13 Colonies In The Early 20th Century

Tuesday, December 7, 2021 7:57:46 AM

13 Colonies In The Early 20th Century



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Ten Minute History - The Early British Empire (Short Documentary)

These colonies began to be established along the east coast in and grew rapidly over the next half-century, reaching a population of 50, by Immigration continued at a steady pace and by , the English colonies were called home to about , people. Other small-scale wars also took place outside of the colonies including the French and Indian War to the north and other skirmishes between the Spanish and the Indians to the south. By the mids, the colonists were prospering with most free men owning their own farms and the colonies were primarily governing themselves.

However, this changed in the s when Britain demanded that the colonists pay taxes. The colonists, who were not represented in the British government, rebelled. More taxes initiated in and later, a tax on tea, resulted in the Boston Tea Party in , and ultimately, the American Revolution. As the British responded with force, the Continental Congress was convened in to organize the defense of the colonies, which by that time supported some 2. The new United States of America declared independence on July 4, , which announced that the 13 American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire.

When the war was finally over in , the founding fathers struggled to establish a fledgling government and created the Constitution in The first ten amendments known as the Bill of Rights quickly followed. The new national government under President George Washington began operation in The growth of the United States dramatically expanded with the Louisiana Purchase in , which began westward expansion in earnest.

After the Mexican-American War , which ended in , the nation grew once again, reaching the Pacific Ocean. Rapid economic and population growth created a powerful nation, but, when tensions escalated between the slave-holding plantation South and the industrial North, the Civil War began in , plunging the nation into the deadliest war in American history. When it was finally over in , tens of thousands of emigrants pushed westward, ushering in the days of the Old West. The 13 Colonies. American Revolution Index. American Revolution Summary. American Tradition of Thanksgiving. The Bill of Rights. A Century Of Exploration.

Colonial Era Indian Wars. Declaration of Independence. Discovery and Exploration of Florida. English Colonials to American Patriots. Evolution of American English. Initial Battles for Independence. Heroes and Patriots of America. Louisiana Purchase. Missouri Compromise of After spending the winter with Narragansett Indians, he bought land from them and settled in the area of present-day Providence. The new colony became a haven for those seeking religious freedom. In , Anne Hutchinson, Puritan spiritual adviser who was also banned from Massachusetts, helped found Portsmouth.

Rhode Island and Providence Plantations officially became a charter colony in Among other unique guarantees, the Charter established complete religious freedom in Rhode Island, which was unusual at the time, and later formed the basis for similar provisions in the U. Although Rhode Island was one of the first colonies to embrace autonomy from the British and espouse Revolutionary ideals, it was the last of the 13 colonies to ratify the Federal Constitution and became a State in Situated along the Mid-Atlantic Coast, much of the area was part of New Netherland until the British exerted their control over the region.

The British captured much of the area in their war with the Dutch around , and the majority of the conquered land became the Province of New York. However, the Duke of York and the King of England would later grant others ownership of the land which would become the Province of New Jersey and the Province of Pennsylvania. The four Middle Colonies of Colonial America had good farmland, timber, furs, coal, and iron ore, making the area very attractive to new settlers. The Middle Colonies become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. The lumber and shipbuilding industries also enjoyed success because of the abundant forests. Unlike New England, these colonies were not dominated by a specific religion which gave way to religious freedom for Quakers, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews, and others.

This resulted in a diverse population of settlers from England, Scotland, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Germany. In the Dutch gained control of the land from the Swedish and in , the English obtained Delaware after defeating the Dutch. Delaware then became a proprietary colony. Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution and become a State in The new grant was named New Jersey for Carteret, who was governor of the Isle of Jersey and started out as a Proprietary colony.

The Dutch Republic reasserted control for a brief period in — After that, it consisted of two political divisions, East Jersey and West Jersey, until they were united as a royal colony in In , New Jersey was the third state to ratify the Constitution and became an official state in Province of New York — The Dutch West India Company explored and began to settle the New York area as early as , but major settlement did not occur for another ten years. The Dutch holdings in the area were collectively called New Netherlands. The Dutch continued to struggle with the British for control of New Netherlands off and on until when the British finally obtained full control and became a proprietary colony. In it became a royal colony. In New York became the eleventh state to ratify the Constitution.

Province of Pennsylvania — Settlement of the area began as early as by Swedish, Dutch and English immigrants in the Delaware River region. In the first German settlers arrived in Pennsylvania and formed Germantown near Philadelphia. The main population elements included the Quaker population based in Philadelphia, a Scotch-Irish population on the Western frontier, and numerous German colonies in between. In Pennsylvania was the second state to ratify the Constitution.

Discovery of the word Croatoan at the vanished colony of Roanoke, North Carolina. The first successful English colony was established at Jamestown, in May near Chesapeake Bay, in present-day Virginia. The region of the Southern Colonies featured fertile soil, hilly coastal plains, forests, long rivers, and swamp areas. The colonies developed prosperous economies based on the cultivation of cash crops, such as tobacco, cotton, indigo, rice, corn, grain, and vegetables.

The climate made it possible to grow crops throughout the year and was ideally suited for plantations. As a result, the Southern Colonies had the largest slave population. Other natural resources such as fish and timber also spurred the economy. These colonies were not dominated by a specific religion which gave way to religious freedom. Province of Carolina — This area was the second attempted English settlement south of Virginia, the first being the failed attempt at Roanoke. A private venture, financed by a group of English Lords obtained a Royal Charter to the Carolinas in , hoping that a new proprietary colony in the south would become profitable like Jamestown.

King Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English barrier to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion. However, Carolina was not settled until , because there was no incentive for emigration to that area. Eventually, the English Lords located fertile and defensible ground at what became Charleston, which was founded by a group of colonists from English Barbados. More settlers then moved into the area from Georgia and Virginia. The Province of Carolina was controlled from to by the lords and their heirs.

The colony divided into the Province of North Carolina and Province of South Carolina in and each became a crown colony in , In South Carolina was the eighth state to ratify the Constitution and in , North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the new Constitution. Province of Georgia — T he last of the 13 original American colonies established by Great Britain, this proprietary colony began in when King George II granted a charter to James Edward Oglethorpe , who envisioned a colony which would serve as a haven for English subjects who had been imprisoned for debt. The new Colony was also intended to provide additional protection for its northern colonial partners by providing a buffer against Spanish and French intrusion from the South.

In February , the first English settlers arrived at what was to become the city of Savannah. For the next two decades, a council of trustees governed the province, with the aid of annual subsidies from Parliament. However, after many difficulties and the departure of Oglethorpe, the trustees proved unable to manage the proprietary colony and in January , Georgia became a crown colony. In Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the Constitution.

Province of Maryland — This proprietary colony was established in when King Charles I granted a charter to the English Lord Baltimore, who wished to create a haven for English Catholics in the new world at the time of the European wars of religion. Although Maryland was an early pioneer of religious toleration in the English colonies, religious strife among Anglicans, Puritans, Catholics, and Quakers was common in the early years, and Puritan rebels briefly seized control of the province. Maryland was the seventh state to ratify the Constitution in Colony and Dominion of Virginia — The proprietary Colony of Virginia was chartered in and settled in It was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland in , and the subsequent settlement of Roanoke Island, North Carolina in the s.

The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy and was at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in In a group of 20 African slaves arrived in Jamestown on a Dutch ship.

Virginia became a crown colony in In Virginia was the 10th state to ratify the Constitution and recommended the Bill of Rights be added. Between and , the colonial population grew from roughly 2, to over 2. This population included people subject to a system of slavery, which was legal in all of the colonies prior to the American Revolution. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country. George Washington in the French and Indian War. As more and more people arrived in the New World, numerous disputes and wars arose over territory.

Soon, the two countries with the largest presence were England and France. England won the war and got control of Canada, as well as keeping control of all the English colonies. However, the war led to growing tensions between Britain and the Thirteen Colonies. In the s, the colonies began collaborating with one another instead of dealing directly with Britain. After the war, Britain had a staggering war debt, which influenced many of its policies over the next decade.

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