reduction in the under-5 mortality rate. Among them, 24 are low- and lower-middle income countries. Despite these gains, progress was insufficient to reach MDG 4 globally and in many regions. Currently, 79 countries have an under-5 mortality rate above 25 deaths per live births, and 47 of them will not meet the proposed SDG target of 25 deaths per live births by if they continue their current trends in reducing under-5 mortality. Among these 47 countries, 34 are in sub-Saharan Africa. The acceleration needed to reach the goals in those 47 countries is substantial — 30 countries must at least double their current rate of reduction, and 11 of those 30 countries must at least triple their current rate of reduction.

Wide gaps in child mortality across sub-groups or areas within countries have been documented, warranting a call for an equity-focused approach to reducing child mortality. Children are at greater risk of dying before age 5 if they are born in rural areas, poor households, or to a mother denied basic education. More than half of under-5 child deaths are due to diseases that are preventable and treatable through simple, affordable interventions. Strengthening health systems to provide such interventions to all children will save many young lives. Malnourished children, particularly those with severe acute malnutrition, have a higher risk of death from common childhood illness such as diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria.

For some of the most deadly childhood diseases, such as measles, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, pneumonia due to Haemophilius influenzae type B and Streptococcus pneumonia and diarrhoea due to rotavirus, vaccines are available and can protect children from illness and death. Congenital anomalies, injuries, and non-communicable diseases chronic respiratory diseases, acquired heart diseases, childhood cancers, diabetes, and obesity are the emerging priorities in the global child health agenda. Congenital anomalies affect an estimated 1 in 33 infants, resulting in 3. The global disease burden due to non-communicable diseases affecting children in childhood and later in life is rapidly increasing, even though many of the risk factors can be prevented.

Injuries road traffic injuries, drowning, burns, and falls rank among the top 3 causes of death and lifelong disability among children aged years. Similarly, the worldwide number of overweight children increased from an estimated 31 million in to 42 million in , including in countries with a high prevalence of childhood undernutrition. The SDG goal 3 target 3. Target 3. To achieve the SDG targets, the global community has set goals and targets for tackling the unfinished child survival agenda to achieve under-5 mortality of 25 or fewer deaths per live births by This has been translated into several global initiatives:.

Member States need to set targets and develop specific strategies to reduce child mortality and monitor progress. In this context, to assist Member States in strengthening health services and furnishing appropriate technical assistance. WHO calls on Member States to address health equity through universal health coverage so that all children are able to access essential health services without undue financial hardship. Health sector and multisectoral efforts are also needed to overcome the inequalities and the social determinants of health.

Undernutrition is estimated to be associated with 2. Infant and young child feeding is a key area to improve child survival and promote healthy growth and development. Optimal breastfeeding is so critical that it could save the lives of over children under the age of 5 years each year. However, many infants and children do not receive optimal feeding. Recommendations have been refined to also address the needs for infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Antiretroviral drugs now allow these children to exclusively breastfeed until they are 6 months old and continue breastfeeding until at least 12 months of age with a significantly reduced risk of HIV transmission.

Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months has many benefits for the infant and mother. Chief among these is protection against gastrointestinal infections which is observed not only in developing but also industrialized countries. Early initiation of breastfeeding, within 1 hour of birth, protects the newborn from acquiring infections and reduces newborn mortality. The risk of mortality due to diarrhoea and other infections can increase in infants who are either partially breastfed or not breastfed at all. Breast-milk is also an important source of energy and nutrients in children aged 6—23 months.

Breast-milk is also a critical source of energy and nutrients during illness, and reduces mortality among children who are malnourished. Children and adolescents who were breastfed as babies are less likely to be overweight or obese. Additionally, they perform better on intelligence tests and have higher school attendance. Breastfeeding is associated with higher income in adult life. Improving child development and reducing health costs results in economic gains for individual families as well as at the national level. Longer durations of breastfeeding also contribute to the health and well-being of mothers: it reduces the risk of ovarian and breast cancer and helps space pregnancies—exclusive breastfeeding of babies under 6 months has a hormonal effect which often induces a lack of menstruation.

This is a natural though not fail-safe method of birth control known as the Lactation Amenorrhoea Method. Mothers and families need to be supported for their children to be optimally breastfed. Actions that help protect, promote and support breastfeeding include:. Breastfeeding practices are highly responsive to supportive interventions, and the prevalence of exclusive and continued breastfeeding can be improved over the course of a few years. An infant of this age is also developmentally ready for other foods. Guiding principles for appropriate complementary feeding are:. Families and children in difficult circumstances require special attention and practical support.

Wherever possible, mothers and babies should remain together and get the support they need to exercise the most appropriate feeding option available. Breastfeeding remains the preferred mode of infant feeding in almost all difficult situations, for instance:. Breastfeeding, and especially early and exclusive breastfeeding, is one of the most significant ways to improve infant survival rates. While HIV can pass from a mother to her child during pregnancy, labour or delivery, and also through breast-milk, the evidence on HIV and infant feeding shows that giving antiretroviral treatment ART to mothers living with HIV significantly reduces the risk of transmission through breastfeeding and also improves her health.

WHO is committed to supporting countries with implementation and monitoring of the "Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition" , endorsed by Member States in May Activities that will help to achieve this include those outlined in the "Global strategy for infant and young child feeding" , which aims to protect, promote and support appropriate infant and young child feeding.

The goal of NetCode is to protect and promote breastfeeding by ensuring that breastmilk substitutes are not marketed inappropriately. Specifically, NetCode is building the capacity of Member States and civil society to strengthen national Code legislation, continuously monitor adherence to the Code, and take action to stop all violations. WHO provides simple, coherent and feasible guidance to countries for promoting and supporting improved infant feeding by HIV-infected mothers to prevent mother-to-child transmission, good nutrition of the baby, and protect the health of the mother.

Diarrhoeal disease is a leading cause of child mortality and morbidity in the world, and mostly results from contaminated food and water sources. Worldwide, million individuals lack access to improved drinking-water and 2. Diarrhoea due to infection is widespread throughout developing countries. In low-income countries, children under three years old experience on average three episodes of diarrhoea every year. Each episode deprives the child of the nutrition necessary for growth. As a result, diarrhoea is a major cause of malnutrition, and malnourished children are more likely to fall ill from diarrhoea. The most severe threat posed by diarrhoea is dehydration.

During a diarrhoeal episode, water and electrolytes sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate are lost through liquid stools, vomit, sweat, urine and breathing. Dehydration occurs when these losses are not replaced. Infection: Diarrhoea is a symptom of infections caused by a host of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms, most of which are spread by faeces-contaminated water. Infection is more common when there is a shortage of adequate sanitation and hygiene and safe water for drinking, cooking and cleaning. Rotavirus and Escherichia coli , are the two most common etiological agents of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in low-income countries. Other pathogens such as cryptosporidium and shigella species may also be important. Location-specific etiologic patterns also need to be considered.

Malnutrition: Children who die from diarrhoea often suffer from underlying malnutrition, which makes them more vulnerable to diarrhoea. Each diarrhoeal episode, in turn, makes their malnutrition even worse. Diarrhoea is a leading cause of malnutrition in children under five years old. Source: Water contaminated with human faeces, for example, from sewage, septic tanks and latrines, is of particular concern. Animal faeces also contain microorganisms that can cause diarrhoea. Other causes: Diarrhoeal disease can also spread from person-to-person, aggravated by poor personal hygiene. Food is another major cause of diarrhoea when it is prepared or stored in unhygienic conditions. Unsafe domestic water storage and handling is also an important risk factor.

Fish and seafood from polluted water may also contribute to the disease. Pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria and HIV are the main causes of death in infants and young children. In the African Region, about children die from pneumonia, from diarrhoea, and a further from malaria every year. In , new HIV infections were recorded among children under 5 years of age. Pneumonia is the single biggest killer of children worldwide, accounting for nearly one in seven deaths among young children, with an estimated over deaths annually.

Globally, diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly one out of every six deaths in children under 5 years of age, equivalent to over deaths per year.

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