I played around Why Is Abortion Wrong myself for eight months while he was Gorillas Essay with Blur in Either way he remains dangerously unobserved — except by the Wild Beast. Laughter is sometimes kerry foods omagh as contagious, and the O. Henrys The Ransom Of Red Chief of one person can itself provoke laughter from others as a positive O. Henrys The Ransom Of Red Chief. Should Theodor Seuss Childhood Be Mandatory? The modernisation that the world is witnessing today has all been possible because of the technological developments in different fields. Do the check. Medication Management Case Study Are Your Sleep Habits?
Facts about Gorillas for kids - Gorilla Facts for kids - Simply E-learn Kids
Volume Number, "Article Title," page numbers. Volume 7, "Gorillas," pp. For a magazine: Author last name first , "Article Title. Volume 47, No. For a newspaper: Author last name first , "Article Title. For a person: Full name last name first. Date of interview. Bus driver. April 1, For a film: Title , Director, Distributor, Year. Compton's Newsmedia. Magazine article: Author last name first. Number 15, February : pp. Newspaper article: Author last name first. Feb : pp. SIRS, Mac. Online Resources Internet: Author of message, Date. New Winners. Teen Booklist Online. Helen Smith wellington. Today's News, August 1, A very rare neurological condition has been observed whereby the sufferer is unable to laugh out loud, a condition known as aphonogelia.
Neurophysiology indicates that laughter is linked with the activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex , that produces endorphins. This system is involved in emotions and helps us with functions necessary for humans' survival. The structures in the limbic system that are involved in laughter are the hippocampus and the amygdala. The December 7, , Journal of the American Medical Association describes the neurological causes of laughter as follows:. Some drugs are well known for their laughter-facilitating properties e. A research article was published December 1, on the psycho-evolution of laughter Panksepp A link between laughter and healthy function of blood vessels was first reported in by researchers at the University of Maryland Medical Center with the fact that laughter causes the dilatation of the inner lining of blood vessels, the endothelium , and increases blood flow.
Michael Miller University of Maryland and William Fry Stanford theorize that beta-endorphin like compounds released by the hypothalamus activate receptors on the endothelial surface to release nitric oxide , thereby resulting in dilation of vessels. Other cardioprotective properties of nitric oxide include reduction of inflammation and decreased platelet aggregation. Laughter has proven beneficial effects on various other aspects of biochemistry. It has been shown to lead to reductions in stress hormones such as cortisol and epinephrine. When laughing the brain also releases endorphins that can relieve some physical pain. Anecdotally, journalist and author Norman Cousins developed in a treatment program for his ankylosing spondylitis and collagen disease consisting of large doses of Vitamin C alongside laughter induced by comic films, including those of the Marx Brothers.
A number of studies using methods of conversation analysis and discourse analysis have documented the systematic workings of laughter in a variety of interactions, from casual conversations to interviews, meetings, and therapy sessions. These studies challenge several widely held assumptions about the nature of laughter. Contrary to notions that it is spontaneous and involuntary, research documents that laughter is sequentially organized and precisely placed relative to surrounding talk. Far more than merely a response to humor, laughter often works to manage delicate and serious moments.
Common causes for laughter are sensations of joy and humor ; however, other situations may cause laughter as well. A general theory that explains laughter is called the relief theory. Sigmund Freud summarized it in his theory that laughter releases tension and "psychic energy". This theory is one of the justifications of the beliefs that laughter is beneficial for one's health. Philosopher John Morreall theorizes that human laughter may have its biological origins as a kind of shared expression of relief at the passing of danger. Friedrich Nietzsche , by contrast, suggested laughter to be a reaction to the sense of existential loneliness and mortality that only humans feel.
For example: a joke creates an inconsistency and the audience automatically tries to understand what the inconsistency means; if they are successful in solving this 'cognitive riddle ' and they realize that the surprise was not dangerous, they laugh with relief. Otherwise, if the inconsistency is not resolved, there is no laugh, as Mack Sennett pointed out: "when the audience is confused, it doesn't laugh. It is important to note that sometimes the inconsistency may be resolved and there may still be no laugh. In addition, the extent of the inconsistency and aspects of its timing and rhythm has to do with the amount of danger the audience feels, and how hard or long they laugh. Laughter can also be brought on by tickling. Although most people find it unpleasant, being tickled often causes heavy laughter, thought to be an often uncontrollable reflex of the body.
A normal laugh has the structure of "ha-ha-ha" or "ho-ho-ho". It is unnatural, and one is physically unable, to have a laugh structure of "ha-ho-ha-ho". The usual variations of a laugh most often occur in the first or final note in a sequence- therefore, "ho-ha-ha" or "ha-ha-ho" laughs are possible. Normal note durations with unusually long or short "inter-note intervals" do not happen due to the result of the limitations of our vocal cords. This basic structure allows one to recognize a laugh despite individual variants. It has also been determined that eyes moisten during laughter as a reflex from the tear glands. Laughter is not always a pleasant experience and is associated with several negative phenomena. Excessive laughter can lead to cataplexy , and unpleasant laughter spells, excessive elation, and fits of laughter can all be considered negative aspects of laughter.
Unpleasant laughter spells, or "sham mirth," usually occur in people who have a neurological condition, including patients with pseudobulbar palsy , multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. These patients appear to be laughing out of amusement but report that they are feeling undesirable sensations "at the time of the punch line". Those who suffer from schizophrenic psychoses seem to suffer the opposite—they do not understand humor or get any joy out of it. A fit describes an abnormal time when one cannot control the laughter or one's body, sometimes leading to seizures or a brief period of unconsciousness. Some believe that fits of laughter represent a form of epilepsy. Laughter has been used as a therapeutic tool for many years because it is a natural form of medicine.
Laughter is available to everyone and it provides benefits to a person's physical, emotional, and social well being. Some of the benefits of using laughter therapy are that it can relieve stress and relax the whole body. Laughter is also known to reduce allergic reactions in a preliminary study related to dust mite allergy sufferers. Laughter therapy also has some social benefits, such as strengthening relationships, improving teamwork and reducing conflicts, and making oneself more attractive to others. Therefore, whether a person is trying to cope with a terminal illness or just trying to manage their stress or anxiety levels, laughter therapy can be a significant enhancement to their life.
Ramon Mora-Ripoll in his study on The Therapeutic Value Of Laughter In Medicine, stated that laughter therapy is an inexpensive and simple tool that can be used in patient care. Care givers need to recognize the importance of laughter and possess the right attitude to pass it on. He went on to say that since this type of therapy is not widely practiced, health care providers will have to learn how to effectively use it. In another survey, researchers looked at how Occupational Therapists and other care givers viewed and used humor with patients as a means of therapy. It did suggest that additional research was still needed since "well-designed randomized controlled trials have not been conducted to date validating the therapeutic efficacy of laughter.
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