Definition Of Professionalism In Nursing

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Definition Of Professionalism In Nursing



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Professionalism in Nursing

Nursing is a profession rooted in professional ethics and ethical values, and nursing performance is based on such values. Core values of nursing include altruism, autonomy, human dignity, integrity, honesty and social justice [ 3 ]. The core ethical values are generally shared within the global community, and they are a reflection of the human and spiritual approach to the nursing profession. However, the values in the care of patients are affected by cultural, social, economic, and religious conditions dominating the community, making it essential to identify such values in each country [ 4 ]. Professional values are demonstrated in ethical codes [ 5 ]. In fact, ethical codes clarify nursing profession practices, the quality of professional care, and professional norms [ 2 ].

Advances in technology and expansion of nursing roles have provoked complex ethical dilemmas for nurses. Such dilemmas, if not dealt with properly, negatively affect the ability of novice nurses to make clinical decisions [ 6 ]. With the ever-increasing number and complexity of ethical dilemmas in care settings, promotion of professional values has become more crucial in nursing education.

The acquisition and internalization of values are at the center of promoting the nursing profession [ 2 ]. When values are internalized, they will become the standards in practice and guide behavior [ 7 ]. Values can be taught, modified and promoted directly or indirectly through education [ 8 ]. Each student enters the nursing school with a set of values that might be changed during the socialization process [ 9 ]. Purposeful integration of professional values in nursing education is essential to guaranteeing the future of nursing [ 10 , 11 ]. One of the significant consequences of teaching ethics and professional values to students is increasing their capacity for autonomous ethical decision-making [ 12 ].

Nursing students acquire professional values initially through the teaching of their school educators and the socialization process. Professional socialization is the method of developing the values, beliefs, and behaviors of a profession [ 13 ]. In their study, Seda and Sleem reported a significant relationship between professional socialization of students and improvement of professional values [ 9 ]. Through professional socialization, which results in the complete acquisition and internalization of values, nursing students should acquire necessary skills and knowledge in cognitive, emotional, and practical dimensions.

Presently, however, less attention is paid to the emotional dimension in the formation of values compared to the other two [ 14 ]. At this level, stabilization of values requires passage of time [ 15 ]. Studies have shown that education causes differences in the formation of professional values, and that nursing educators have significant influence on the stimulation of professional values [ 8 , 14 , 16 , 17 ]. In addition, the ability to make ethical decisions was reported to be stronger in students who had passed an ethics course compared to those who had not [ 18 ]. Therefore, nursing educators play a key role in determining the future way in which nurses grow professionally and are prepared to confront new, unavoidable challenges [ 9 ]. Students may increase their commitment to professional values directly through role playing and indirectly through observing behaviors related to professional values [ 14 ].

Nursing educators are effective role models because of their clinical skills, sense of responsibility, professional commitment, and personal characteristics such as kindness, flexibility, and honesty. Nursing educators enhance creative learning by encouraging critical thinking and decision-making, establishing a supportive learning environment, having technical and ethical knowledge, and providing opportunities for fair evaluation and feedback.

Nursing educators should teach nursing students effective strategies to confront ethical dilemmas [ 12 ]. Therefore, nursing educators are able to educate graduates who are ready for decision-making and can effectively deal with daily ethical challenges. This study is a part of a larger study. The results of the first part was published in previous study [ 21 ]. Inclusion criteria were undergraduate nursing students in the fourth, sixth, and eighth semesters without official work experience in hospitals. Submitting an incomplete questionnaire was considered an exclusion criterion.

The participants were selected using a stratified random sampling based on the proportion of students in each semester. Therefore, among the total of 50, 62, and 65 students in the three semesters, 30, 37, and 39 students were enrolled, respectively. Finally, of the remaining students, students completed the questionnaires, but six students did not return the questionnaires. Thus, the final sample consisted of students with the response rate of A two-section questionnaire was used for data collection. In developing the professional values scale, Weis and Schank used the ANA Code of Ethics as well as the studies on nursing values and their promotion among nurses [ 2 ].

The validity of the translated questionnaire was confirmed using face and content validity as well as expert opinion. The NPVS-R includes 26 items with a Likert-scale format in five dimensions: 1 trust: 5 items, 2 justice: 3 items, 3 professionalism: 4 items, 4 activism: 5 items, and 5 caring: 9 items. The justice dimension deals with patients as noted in statements reflecting equality and diversity issues. The professionalism dimension reflects the promotion of nursing competence, self-evaluation and reflection, and seeking professional growth.

The activism dimension reflects participation in professional activities and solutions to professional problems. The caring dimension reflects respect for patients and protection of patient rights. The possible range of scores is 26 to [ 2 ]. In this study, the scores below 43, scores between 43 and 86, and those above 86 were considered low importance, moderate, and high importance, respectively. A higher score indicates that professional values are very important, and that nurses are more oriented toward stronger professional values. The first researcher distributed the questionnaires among the participants and explained the study objectives.

The researcher also explained to the participants how to fill out the questionnaires and asked them to specify the importance of professional values. In order to eliminate any ambiguity regarding questionnaire items, necessary explanations were provided. The researcher collected the questionnaires while maintaining anonymity and confidentiality of the data. First, the study was approved by the ethics committee affiliated to the Kerman University of Medical Sciences No code: Then, official permission for collecting data was obtained from the Razi Nursing and Midwifery School.

Prior to distributing the questionnaire, the researcher guaranteed the confidentiality and anonymity of the questionnaires. This revealed that the students with higher GPA had higher scores in professional values. The results showed a high total score with regard to the importance of professional values. These findings are in agreement with the findings of the studies conducted in the United States [ 15 , 23 ], Taiwan [ 24 ], Korea [ 25 ], and Iran [ 21 ]. Results of these studies highlighted that instructors and nursing trainers were seen as role models by students.

The results of this study are in agreement with the results of the studies conducted by Lin et al. One possible reason for the consistency between the results of this study and those of the other studies may be that these values are among the main values in the nursing profession and are closely associated with it. Leners et al. Since these values are associated with the direct care of patients and given that students complete their clinical practices under supervision of nurses, students may learn the importance of these values through role modeling and application in clinical settings [ 8 ].

The results of this research are also in agreement with the results of the studies conducted by Lin et al. A multitude of factors may have contributed to the lower importance placed on these values; some causes might be less information about the importance of these values in the development of the profession, low motivation, insufficient affirmation, and low encouragement by nursing educators. Another reason for the low importance of the above-mentioned values might be graduate education programs; undergraduate students focus on the rules of clinical practice because they are novices.

As they become more competent and eventually experts, the ranking of the values is likely to change. Moreover, the inactivity of members in such associations and the weak relationship among these associations were other barriers confronted by such associations in Iran [ 28 ]. In addition, one other reason might be that nursing educators themselves do not participate in professional nursing associations because of high workloads and limited time. Professional nursing associations play major roles in promoting nursing authority and professional identity. Consequently, understanding and valuing the importance of participation in professional associations may require emphasis as an important professional value.

In this study, a significant relationship was found between the GPA and scores of professional values. Students with high GPA Probably have the necessary scientific competency in their professional performance, which may result in giving higher importance to professional values as a significant index of professional competence. Lechner et al. The studies conducted by Rassin [ 16 ] and Clark [ 15 ] had results similar to those of this study, with no difference found between total scores of professional values of students in different semesters of their nursing education. However, several studies [ 8 , 14 , 25 ] found significant differences between total scores of professional values of students in different semesters.

It is difficult to compare these differences due to the use of different instruments to measure professional values, differences in nursing education curricula and environments, and differences in study designs. In their study, Weis and Shank concluded that higher focus on curricula of junior and senior students could change some professional values, indicating that time spent in school was associated with change in values [ 30 ]. The study had three limitations. Cultural and language differences may have affected the meaning of the terms literally and in the context of nursing education in Iran. Third, this study did not assess how the students learned professional values. Similarly, we did not know to what extent students had these values prior to entering nursing education and we did not collect information on these two items; thus, we did not highly emphasize the role of nurse educators in this study.

It is suggested that further studies with more accurate instruments are conducted in other nursing schools with different cultural and environmental conditions might lead to comprehensive strategies for internalizing professional values of nursing students. Nursing educators can primarily facilitate professional values by urging students to participate both in research studies on the topic and in nursing education. Periodic classes and seminars about professionalism should be presented by clinical tutors and school educators, who play important roles as behavioral models for their students. It is also recommended to conduct studies to investigate the impact of educational environments and university educators as role models for students on advancement of professional values in students.

However, some professional values such as participating in public policy decisions and participating in nursing researches were less important. As future nurses, nursing students should be able to apply professional values in making decisions when confronted with the emerging ethical challenges in the healthcare area. This preparation should be provided for students by educators and professors during their professional socialization process in schools. The findings suggest that many of the values were similarly important in other countries, which can be a reflection of the globalization process in the nursing profession and the presence of professional values at the root of the discipline.

However, strategies should be developed to improve weaknesses of nursing students in the professional values adapted to cultural, social, and religious conditions prevailing in the societies, faculties, schools, and hospitals. The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are not publicly available because this study is part of a larger study. This datasets are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Professional nursing: Concepts and challenges. Weis D, Schank MJ. Development and psychometric evaluation of the nurses professional values scale-revised. J Nurs Meas. Accessed 20 Oct Perceived ethical values by Iranian nurses. Patient consultations, lab tests, surgeries, patient followup calls, medicine disbursement, medical treatments and administrative tasks run on a tight schedule at most hospitals and clinics. Without punctuality, patient needs go unmet and doctors can't perform their responsibilities in a timely and effective manner. To maintain professionalism in nursing, participate in nursing organizations, read medical journals, update your nursing credentials and attend nursing conferences to stay current, according to the National Student Nurses Association.

Career development helps you stay up to date on technological advances, medications and procedures, which in turn serves your patients well. You don't want to continue doing things the old way, when safer, faster and more reliable methods are available. A clean, tidy appearance shows your professionalism in the nursing industry. Clean scrubs free of stains, well-groomed hair and nails, and clean skin meet most professional nursing standards.

Hospitals and clinics strive to maintain a clean, antiseptic environment so germs aren't easily spread. A well-maintained appearance supports the healthy standards encouraged by most medical facilities. As curriculum developer and educator, Kristine Tucker has enjoyed the plethora of English assignments she's read and graded! Her experiences as vice-president of an energy consulting firm have given her the opportunity to explore business writing and HR.

Tucker has a BA and holds Ohio teaching credentials. Career Advice. By Kristine Tucker.

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