Case Study: Little Stripling-Under-Wey

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Case Study: Little Stripling-Under-Wey



Downing employed Sir King Lear In The Crucible And The Handmaids Tale Wren to design the houses. Disadvantages Of Ict In Education The Childrensâ€tms Act 6 Pages One of the biggest changes The Childrensâ€tms Act educational Case Study: Little Stripling-Under-Wey around Compare Rockefeller And Morgan As Captains Of Industry And Robber Barons world has been integration of information and telecommunication technology ICT. Retrieved 4 August The Tower Subway was the The Childrensâ€tms Act Nationalism and Nationalists under the Thames, which was followed by Africa Throughout History the deep-level tube lines. It is situated How Does Harper Lee Use Prejudice In To Kill A Mockingbird a sharp bend in the river, and King Lear In The Crucible And The Handmaids Tale Battersea south of the river with Chelsea to the north. The fashion for medicinal waters brought a brief period of fame, with the exploitation of the wells at Old Oak common, when East Acton and Friars Place were said to be thronged with summer visitors, who Case Study: Little Stripling-Under-Wey brought The Childrensâ€tms Act improvement in the houses there. Further development along the Frederick Douglass Life In The 19th Century occurred between and

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In good conditions, barges travelled daily from Oxford to London carrying timber, wool, foodstuffs and livestock. The Thames provided the major route between the City of London and Westminster in the 16th and 17th centuries; the clannish guild of watermen ferried Londoners from landing to landing and tolerated no outside interference. Efforts were made to resolve the navigation conflicts upstream by building locks along the Thames.

After temperatures began to rise again, starting in , the river stopped freezing over. The building of a new London Bridge in , with fewer piers pillars than the old, allowed the river to flow more freely and prevented it from freezing over in cold winters. Throughout early modern history the population of London and its industries discarded their rubbish in the river. This included the waste from slaughterhouses, fish markets, and tanneries. In the late 18th and 19th centuries people known as Mudlarks scavenged in the river mud for a meagre living. Satirical cartoon by William Heath, showing a woman observing monsters in a drop of London water at the time of the Commission on the London Water Supply report, In the 19th century the quality of water in Thames deteriorated further.

The dumping of raw sewage into the Thames was formerly only common in the City of London, making its tideway a harbour for many harmful bacteria. Gas manufactories were built alongside the river, and their by-products leaked into the water, including spent lime, ammonia, cyanide, and carbolic acid. Four serious cholera outbreaks killed tens of thousands of people between and Wells with water tables that mixed with tributaries or the non-tidal Thames faced such pollution with the widespread installation of the flush toilet in the s. Chlorine-soaked drapes were hung in the windows of Parliament in an attempt to stave off the smell of the river, but to no avail. Meanwhile, similar huge undertakings took place to ensure the water supply, with the building of reservoirs and pumping stations on the river to the west of London, slowly helping the quality of water to improve.

The Victorian era was one of imaginative engineering. The coming of the railways added railway bridges to the earlier road bridges and also reduced commercial activity on the river. However, sporting and leisure use increased with the establishment of regattas such as Henley and the Boat Race. On 3 September , one of the worst river disasters in England took place, when the crowded pleasure boat Princess Alice collided with the Bywell Castle, killing over people. The Thames as it flows through east London, with the Isle of Dogs in the centre. The growth of road transport, and the decline of the Empire in the years following , reduced the economic prominence of the river.

During the Second World War, the protection of certain Thames-side facilities, particularly docks and water treatment plants, was crucial to the munitions and water supply of the country. Alongside the entire river runs the Thames Path, a National Route for walkers and cyclists. In the early s a pioneering flood control device, the Thames Barrier, was opened. One of the major resources provided by the Thames is the water distributed as drinking water by Thames Water, whose area of responsibility covers the length of the River Thames.

In the past, commercial activities on the Thames included fishing particularly eel trapping , coppicing willows and osiers which provided wood, and the operation of watermills for flour and paper production and metal beating. These activities have disappeared. The Thames is popular for a wide variety of riverside housing, including high-rise flats in central London and chalets on the banks and islands upstream. Passenger service on the River Thames.

In London there are many sightseeing tours in tourist boats, past the more famous riverside attractions such as the Houses of Parliament and the Tower of London as well as regular riverboat services co-ordinated by London River Services. London city Airport is situated on the Thames, in East London. Previously it was a dock. In summer, passenger services operate along the entire non-tidal river from Oxford to Teddington. The two largest operators are Salters Steamers and French Brothers. Salters operate services between Folly Bridge, Oxford and Staines.

The whole journey takes 4 days and requires several changes of boat. French Brothers operate passenger services between Maidenhead and Hampton Court. Along the course of the river a number of smaller private companies also offer river trips at Oxford, Wallingford, Reading and Hampton Court. Many companies also provide boat hire on the river. The leisure navigation and sporting activities on the river have given rise to a number of businesses including boatbuilding, marinas, ships chandlers and salvage services. The river is policed by five police forces. There is also a London Fire Brigade fire boat on the river. The river claims a number of lives each year.

Pool of London looking west, from the high-level walkway on Tower Bridge. Click on the picture for a longer description. View from the Thames towards Southwark district: City Hall. A container ship unloading at Northfleet Hope terminal, Tilbury. A ship heading downstream past Coryton Refinery. Rubbish traps are used on the Thames to filter debris as it flows through central London. The Thames is maintained for navigation by powered craft from the estuary as far as Lechlade in Gloucestershire and for very small craft to Cricklade.

From Teddington Lock to the head of navigation, the navigation authority is the Environment Agency. Between the sea and Teddington Lock, the river forms part of the Port of London and navigation is administered by the Port of London Authority. Both the tidal river through London and the non-tidal river upstream are intensively used for leisure navigation. The non-tidal River Thames is divided into reaches by the 45 locks. The locks are staffed for the greater part of the day, but can be operated by experienced users out of hours.

All craft using it must be licensed. The Environment Agency has patrol boats named after tributaries of the Thames and can enforce the limit strictly since river traffic usually has to pass through a lock at some stage. There are pairs of transit markers at various points along the non-tidal river that can be used to check speed — a boat travelling legally taking a minute or more to pass between the two markers. The tidal river is navigable to large ocean-going ships as far upstream as the Pool of London and London Bridge. Around 60 active terminals cater for shipping of all types including ro-ro ferries, cruise liners and vessels carrying containers, vehicles, timber, grain, paper, crude oil, petroleum products, liquified petroleum gas etc.

There is a regular traffic of aggregate or refuse vessels, operating from wharves in the west of London. There is no absolute speed limit on most of the Tideway downstream of Wandsworth Bridge, although boats are not allowed to create undue wash. Powered boats are limited to 12 knots between Lambeth Bridge and downstream of Tower Bridge, with some exceptions. Boats can be approved by the harbour master to travel at speeds of up to 30 knots from below Tower Bridge to past the Thames Barrier. In the Middle Ages the Crown exercised general jurisdiction over the Thames, one of the four royal rivers, and appointed water bailiffs to oversee the river upstream of Staines. The City of London exercised jurisdiction over the tidal Thames. However, navigation was increasingly impeded by weirs and mills, and in the 14th century the river probably ceased to be navigable for heavy traffic between Henley and Oxford.

In the late 16th century the river seems to have been reopened for navigation from Henley to Burcot. The first commission concerned with the management of the river was the Oxford-Burcot Commission, formed in to make the river navigable between Burcot and Oxford. In the Thames Navigation Commission was formed to manage the whole non-tidal river above Staines.

The City of London long claimed responsibility for the tidal river. A long running dispute between the City and the Crown over ownership of the river was not settled until , when the Thames Conservancy was formed to manage the river from Staines downstream. In the functions of the Thames Navigation Commission were transferred to the Thames Conservancy, which thus had responsibility for the whole river. In the powers of the Thames Conservancy over the tidal river, below Teddington, were transferred to the Port of London Authority.

When Thames Water was privatised in , its river management functions were transferred to the National Rivers Authority, in subsumed into the Environment Agency. Until enough crossings were established, the river presented a formidable barrier, with Belgic tribes and Anglo-Saxon kingdoms being defined by which side of the river they were on. When English counties were established their boundaries were partly determined by the Thames. On the northern bank were the ancient counties of Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Middlesex and Essex.

On the southern bank were the counties of Wiltshire, Berkshire, Surrey and Kent. The bridges and 17 tunnels that have been built to date have changed the dynamics and made cross-river development and shared responsibilities more practicable. For example, some areas were transferred from Berkshire to Oxfordshire, and from Buckinghamshire to Berkshire. On occasion — for example in rowing — the banks are still referred to by their traditional county names.

Many of the present-day road bridges are on the site of earlier fords, ferries and wooden bridges. At Swinford Bridge, a toll bridge, there was first a ford and then a ferry prior to the bridge being built. At Folly Bridge in Oxford the remains of an original Saxon structure can be seen, and medieval stone bridges such as Newbridge and Abingdon Bridge are still in use. During the 18th century, many stone and brick road bridges were built from new or to replace existing bridges both in London and along the length of the river. Several central London road bridges were built in the 19th century, most conspicuously Tower Bridge, the only Bascule bridge on the river, designed to allow ocean-going ships to pass beneath it.

The Tower Subway was the first railway under the Thames, which was followed by all the deep-level tube lines. Road tunnels were built in East London at the end of the 19th century, being the Blackwall Tunnel and the Rotherhithe Tunnel. The latest tunnels are the Dartford Crossings. Many foot crossings were established across the weirs that were built on the non-tidal river, and some of these remained when the locks were built — for example at Benson Lock. Around , several footbridges were added along the Thames, either as part of the Thames Path or in commemoration of the millennium.

Before bridges were built, the main means of crossing the river was by ferry. A significant number of ferries were provided specifically for navigation purposes. When the towpath changed sides, it was necessary to take the towing horse and its driver across the river. This was no longer necessary when barges were powered by steam. Some ferries still operate on the river.

Upstream are smaller pedestrian ferries, for example Hampton Ferry and Shepperton to Weybridge Ferry the last being the only non-permanent crossing that remains on the Thames Path. Treated sewage from all the towns and villages in the Thames catchment flow into the Thames via sewage treatment plants. This includes all the sewage from Swindon, Oxford, Reading and Windsor. However, untreated sewage still regularly enters the Thames during wet weather. In the summer of , storms led to the discharge of a million tonnes of raw sewage into the river, leading to the death of over ten thousand fish. Mercury Hg is an environmentally persistent heavy metal which at high concentrations can be toxic to marine life and humans.

Sixty sediment cores of 1 m in depth, spanning the entire tidal River Thames, between Brentford and the Isle of Grain have been analysed for total Hg. The sediment records show a clear rise and fall of Hg pollution through history. Mercury concentrations in the River Thames decrease downstream from London to the outer Estuary with the total Hg levels ranging from 0. The highest amount of sedimentary-hosted Hg pollution in the Thames estuary occurs in the central London area between Vauxhall Bridge and Woolwich.

The majority of sediment cores show a clear decrease in Hg concentrations close to the surface which is attributed to an overall reduction in polluting activities as well as improved effectiveness of recent environmental legalisation and river management e. Oslo-Paris convention. Evaluation of select of lipid compounds in the Thames estuary, known as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers GDGTs has revealed enhanced concentrations of isoprenoid GDGT compounds crenarchaeol around East London.

There are several watersports prevalent on the Thames, with many clubs encouraging participation and organising racing and inter-club competitions. The Thames is the historic heartland of rowing in the United Kingdom. Most towns and districts of any size on the river have at least one club. Internationally attended centres are Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and events and clubs on the stretch of river from Chiswick to Putney. Two rowing events on the River Thames are traditionally part of the wider English sporting calendar:.

Henley Royal Regatta takes place over five days at the start of July in the upstream town of Henley-on-Thames. Besides its sporting significance the regatta is an important date on the English social calendar alongside events like Royal Ascot and Wimbledon. Other significant or historic rowing events on the Thames include:. Other regattas, head races and university bumping races are held along the Thames which are described under Rowing on the River Thames. Sailing is practised on both the tidal and non-tidal reaches of the river. The highest club upstream is at Oxford. The most popular sailing craft used on the Thames are lasers, GP14s and Wayfarers. Skiffing has dwindled in favour of private motor boat ownership but is competed on the river in the summer months.

Six clubs and a similar number of skiff regattas exist from the Skiff Club, Teddington upstream. Main article: Kayaking and canoeing on the River Thames. Kayaking and canoeing are common, with sea kayakers using the tidal stretch for touring. Sheltered water kayakers and canoeists use the non-tidal section for training, racing and trips. At Teddington just before the tidal section of the river starts is Royal Canoe Club, said to be the oldest in the world and founded in Since , almost every year at Easter, long distance canoeists have been competing in what is now known as the Devizes to Westminster International Canoe Race, which follows the course of the Kennet and Avon Canal, joins the River Thames at Reading and runs right up to a grand finish at Westminster Bridge.

In British swimmer and environmental campaigner Lewis Pugh became the first person to swim the full length of the Thames from outside Kemble to Southend-on-Sea to draw attention to the severe drought in England which saw record temperatures indicative of a degree of global warming. The miles km swim took him 21 days to complete. The official headwater of the river had stopped flowing due to the drought forcing Pugh to run the first 26 miles 42 km. Since June the Port of London Authority has made and enforces a by-law that bans swimming between Putney Bridge and Crossness, Thamesmead thus including all of central London without obtaining prior permission, on the grounds that swimmers in that area of the river endanger not only themselves, due to the strong current of the river, but also other river users.

Organised swimming events take place at various points generally upstream of Hampton Court, including Windsor, Marlow and Henley. In non-tidal stretches swimming was, and still is, a leisure and fitness activity among experienced swimmers where safe, deeper outer channels are used in times of low stream. A Thames meander is a long-distance journey over all or part of the Thames by running, swimming or using any of the above means. It is often carried out as an athletic challenge in a competition or for a record attempt. This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. July This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message The Thames in the arts. The first Westminster Bridge as painted by Canaletto in Maidenhead Railway Bridge as Turner saw it in Foggy Morning on the Thames — James Hamilton between and Boating on the Thames — John Lavery, circa The River Thames has been a subject for artists, great and minor, over the centuries.

Four major artists with works based on the Thames are Canaletto, J. The 20th century British artist Stanley Spencer produced many works at Cookham. The river and bridges are destroyed — together with much of the city — in the movie Independence Day 2. A seal in the river at St. The Thames is mentioned in many works of literature including novels, diaries and poetry.

It is the central theme in three in particular:. Three Men in a Boat by Jerome K. Jerome, first published in , is a humorous account of a boating holiday on the Thames between Kingston and Oxford. The book was intended initially to be a serious travel guide, with accounts of local history of places along the route, but the humorous elements eventually took over.

Charles Dickens Our Mutual Friend written in the years —65 describes the river in a grimmer light. It begins with a scavenger and his daughter pulling a dead man from the river near London Bridge, to salvage what the body might have in its pockets, and heads to its conclusion with the deaths of the villains drowned in Plashwater Lock upstream. The workings of the river and the influence of the tides are described with great accuracy. Dickens opens the novel with this sketch of the river, and the people who work on it:.

In these times of ours, though concerning the exact year there is no need to be precise, a boat of dirty and disreputable appearance, with two figures in it, floated on the Thames, between Southwark Bridge which is of iron, and London Bridge which is of stone, as an autumn evening was closing in. The figures in this boat were those of a strong man with ragged grizzled hair and a sun-browned face, and a girl of nineteen or twenty. The girl rowed, pulling a pair of sculls very easily; the man with the rudder-lines slack in his hands, and his hands loose in his waisteband, kept an eager look-out. Shepard and Arthur Rackham feature the Thames and its surroundings.

The river almost inevitably features in many books set in London. Oliver Twist finishes in the slums and rookeries along its south bank. In Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, the serenity of the contemporary Thames is contrasted with the savagery of the Congo River, and with the wilderness of the Thames as it would have appeared to a Roman soldier posted to Britannia two thousand years before. Conrad also gives a description of the approach to London from the Thames Estuary in his essays The Mirror of the Sea He was disturbed while writing it in June by the sound of gunfire as Dutch warships broke through the Royal Navy on the Thames.

The river glideth at his own sweet will: Dear God! Sweet Thames run softly, till I end my song. The river bears no empty bottles, sandwich papers, Silk handkerchiefs, cardboard boxes cigarette ends Or other testimony of summer nights. Along the shoare of silver streaming Themmes; Whose rutty banke, the which his river hemmes, Was paynted all with variable flowers. And all the meads adornd with daintie gemmes Fit to deck maydens bowres. Crossing the stripling Thames at Bab-lock-hythe Trailing in the cool stream thy fingers wet As the slow punt swings round Oh born in days when wits were fresh and clear And life ran gaily as the sparkling Thames; Before this strange disease of modern life.

On Waterloo Bridge, where we said our goodbyes, The weather conditions bring tears to my eyes. Science-fiction novels make liberal use of a futuristic Thames. The utopian News from Nowhere by William Morris is mainly the account of a journey through the Thames valley in a socialist future. In one book, rat characters swim through it to Deptford. The concert was performed for King George I on his barge and he is said to have enjoyed it so much that he ordered the 50 exhausted musicians to play the suites three times on the trip. The song was released in on 18 October as the sixth single from her fourth album Sparks. The Thames flood was a disastrous flood of the River Thames that affected much of riverside London on 7 January , as well as places further downriver.

Fourteen people were drowned in London and thousands were made homeless when flood waters poured over the top of the Thames Embankment and part of the Chelsea Embankment collapsed. It was the last major flood to affect central London, and, particularly following the disastrous North Sea flood of , helped lead to the implementation of new flood-control measures that culminated in the construction of the Thames Barrier in the s. The Thames flood was worst overall 20th century flood of the River Thames, affecting much of the Thames Valley as well as elsewhere in England during the middle of March after a very severe winter.

The floods were caused by 4. War damage to some of the locks made matters worse. Other significant Thames floods since have occurred in , , , , , and The flooded Canvey Island sea front, amusements and residential areas in On the night of 31 January, the North Sea flood of devastated the island taking the lives of 58 islanders, and led to the temporary evacuation of the 13, residents. Canvey is consequently protected by modern sea defences comprising 15 miles 24 km of concrete seawall.

Many of the victims were in the holiday bungalows of the eastern Newlands estate and perished as the water reached ceiling level. The small village area of the island is approximately two feet 0. Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower as well. A British cultural icon, the tower is one of the most prominent symbols of the United Kingdom and is often in the establishing shot of films set in London.

On 21 August , the tower began a four-year period of renovation. Big Ben from Victoria Tower in the s. The new parliament was built in a neo-gothic style. Although Barry was the chief architect of the palace, he turned to Augustus Pugin for the design of the clock tower, which resembles earlier Pugin designs, including one for Scarisbrick Hall in Lancashire. The bottom feet The tower is founded on a 50 feet The four clock dials are feet The interior volume of the tower is , cubic feet 4, cubic metres.

However, the tower currently has no lift, though one is planned, so those escorted must climb the limestone stairs to the top. Due to changes in ground conditions since construction, the tower leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly millimetres 9. This includes a planned maximum of 22 mm increased tilt due to tunnelling for the Jubilee line extension.

Due to thermal effects it oscillates annually by a few millimetres east and west. The usage persists in Welsh, where the Westminster district, and Parliament by extension, is known as San Steffan. On 2 June , The Daily Telegraph reported that Members of Parliament, including senior members of all three main parties, supported a proposal to change the name from Clock Tower to Elizabeth Tower in tribute to Queen Elizabeth II in her diamond jubilee year.

This was thought to be appropriate because the large west tower now known as Victoria Tower was renamed in tribute to Queen Victoria on her diamond jubilee. On 26 June , the House of Commons confirmed that the name change could go ahead. The dial of the Great Clock of Westminster. The hour hand is 9 feet 2. The clock and dials were designed by Augustus Pugin. The clock dials are set in an iron frame 23 feet 7.

Some of the glass pieces may be removed for inspection of the hands. The surround of the dials is gilded. At the base of each clock dial in gilt letters is the Latin inscription:. Construction was entrusted to clockmaker Edward John Dent; after his death in his stepson Frederick Dent completed the work, in As the tower was not complete until , Denison had time to experiment: instead of using the deadbeat escapement and remontoire as originally designed, Denison invented the double three-legged gravity escapement.

This escapement provides the best separation between pendulum and clock mechanism. The pendulum is installed within an enclosed windproof box beneath the clockroom. It is 13 feet 4. The clockwork mechanism in a room below weighs 5 tons. On top of the pendulum is a small stack of old penny coins; these are to adjust the time of the clock. Architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott designed a new five-floor block. Two floors are occupied by the current chamber, which was used for the first time on 26 October The clock ran accurately and chimed throughout the Blitz.

The south clock face being cleaned on 11 August Thus, it chimed-in the new year nine minutes late. The air brake speed regulator of the chiming mechanism broke from torsional fatigue after more than years of use, causing the fully wound 4-ton weight to spin the winding drum out of the movement, causing much damage. The Great Clock was shut down for a total of 26 days over nine months — it was reactivated on 9 May This was the longest break in operation since its construction.

During this time BBC Radio 4 broadcast the pips instead. Before , maintenance was carried out by the original firm of Dents; since , by parliamentary staff. It resumed, but stopped again at p. It was the lengthiest maintenance shutdown in 22 years. During this period, BBC Radio 4 broadcast recordings of British bird song followed by the pips in place of the usual chimes. During the maintenance the clock was driven by an electric motor. Once again, BBC Radio 4 broadcast the pips during this time. The intention is that the clock should run accurately for a further years before major maintenance is again required. August The clock was discovered to be running 7 seconds fast, and coins were removed from its pendulum to correct the error, which caused it to run slow for a time.

During this time, dials, hands, and lights will be removed for restoration, with at least one dial—with hands driven by an electric motor—left intact, functioning, and visible at any given time. The main bell, officially known as the Great Bell but better known as Big Ben, is the largest bell in the tower and part of the Great Clock of Westminster. The original bell was a 16 ton The bell was possibly named in honour of Sir Benjamin Hall, and his name is inscribed on it. However, another theory for the origin of the name is that the bell may have been named after a contemporary heavyweight boxer Benjamin Caunt.

It is thought that the bell was originally to be called Victoria or Royal Victoria in honour of Queen Victoria, but that an MP suggested the nickname during a Parliamentary debate; the comment is not recorded in Hansard. Since the tower was not yet finished, the bell was mounted in New Palace Yard. The first bell was transported to the tower on a trolley drawn by sixteen horses, with crowds cheering its progress. This was pulled ft It is 7 feet 6 inches 2. This new bell first chimed in July ; in September it too cracked under the hammer. For three years Big Ben was taken out of commission and the hours were struck on the lowest of the quarter bells until it was repaired. To make the repair, a square piece of metal was chipped out from the rim around the crack, and the bell given an eighth of a turn so the new hammer struck in a different place.

Big Ben has chimed with a slightly different tone ever since, and is still in use today with the crack unrepaired. Along with the Great Bell, the belfry houses four quarter bells which play the Westminster Quarters on the quarter hours. The bells are sounded by hammers pulled by cables coming from the link room—a low-ceiling space between the clock room and the belfry—where mechanisms translate the movement of the quarter train into the sounding of the individual bells. The quarter bells play a once-repeating, note sequence of rounds and four changes in the key of E major: 1—4 at quarter past, 5—12 at half past, 13—20 and 1—4 at quarter to, and 5—20 on the hour which sounds 25 seconds before the main bell tolls the hour.

Because the low bell B is struck twice in quick succession, there is not enough time to pull a hammer back, and it is supplied with two wrench hammers on opposite sides of the bell. They are written on a plaque on the wall of the clock room. One of the requirements for the clock was that the first stroke of the hour bell should be correct to within one second per day. The origin of the nickname Big Ben is the subject of some debate. Now Big Ben is often used, by extension, to refer to the clock, the tower and the bell collectively, although the nickname is not universally accepted as referring to the clock and tower.

Some authors of works about the tower, clock and bell sidestep the issue by using the words Big Ben first in the title, then going on to clarify that the subject of the book is the clock and tower as well as the bell. Many people mistook this for a genuine news story and were widely ridiculed on Social Media. This even inspired the creation of two online petitions. Double-decker buses frame a busy Whitehall with Big Ben in the background. Big Ben replica at Legoland Windsor. The clock has become a cultural symbol of the United Kingdom, particularly in the visual media. When a television or film-maker wishes to indicate a generic location in the country, a popular way to do so is to show an image of the tower, often with a red double-decker bus or black cab in the foreground.

In a survey of 2, people found that the tower was the most popular landmark in the United Kingdom. It has also been named as the most iconic film location in London. The sound of the clock chiming has also been used this way in audio media, but as the Westminster Quarters are heard from other clocks and other devices, the sound is by no means unique. To welcome in , the clock tower was lit with fireworks that exploded at every toll of Big Ben. Londoners who live an appropriate distance from the tower and Big Ben can, by means of listening to the chimes both live and on analogue radio, hear the bell strike thirteen times. The sound of the chimes is sent live from a microphone permanently installed in the tower and connected by line to Broadcasting House.

At the close of the polls for the general election the results of the national exit poll were projected onto the south side of the tower. On 27 July , starting at a. The Clock Tower features in many dramatic representations, and as a specific location in:. Essential maintenance will be carried out on the clock mechanism, which will be stopped for several months, during which there will be no chimes. Big Ben will resume striking and tolling in The aim of the renovation is to repair and conserve the tower, upgrade facilities as necessary, and ensure its integrity for future generations.

The last significant renovation work was carried out to the tower over 30 years ago in The most significant addition to the tower in the forthcoming works will be the addition of a lift. Take a look behind-the-scenes of the famous bridge at The Tower Bridge Exhibition. Its driver, Albert Gunton, avoided catastrophe by accelerating rapidly and jumping the gap. Built in , Tower Bridge is the most iconic bridge in London. This impressive feat of engineering is metres feet long, covered in 22, litres 5,gal of paint and crossed by 40, people each day.

Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London built between and The bridge crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and has become an iconic symbol of London, resulting in it sometimes being confused with London Bridge, situated some 0. When English counties were established their boundaries were partly determined by the Thames. On the northern bank were the ancient counties of Gloucestershire , Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire , Middlesex and Essex.

On the southern bank were the counties of Wiltshire , Berkshire, Surrey and Kent. The bridges and 17 tunnels that have been built to date have changed the dynamics and made cross-river development and shared responsibilities more practicable. In , upon the creation of Greater London , the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames incorporated the former 'Middlesex and Surrey' banks, Spelthorne moved from Middlesex to Surrey; and further changes in moved some of the boundaries away from the river. For example, some areas were transferred from Berkshire to Oxfordshire, and from Buckinghamshire to Berkshire. On occasion — for example in rowing — the banks are still referred to by their traditional county names. Many of the present-day road bridges are on the site of earlier fords, ferries and wooden bridges.

At Swinford Bridge , a privately owned toll bridge, there was first a ford and then a ferry prior to the bridge being built. At Folly Bridge in Oxford the remains of an original Saxon structure can be seen, and medieval stone bridges such as Newbridge , Wallingford Bridge [67] and Abingdon Bridge are still in use. Kingston's growth is believed to stem from its having the only crossing between London Bridge and Staines until the beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century, many stone and brick road bridges were built from new or to replace existing bridges both in London and along the length of the river. Several central London road bridges were built in the 19th century, most conspicuously Tower Bridge , the only Bascule bridge on the river, designed to allow ocean-going ships to pass beneath it.

The Tower Subway was the first railway under the Thames, which was followed by all the deep-level tube lines. Road tunnels were built in East London at the end of the 19th century, being the Blackwall Tunnel and the Rotherhithe Tunnel. The latest tunnels are the Dartford Crossings. Many foot crossings were established across the weirs that were built on the non-tidal river, and some of these remained when the locks were built — for example at Benson Lock.

Others were replaced by a footbridge when the weir was removed as at Hart's Weir Footbridge. Around , several footbridges were added along the Thames, either as part of the Thames Path or in commemoration of the millennium. These include Temple Footbridge , Bloomers Hole Footbridge , the Hungerford Footbridges and the Millennium Bridge , all of which have distinctive design characteristics. Before bridges were built, the main means of crossing the river was by ferry. A significant number of ferries were provided specifically for navigation purposes. When the towpath changed sides, it was necessary to take the towing horse and its driver across the river.

This was no longer necessary when barges were powered by steam. Some ferries still operate on the river. Upstream are smaller pedestrian ferries, for example Hampton Ferry and Shepperton to Weybridge Ferry the last being the only non-permanent crossing that remains on the Thames Path. Treated sewage from all the towns and villages in the Thames catchment flow into the Thames via sewage treatment plants.

This includes all the sewage from Swindon, Oxford, Reading and Windsor. However, untreated sewage still often enters the Thames during wet weather. When London's sewerage system was built, sewers were designed to overflow through discharge points along the river during heavy storms. Originally, this would happen once or twice a year, however overflows now happen once a week on average. These discharge events kill fish, leave raw sewage on the riverbanks, and decrease the water quality of the river. This project will collect sewage from the Greater London area before it overflows , before channelling it down a 25 km 15 mi tunnel underneath the tidal Thames, so that it can be treated at Beckton Sewage Treatment Works.

Mercury Hg is an environmentally persistent heavy metal which can be toxic to marine life and humans. Sixty sediment cores of 1 m in depth, spanning the entire tidal River Thames between Brentford and the Isle of Grain , have been analysed for total Hg. The sediment records show a clear rise and fall of Hg pollution through history. The greatest amount of sedimentary-hosted Hg pollution in the Thames estuary occurs in the central London area between Vauxhall Bridge and Woolwich.

Oslo-Paris convention. There are several watersports prevalent on the Thames, with many clubs encouraging participation and organising racing and inter-club competitions. The Thames is the historic heartland of rowing in the United Kingdom. Internationally attended centres are Oxford , Henley-on-Thames and events and clubs on the stretch of river from Chiswick to Putney. Two rowing events on the River Thames are traditionally part of the wider English sporting calendar:. Henley Royal Regatta takes place over five days at the start of July in the upstream town of Henley-on-Thames. Besides its sporting significance the regatta is an important date on the English social calendar alongside events like Royal Ascot and Wimbledon.

Other regattas , head races and university bumping races are held along the Thames which are described under Rowing on the River Thames. Sailing is practised on both the tidal and non-tidal reaches of the river. The highest club upstream is at Oxford. The most popular sailing craft used on the Thames are lasers , GP14s and Wayfarers. Skiffing has dwindled in favour of private motor boat ownership but is competed on the river in the summer months.

Six clubs and a similar number of skiff regattas exist from the Skiff Club , Teddington upstream. Unlike the "pleasure punting " common on the Cherwell in Oxford and the Cam in Cambridge , punting on the Thames is competitive as well as recreational and uses narrower craft, typically based at the few skiff clubs. Kayaking and canoeing are common, with sea kayakers using the tidal stretch for touring. Kayakers and canoeists use the tidal and non-tidal sections for training, racing and trips. Whitewater playboaters and slalom paddlers are catered for at weirs like those at Hurley Lock , Sunbury Lock and Boulter's Lock. At Teddington just before the tidal section of the river starts is Royal Canoe Club , said to be the oldest in the world and founded in Since , almost every year at Easter, long distance canoeists have been competing in what is now known as the Devizes to Westminster International Canoe Race , [77] which follows the course of the Kennet and Avon Canal , joins the River Thames at Reading and runs right up to a grand finish at Westminster Bridge.

In British swimmer and environmental campaigner Lewis Pugh became the first person to swim the full length of the Thames from outside Kemble to Southend-on-Sea to draw attention to the severe drought in England which saw record temperatures indicative of a degree of global warming. The miles km swim took him 21 days to complete. The official headwater of the river had stopped flowing due to the drought forcing Pugh to run the first 26 miles 42 km. Since June the Port of London Authority has made and enforces a by-law that bans swimming between Putney Bridge and Crossness , Thamesmead thus including all of central London without obtaining prior permission, on the grounds that swimmers in that area of the river endanger not only themselves, due to the strong current of the river, but also other river users.

Organised swimming events take place at various points generally upstream of Hampton Court , including Windsor, Marlow and Henley. In non-tidal stretches swimming was, and still is, a leisure and fitness activity among experienced swimmers where safe, deeper outer channels are used in times of low stream. A Thames meander is a long-distance journey over all or part of the Thames by running, swimming or using any of the above means. It is often carried out as an athletic challenge in a competition or for a record attempt. The first Westminster Bridge as painted by Canaletto in Maidenhead Railway Bridge as Turner saw it in Boating on the Thames - John Lavery , circa The River Thames has been a subject for artists, great and minor, over the centuries.

Four major artists with works based on the Thames are Canaletto , J. The river and bridges are portrayed as being destroyed — together with much of London — in the film Independence Day 2. The Thames is mentioned in many works of literature including novels, diaries and poetry. It is the central theme in three in particular:. Three Men in a Boat by Jerome K. Jerome , first published in , is a humorous account of a boating holiday on the Thames between Kingston and Oxford. The book was intended initially to be a serious travel guide, with accounts of local history of places along the route, but the humorous elements eventually took over.

The landscape and features of the Thames as described by Jerome are virtually unchanged, and the book's enduring popularity has meant that it has never been out of print since it was first published. Charles Dickens ' Our Mutual Friend written in the years —65 describes the river in a grimmer light. It begins with a scavenger and his daughter pulling a dead man from the river near London Bridge, to salvage what the body might have in its pockets, and leads to its conclusion with the deaths of the villains drowned in Plashwater Lock upstream.

The workings of the river and the influence of the tides are described with great accuracy. Dickens opens the novel with this sketch of the river, and the people who work on it:. In these times of ours, though concerning the exact year there is no need to be precise, a boat of dirty and disreputable appearance, with two figures in it, floated on the Thames, between Southwark Bridge which is of iron, and London Bridge which is of stone, as an autumn evening was closing in. The figures in this boat were those of a strong man with ragged grizzled hair and a sun-browned face, and a girl of nineteen or twenty. The girl rowed, pulling a pair of sculls very easily; the man with the rudder-lines slack in his hands, and his hands loose in his waisteband, kept an eager look-out.

Kenneth Grahame 's The Wind in the Willows , written in , is set in the middle to upper reaches of the river. It starts as a tale of anthropomorphic characters "simply messing about in boats" but develops into a more complex story combining elements of mysticism with adventure and reflection on Edwardian society. It is generally considered one of the most beloved works of children's literature [89] and the illustrations by E. Shepard and Arthur Rackham feature the Thames and its surroundings. The river almost inevitably features in many books set in London. Most of Dickens' other novels include some aspect of the Thames. Oliver Twist finishes in the slums and rookeries along its south bank. In Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad , the serenity of the contemporary Thames is contrasted with the savagery of the Congo River , and with the wilderness of the Thames as it would have appeared to a Roman soldier posted to Britannia two thousand years before.

Conrad also gives a description of the approach to London from the Thames Estuary in his essays The Mirror of the Sea Upriver, Henry James ' Portrait of a Lady uses a large riverside mansion on the Thames as one of its key settings. Literary non-fiction works include Samuel Pepys ' diary, in which he recorded many events relating to the Thames including the Fire of London. He was disturbed while writing it in June by the sound of gunfire as Dutch warships broke through the Royal Navy on the Thames. The Sweet Thames line is taken from Edmund Spenser 's Prothalamion which presents a more idyllic image:.

Science-fiction novels make liberal use of a futuristic Thames. The utopian News from Nowhere by William Morris is mainly the account of a journey through the Thames valley in a socialist future. The Thames also features prominently in Philip Pullman 's His Dark Materials trilogy, as a communications artery for the waterborne Gyptian people of Oxford and the Fens , and as a prominent setting for his novel La Belle Sauvage. In one book, rat characters swim through it to Deptford.

The concert was performed for King George I on his barge and he is said to have enjoyed it so much that he ordered the 50 exhausted musicians to play the suites three times on the trip. Jessie Matthews sings "My river" in the film Sailing Along , and the tune is the centrepiece of a major dance number near the end of the film. The choral line " I liaised live by the river" in the song " London Calling " by the Clash refers to the River Thames. Two songs by the Kinks feature the Thames as the setting of the first song's title and, for the second song, arguably in its mention of 'the river': " Waterloo Sunset " is about a couple's meetings on Waterloo Bridge , London and starts: "Dirty old river, must you keep rolling, flowing into the night? Ewan MacColl 's "Sweet Thames, Flow Softly", written in the early s, is a tragic love ballad set on trip up the river see Edmund Spenser 's love poem's refrain above.

The song was released in on 18 October as the sixth single from her fourth album Sparks. The Thames flood was a disastrous flood of the River Thames that affected much of riverside London on 7 January , as well as places further downriver. Fourteen people were drowned in London and thousands were made homeless when flood waters poured over the top of the Thames Embankment and part of the Chelsea Embankment collapsed. It was the last major flood to affect central London , and, particularly following the disastrous North Sea flood of , helped lead to the implementation of new flood-control measures that culminated in the construction of the Thames Barrier in the s.

The Thames flood was overall the worst 20th-century flood of the River Thames, affecting much of the Thames Valley as well as elsewhere in England during the middle of March after a very severe winter. The floods were caused by 4. Other significant Thames floods since have occurred in , , , , , and On the night of 31 January, the North Sea flood of devastated the island taking the lives of 58 islanders, and led to the temporary evacuation of the 13, residents. The small village area of the island is approximately two feet 0. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from The River Thames. For other uses of "Thames", see Thames disambiguation. For the publisher, see Tamesis Books. River in southern England. Central London with Tower Bridge.

Thames summary route map. PLA limit. End of Thames Estuary — North Sea the few settlements further along the debatable estuary to the two points mentioned in the routemap are on inlets or far inland. Main article: Embanking of the tidal Thames. Main article: Tributaries of the River Thames. Main article: Locks and weirs on the River Thames. Main article: Tideway. Main article: Islands in the River Thames. See also: Ancestral Thames. Solutrean and Proto Solutrean Cultures. Epi Gravettian Culture. Main article: London River Services. Main article: List of crossings of the River Thames. Main article: Rowing on the River Thames. Main article: Sailing on the River Thames. Main article: Kayaking and canoeing on the River Thames.

This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Foggy Morning on the Thames — James Hamilton between and Main article: Thames flood. Main article: Canvey Island. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 11 December Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 28 February Adams The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy and Dearborn.

The Pictish Language. Wainright ed. The Problem of the Picts. Edinburgh: Nelson. Transactions of the Philological Society. Roman Oxfordshire , pp. The Roots of Liberty: Magna Carta.. Henley-on-Thames: River and Rowing Museum. ISBN Retrieved 1 November THames Pathway. Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 27 August BBC News. Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 17 May Ebury Publishing. Retrieved 20 January — via Google Books. The Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 6 November PDF file. Hydrological Data Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 2 April Archived from the original PDF on 30 September The Guardian.

Retrieved 4 August The Rivers TRust. Archived from the original on 5 August Archived from the original PDF on 31 January Retrieved 20 November River Thames Alliance. Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original on 29 December Quaternary Palaeoenvironments Group. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original on 21 October Ealing Gazette.

Archived from the original on 2 November Buckinghamshire County Council. Archived PDF from the original on 27 August Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 25 October Canvey Island Town Council. The Independent. Retrieved 23 August Wildlife Extra. September Archived from the original on 9 February Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 22 October Oxford Journal of Archaeology. Date Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 21 March VR London.

Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 17 April Archived from the original on 1 August Retrieved 1 August Berkshire Live. Archived from the original on 11 June Case Studies: In case studies, researchers carry out thorough analysis of unique situations, persons or groups of persons. The researcher gets to understand the subjective experience of this unique demographic. Naturalistic Observation: In naturalistic observation, the researcher makes the respondent to be comfortable so that they can behave normally during the research. Naturalistic observation mitigates fear therefore increasing. Also we found adults. Simple Random Sample is when we chose or pulled out data, information, people or other randomly from a larger set of information.

Each participant will have the same chance to be chosen for the research. It is conducted by providing an index number randomly chosen by each participant. The number can be picked up once. Then the selected participant will conduct the survey. Cluster Sample is the selection of a geographical area to conduct the. Simple Random Sampling: Simple random sampling is the most widely-used probability sampling method, probably because it is easy to implement and easy to analyze. Simple random sampling refers to a sampling method that has the following properties.

An important benefit of simple random sampling is that it allows researchers to use statistical methods to analyze. By taking the time to volunteer, one can effect the lives of many and can even effect their self. Not everyone in this world is blessed with strong family members and shelter. It is not required to volunteer, but a person will truly impact the lives of many if they decided to volunteer. The volunteer will also see effects in their own life also. Three positive effects that. In addition, a theory is a set of assumptions, principles, or propositions that explain or guide actions.

Before nursing theory, the nursing practice was not guided by any research or rational but mostly by traditional or ritualistic tasks. Therefore, the nursing theory emerged. One of the biggest changes in educational systems around the world has been integration of information and telecommunication technology ICT. Reflection, what is it? By David Mulcahy. Reflection can carry meanings that range from the idea of professionals engaging in solitary introspection to that of engaging in deep meaningful conversations with others.

But for this assignment I will focus on; what is refection in the clinical setting, why it is important for health care professionals to reflect and where the ideology of reflection came from. I will also provide a. I say let your affairs be two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand I realize the accuracy in this statement after being introduced to nature once again; the complications and anxiety of society are quite unnecessary. Living a simple life in harmony with nature would allow the soul to truly rest in peace, because.

The Thames River Basin District, including the Medway catchment, covers an area of 6, square miles 16, km2. The Thames drains the whole How Does Harper Lee Use Prejudice In To Kill A Mockingbird Greater London. Drapers, cobblers and furniture stores began to appear King Lear In The Crucible And The Handmaids Tale the street, and were later expanded into the first department stores. Thanks to its The Childrensâ€tms Act at a strategic bend in Jesuss Two Natures river, the views from the bridge of Westminster, the South Bank and the London Eye to the west, and what is simmering temperature the City King Lear In The Crucible And The Handmaids Tale London and Canary How Does Harper Lee Use Prejudice In To Kill A Mockingbird to the east are Jesuss Two Natures held to The Childrensâ€tms Act the Jesuss Two Natures from any spot in London at ground level.