Bean Beetle Method Lab Report

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Bean Beetle Method Lab Report



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High School Level. Master's Level. University Level. Chicago Style. High school Level. Harvard Style. PHD Level. Your request should consist of 5 char min. What Our Customers Say All testimonials. All testimonials. Thus, our findings revealed adequate insecticidal activities of clove and cinnamon essential oils against C. Further work is also needed to test the applicability and efficacy of nanofomulations of these essential oils under broader stored products conditions. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract The use of plant essential oils has been shown to efficiently control insect pests of stored beans, significantly reducing the threats associated with synthetic insecticides.

Introduction Plant essential oils have gained a reputation as being potentially bioactive compounds against many insect species, which has portrayed them as safer tools in terms of the environment and human health [ 1 — 6 ]. Materials and methods Insect rearing The original population of C. Extraction and chemical characterization of essential oils Locally purchased cinnamon bark and dried flower buds of clove were used for essential oil extraction, as described by [ 31 ].

Insecticidal activity We conducted dose-mortality bioassays to determine the lethal doses of the cinnamon and clove essential oils to adult C. Effects of essential oils on the biological development and bean-mass losses Effects on instantaneous rate of population growth r i and bean-mass losses. Effects on average and cumulative emergence. Effects of sublethal exposure to essential oils on the C. Download: PPT. Table 1. Chemical composition of clove and cinnamon essentials oils.

Table 2. Toxicity of clove and cinnamon essential oils and deltamethrin on adults of Callosobruchus maculatus. Effects of essential oils on the biological development and bean-mass losses Effect on instantaneous rate of population increase r i and bean weight loss. Fig 1. Instantaneous rate of population increase of C. Fig 2. Bean weight losses caused by C. Effects of sublethal concentrations of essential oils on C. Fig 5. Effects of sublethal exposure to essential oils on C. Discussion Plant essential oils are among the most interesting options for cheaper, safer and eco-friendly replacements or to be used as adjuvants for synthetic insecticides [ 2 — 4 , 6 ].

Supporting information. S1 Data. Raw data used in all the statistical analysis. S1 Table. Summary of the non-linear regression analyses Increase rate r i and bean mass losses of the curves shown in the Figs 1 and 2. S2 Table. Summary of the non-linear regression analyses of average emergence curves of the curves shown in the Fig 3. S3 Table. Summary of the non-linear regression analyses of the normalized cumulative emergence curves shown in the Fig 4. References 1.

Botanical insecticide research: many publications, limited useful data. Trends in Plant Science. Essential oils in insect control: Low-risk products in a high-stakes world. Annual Review of Entomology. Pesticidal plants in Africa: a global vision of new biological control products from local uses. Industrial Crops and Products. View Article Google Scholar 4.

Isman MB. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresource Technology. Pavela R. Essential oils for the development of eco-friendly mosquito larvicides: a review. View Article Google Scholar 7. The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol. Sexual success after stress? Imidacloprid-induced hormesis in males of the neotropical stink bug Euschistus heros.

PloS one. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. Pesticide-induced stress in arthropod pests for optimized integrated pest management programs. Annual review of entomology. Occurrence and significance of insecticide-induced hormesis in insects.

Pesticide dose: effects on the environment and target and non-target organisms ACS, Washington. View Article Google Scholar Bioactivity of cottonseed oil against the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Acari: Eriophyidae and side effects on Typhlodromus ornatus Acari: Phytoseiidae. Systematic and Applied Acarology. Allyl isothiocyanate actions on populations of Sitophilus zeamais resistant to phosphine: Toxicity, emergence inhibition and repellency. Journal of Stored Products Research. Cinnamon Oil. Toxicity of vegetable oils to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis and selectivity against the predator Neoseiulus baraki.

Experimental and Applied Acarology. Lethal and sublethal responses of Sitophilus zeamais populations to essential oils. Journal of Pest Science. Sublethal exposure to clove and cinnamon essential oils induces hormetic-like responses and disturbs behavioral and respiratory responses in Sitophilus zeamais Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Journal of Economic Entomology. Progeny of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais , is affected by parental exposure to clove and cinnamon essential oils. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Controlling bruchid pests of stored cowpea seeds with dried leaves of Artemisia annua and two other common botanicals.

African Journal of Biotechnology. Toxicity and metabolic mechanisms underlying the insecticidal activity of parsley essential oil on bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Effects of three medicinal plant products on survival, oviposition and progeny development of cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. Jordan Journal of Biological Science. Identification of cowpea Vigna unguiculata L.

Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Neotropical Entomology. Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Changes in the insecticide susceptibility and physiological trade-offs associated with a host change in the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus. Synergistic effects of geographical strain, temperature and larval food on insecticide tolerance in Callosobruchus maculatus F. Journal of Applied Entomology. Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. A critical evaluation of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers against their conventional analogues.

Nature nanotechnology. Citrus peel essential oil nanoformulations to control the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta: chemical properties and biological activity. Disproportionate changes in developmental durations with temperature may have important implications, e. The evolutionary pathways that have led to the wide diversity of development times and that make an organism develop precisely at the rate its ancestors did, with due correction for temperature and other environmental variables, remain largely unknown. Furthermore, it is rare that such problems are put forward at all. The current rise of eco-evo-devo gives hope that the patterns and mechanisms behind the evolution of development time will start to come to light. The laboratory colony was started in by purchasing a batch of dry black-eyed cowpea Vigna unguiculata L.

Petersburg, Russia the cowpea itself was of Central Asian origin. Both in the stock culture and in all of the experimental trials mentioned below, this humidity level was maintained with the use of saturated sodium chloride solutions. No water or supplementary food was provided to the adult beetles. A new batch of cowpea, always of the black-eyed variety, was bought every several months and C.

The initial number of founder individuals was not known but the laboratory colony rose to many thousands of individuals after half a year. Population density was not precisely controlled. As soon as cowpea deteriorated, beetles were transferred to new 2-L containers filled with fresh seeds several hundreds of parental individuals per container. To divert the excessive moisture and thus slow down the deterioration of the seeds, 5—6 cardboard tubes per container were inserted in the mass of cowpea; this also facilitated collection because newly emerged beetles tended to gather on the surfaces of the tubes. The experiments described below were carried out on numerous occasions from July till March To ensure that large amounts of freshly laid eggs could be collected simultaneously, main experimental work was timed to coincide with cyclic mass emergence of adult beetles in the stock culture.

On each collection day, approximately — beetles were confined in an individual ml plastic container. Care was taken to choose the suitable half of the stock culture that would have remained under the light phase for several hours at least and so would have allowed continuous collection of eggs. The seeds were quickly replaced with new ones after 20 min, which was found to be a convenient period as it introduced only a minor error in the measurement of development time and prevented female beetles from laying an unmanageably large amount of eggs. This collection procedure was then repeated as many times as needed. After collection, the beetles were either discarded or released back into the culture containers.

The number of eggs per group was not known until fixation and so the temperature assignment was random with regard to sample size. Egg-laden cowpeas were incubated at constant temperatures for various lengths of time since oviposition. A group of embryos that were simultaneously collected, incubated together in the same cup, and simultaneously fixed is referred to as a sample throughout the text. Initially, fixation was done at 10—h intervals to gain an overview of the developmental timeline. When the durations of embryonic stages of interest could be estimated to a good approximation, the transitional periods between these stages were sampled at a higher temporal resolution.

As only a limited number of eggs could be collected daily and only a limited number of samples could be fixed during the working hours, fixation was done according to a schedule and there were no replicates for any sample of a given age at a given temperature. Thus, embryo samples fixed a few hours apart after egg laying could have actually been obtained from different generations of beetles and separated by weeks or months Additional file 1 , partially compensating for the lack of replication. The fixation and staining protocol was largely based on the existing protocols developed for C. Eggs were removed from the seeds by cutting the underlying seed coat with a sharp ophthalmological scalpel and transferred to a nylon mesh strainer. The tube was capped and shaken vigorously for 20 s, which usually resulted in most of the embryos sinking to the bottom.

Eggshells and lingering fragments of seed coat were removed manually in PBST by using two sharpened entomological pins. Eggshell removal was found to be unnecessary for developmental staging to the degree of detail required in the present study , except in some advanced embryos, but was helpful in obtaining clearer images of post-gastrulation stages. Developmental stages were identified by comparing the observed embryos with drawings and photographs from previous studies on C.

As embryo orientation was important in the identification of maximum extension and retraction of the germ band as well as dorsal closure, some samples were re-mounted, sometimes repeatedly, until all of the embryos were observed in the desired position. As with early embryos, incubation at five constant temperatures was interrupted at scheduled times to assess the developmental stage reached. However, advanced embryos could be staged visually, owing to the presence of hardened and darkened cuticle.

Embryos in each sample were dissected under a Leica MZ16 stereo microscope by using an entomological pin that was sharpened to resemble a cutting blade. The procedure was less time-consuming and allowed partial replication: i. These replicates were eventually pooled together as the results proved to be reproducible over time for simplicity, the result of pooling is also called a sample. Embryonic development was assumed to end with hatching but, as first-instar larvae never appeared outside the eggshell, the process of boring into the cowpea seed was also tracked by destructive sampling as described above.

To obtain eggs, several hundreds of beetles from the stock culture were placed for 24 h in a separate ml container filled one-third full with intact cowpea. Two such collections took place on October 2 and 3 and one more, on October On the 6th day of incubation, the seeds were checked for the signs of boring white dust filling the abandoned eggshells and the excessive larvae were culled with a needle so that only one or two larvae per seed remained.

Later, occasional overlooked larvae were allowed to complete development because the large size of the seeds made competition for food unlikely. Cowpeas infested with C. The seed coat was carefully incised with an ophthalmological scalpel so that the prepupa could be observed directly through a small hole in the seed coat. If the incision happened to occur before the prepupal stage and the larva was still active enough to mend the injure in the seed coat with its oral secretion, the orifice thus closed had to be reopened with a scalpel after a day or two.

Preliminary experiments showed that such intervention did not affect either survival rate or development time. Pupation, adult eclosion, and emergence from the seed were recorded daily. Overlooked pupae and adults were discarded. Sex was confirmed by dissection. Statistical analyses were carried out in R version 4. The proportion P of embryos or early larvae completing the stage in question was calculated in each sample and then plotted over time since oviposition. Small sample sizes and synchronous development before dorsal closure resulted in complete or quasi-complete separation of P by time since oviposition i. For late embryonic and early larval development, usual maximum likelihood logistic regression was employed.

Median durations D of each developmental stage were then calculated as a difference between two consecutive transitions. If the rate-temperature relationship was linear R 2 of 0. The standard error of LTT was calculated according to an approximate formula provided by Campbell et al. Markedly nonlinear developmental responses to temperature were provisionally approximated with second-order polynomials. The effects of temperature and sex on developmental rate and body mass were analyzed using the generalized least-squares GLS method under restricted maximum likelihood with different variances for each combination of factors [ 50 ]. Analyses were performed using the gls function in the nlme package [ 51 ].

Significance of differences was determined with F -tests based on type I sequential sum of squares. Model assumptions of homoscedasticity, linearity, and normality of residuals were verified by inspection of raw and standardized residuals plots. As for the previous developmental stages, linear regression parameters and lower temperature thresholds were calculated where possible; otherwise, second-order polynomials were plotted over developmental data. All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its additional files. Angilletta MJ. Thermal adaptation: a theoretical and empirical synthesis.

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