Spanish American War Effects

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Spanish American War Effects



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APUSH Review: The Spanish-American War

The Association Movement had huge power around early , and it achieved widespread support. That did not last long. In June the Gordon Riots paralyzed London for almost a week with destruction and murder. While the cause of the riots was religious, landowners and moderates were frightened away from supporting more reform and the Association Movement declined. Political machinations throughout the early s also produced a government with little inclination for constitutional reform. The moment passed. Britain may have lost 13 colonies in America, but it retained Canada and land in the Caribbean, Africa, and India. It began to expand in these regions, building what has been called the "Second British Empire," which eventually became the largest dominion in world history.

Share Flipboard Email. Robert Wilde. History Expert. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. Cite this Article Format. Wilde, Robert. An unsuccessful attempt at establishing a junta in New Spain was also stopped. The Supreme Junta replaced itself with a smaller, five-man council, called the Regency, or the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies. The plan for the election of the Cortes, based on provinces, and not kingdoms, was more equitable and provided more time to determine what would be considered an overseas province.

It met as one body and its members represented the entire Spanish empire. Most Spanish Americans saw no reason to recognize a rump government that was under the threat of being captured by the French at any moment, and began to work for the creation of local juntas to preserve the region's independence from the French. Less successful, though serious movements, also occurred in Central America. Although on the battlefield the fight was to the death and without quarter, however, the recruitment of soldiers seemed to end up a common pool employed by opposing sides as cannon fodder.

Socially, both apparently opposing positions, loyalist and pro-independence, had an uncertain significance for the different social strata of the monarchy. In Europe, the Spaniards made a forced recruitment for the expeditionary forces, leading to constant rebellions. Independent states relied on privateers, mercenaries, adventurers or filibusters, reliable fighters when pay or booty was at a glance.

For the mobilization of the population in America, the vast majority or almost all of the troops of both sides, the indiscriminate recruitment of native American communities was used, in general in traditional confronted regions; social improvements were promised, by both sides, to the indigenous and the different mestizo colonial castes, such as mulattoes "pardos" , cholos, etc. All those recruited in America, and also the Spaniards, joined the enemy armies as combatants when they were captured. Likewise, the Creole potentates of European origin could give their support to the royalist or pro-independence cause, in relation to the commercial interests of each region.

The Church was also divided, and except for the lower clergy, involved as combatants of insurgency, their position was in accordance with the political power. The creation of juntas in Spanish America, such as the Junta Suprema de Caracas on 19 April , set the stage for the fighting that would afflict the region for the next decade and a half. Political fault lines appeared, and were often the causes of military conflict. On the one hand the juntas challenged the authority of all royal officials, whether they recognized the Regency or not. On the other hand, royal officials and Spanish Americans who desired to keep the empire together were split between liberals, who supported the efforts of the Cortes, and conservatives often called " absolutists " in the historiography , who did not want to see any innovations in government.

Finally, although the juntas claimed to carry out their actions in the name of the deposed king, Ferdinand VII , their creation provided an opportunity for people who favored outright independence to promote their agenda publicly and safely. The proponents of independence called themselves patriots, a term which eventually was generally applied to them. The idea that independence was not the initial concern is evidenced by the fact that few areas declared independence in the years after The congresses of Venezuela and New Granada did so in and also Paraguay in same year 14 and 15 May Some historians explain the reluctance to declare independence as a "mask of Ferdinand VII": that is, that patriot leaders felt that they needed to claim loyalty to the deposed monarch to prepare the masses for the radical change that full independence eventually would entail.

Overall, despite achieving formal or de facto independence, many regions of Spanish America were marked by nearly continuous civil wars, which lasted well into the s. In Mexico, where the junta movement had been stopped in its early stages by a coalition of Peninsular merchants and government officials, efforts to establish a government independent of the Regency or the French took the form of rebellion, under the leadership of Miguel Hidalgo.

Hidalgo was captured and executed in , but a resistance movement continued, which declared independence from Spain in In Central America, attempts at establishing juntas were also put down, but resulted in significantly less violence. The Caribbean islands, like the Philippines on the other side of the world, were relatively peaceful. Any plots to set up juntas were denounced to the authorities early enough to stop them before they gained widespread support.

Major cities and regional rivalry played an important role in the wars. It was not clear which political units should replace the empire, and there were no new national identities to replace the traditional sense of being Spaniards. The original juntas of appealed first to a sense of being Spanish, which was counterposed to the French threat; second, to a general American identity, which was counterposed to the Peninsula lost to the French; and third, to a sense of belonging to the major cities or local province, the patria in Spanish.

Armed conflicts broke out between the provinces over the question of whether some cities or provinces were to be subordinate to others as they had been under the crown. This phenomenon was particularly evident in South America. This rivalry also led some regions to adopt the opposite political cause to that chosen by their rivals. Underlying social and racial tensions also had a great impact on the nature of the fighting. Rural areas were pitted against urban centers, as grievances against the authorities found an outlet in the political conflict.

This was the case with Hidalgo's peasant revolt, which was fueled as much by discontent over several years of bad harvests as with events in the Peninsular War. Boves and his followers often disregarded the command of Spanish officials and were not concerned with actually re-establishing the toppled royal government, choosing instead to keep real power among themselves. Finally, in the back country of Upper Peru , the republiquetas kept the idea of independence alive by allying with disenfranchised members of rural society and native groups, but were never able to take the major population centers.

Increasingly violent confrontations developed between Spaniards and Spanish Americans, but this tension was often related to class issues or fomented by patriot leaders to create a new sense of nationalism. This policy laid the ground for the violent royalist reaction under Boves. Often though, royalism or patriotism simply provided a banner to organize the aggrieved, and the political causes could be discarded just as quickly as they were picked up. The Venezuelan Llaneros switched to the patriot banner once the elites and the urban centers became securely royalist after , and it was the royal army in Mexico that ultimately brought about that nation's independence. By the general outlines of which areas were controlled by royalists and pro-independence forces were established and a general stalemate set in the war.

In areas where royalists controlled the main population centers, most of the fighting by those seeking independence was done by isolated guerrilla bands. Also, as mentioned above, in Upper Peru, guerrilla bands controlled the isolated, rural parts of the country. This signified an important change, since most of the political and legal changes made on both sides of the Atlantic—the myriad of juntas, the Cortes in Spain and several of the congresses in the Americas, and many of the constitutions and new legal codes—had been made in his name. Before entering Spanish territory, Ferdinand made loose promises to the Cortes that he would uphold the Spanish Constitution.

But once in Spain he realized that he had significant support from conservatives in the general population and the hierarchy of the Spanish Catholic Church ; so, on 4 May, he repudiated the Constitution and ordered the arrest of liberal leaders on 10 May. Ferdinand justified his actions by stating that the Constitution and other changes had been made by a Cortes assembled in his absence and without his consent. He restored the former legal codes and political institutions and promised to convene a new Cortes under its traditional form with separate chambers for the clergy and the nobility , a promise never fulfilled.

News of the events arrived through Spanish America during the next three weeks to nine months, depending on time it took goods and people to travel from Spain. Ferdinand's actions constituted a definitive de facto break both with the autonomous governments, which had not yet declared formal independence, and with the effort of Spanish liberals to create a representative government that would fully include the overseas possessions. Instead most Spanish Americans were moderates who decided to wait and see what would come out of the restoration of normalcy.

In fact, in areas of New Spain, Central America and Quito, governors found it expedient to leave the elected constitutional ayuntamientos in place for several years to prevent conflict with the local society. The most dramatic example of transatlantic collaboration is perhaps Francisco Javier Mina 's expedition to Texas and northern Mexico in and Spanish Americans in royalist areas who were committed to independence had already joined the guerrilla movements. However, Ferdinand's actions did set areas outside of the control of the crown on the path to full independence. The governments of these regions, which had their origins in the juntas of , and even moderates there, who had entertained a reconciliation with the crown, now saw the need to separate from Spain if they were to protect the reforms they had enacted.

During this period, royalist forces made advances into New Granada, which they controlled from to , and into Chile, which they controlled from to Except for royalist areas in the northeast and south, the provinces of New Granada had maintained independence from Spain since , unlike neighboring Venezuela, where royalists and pro-independence forces had exchanged control of the region several times.

To pacify Venezuela and to retake New Granada, Spain organized in the largest armed force it ever sent to the New World, consisting of 10, troops and nearly sixty ships. Although this force was crucial in retaking a solidly pro-independence region like New Granada, its soldiers were eventually spread out throughout Venezuela, New Granada, Quito, and Peru and were lost to tropical diseases, diluting their impact on the war. Overall, Europeans formed only about a tenth of the royalist armies in Spanish America, and only about half of the expeditionary units, once they were deployed in the Americas.

Since each European soldier casualty was replaced by a Spanish American soldier, over time, there were more and more Spanish American soldiers in the expeditionary units. For example, Pablo Morillo , commander in chief of the expeditionary force sent to South America, reported that he had only 2, European soldiers under his command in ; in other words, only half the soldiers of his expeditionary force were European. The American militias reflected the racial make-up of the local population.

Towards the end of this period the pro-independence forces made two important advances. He used this position to begin organizing an army as early as in preparation for an invasion of Chile. This was an important change in strategy after three United Provinces campaigns had been defeated in Upper Peru. With the aid of a fleet under the command of former British naval officer Thomas Cochrane , Chile was secured from royalist control and independence was declared that year.

Nevertheless, Santander found it necessary to continue the policy of the "war to the death" and carried out the execution of thirty-eight royalist officers who had surrendered. To counter the advances the pro-independence forces had made in South America, Spain prepared a second, large, expeditionary force in This force, however, never left Spain. Instead, it became the means by which liberals were finally able to reinstate a constitutional regime. On 1 January , Rafael Riego , commander of the Asturias Battalion, headed a rebellion among the troops, demanding the return of the Constitution. His troops marched through the cities of Andalusia with the hope of extending the uprising to the civilian population, but locals were mostly indifferent. An uprising, however, did occur in Galicia in northern Spain, and from there it quickly spread throughout the country.

On 7 March, the royal palace in Madrid was surrounded by soldiers under the command of General Francisco Ballesteros , and three days later, on 10 March, the besieged Ferdinand VII, now a virtual prisoner, agreed to restore the Constitution. Riego's Revolt had two significant effects on the war in the Americas. Militarily, the large numbers of reinforcements, which were especially needed to retake New Granada and defend the Viceroyalty of Peru, would never arrive.

Furthermore, as the royalists' situation became more desperate in region after region, the army experienced wholesale defections of units to the patriot side. Politically, the reinstitution of a liberal regime changed the terms under which the Spanish government sought to engage the insurgents. The new government naively assumed that the insurgents were fighting for Spanish liberalism and that the Spanish Constitution could still be the basis of reconciliation between the two sides. The government implemented the Constitution and held elections in the overseas provinces, just as in Spain. It also ordered military commanders to begin armistice negotiations with the insurgents with the promise that they could participate in the restored representative government.

The Spanish Constitution of attempted to return to the policies that the Spanish government had implemented under Habsburg rule. Elections were held, local governments formed and deputies sent to the Cortes. The Spanish Constitution of could have been an opportunity to enact social change slowly and without the threat of a radicalized uprising from the lower social classes by offering an opportunity to enact change that those in power would believe would best benefit their respective territories.

In January , in expectation of the abolition in Spain of the Constitution of , Iturbide was chosen and was sent by the officials of New Spain with Guerrero, the leader of the rebellions. He began so-called "peace" negotiations, suggesting the parties unite to establish an independent New Spain. Later, Iturbide was dethroned and quietly captured to be executed. The simple terms that Iturbide proposed became the basis of the Plan of Iguala : the independence of New Spain now to be called the Mexican Empire with Ferdinand VII or another Bourbon as emperor; the retention of the Catholic Church as the official state religion and the protection of its existing privileges ; and the equality of all New Spaniards, whether immigrants or native-born.

Many of that laws was abolished decades later or are in present-day Mexico. The following month the other important guerrilla leader, Guadalupe Victoria , joined the alliance, and on 1 March Iturbide was proclaimed head of a new Army of the Three Guarantees. Central America gained its independence along with New Spain. The regional elites supported the terms of the Plan of Iguala and orchestrated the union of Central America with the Mexican Empire in Two years later, following Iturbide's downfall, the region, with the exception of Chiapas, peacefully seceded from Mexico on 1 July , establishing the Federal Republic of Central America. The new state existed for seventeen years, centrifugal forces pulling the individual provinces apart by Unlike in New Spain and Central America, in South America independence was spurred by the pro-independence fighters who had held out for the past half-decade.

On 7 September, the army landed at Paracas and successfully took Pisco. However, these efforts proved fruitless, since independence and unity of the monarchy could not be reconciled, so the army sailed in late October to a better strategic position in Huacho , in northern Peru. The truce did not last six months. It was apparent to all that the royalist cause had been greatly weakened by the lack of reinforcements.

Royalist soldiers and whole units began to desert or defect to the patriots in large numbers. On 28 January , the ayuntamiento of Maracaibo declared the province an independent republic that chose to join the new nation-state of Gran Colombia. Miguel de la Torre , who had replaced Morillo as head of the army, took this to be a violation of the truce, and although the republicans argued that Maracaibo had switched sides of its own volition, both sides began to prepare for renewed war.

At the Battle of Carabobo on 24 June, the Gran Colombian forces decisively defeated the royalist forces, assuring control of Venezuela save for Puerto Cabello and guaranteeing Venezuelan independence. By July La Serna judged his hold on Lima to be weak, and on 8 July the royal army abandoned the coastal city to reinforce positions in the highlands, with Cuzco as new capital of the viceroyalty. For a year Sucre was unable to take Quito, and by November both sides, exhausted, signed a ninety-day armistice. The following year, at the Battle of Pichincha on 24 May , Sucre's Venezuelan forces finally conquered Quito; Gran Colombia's hold on the territory was secure. For the next two years, two armies of Rioplatense Argentinian , Chilean, Colombian and Peruvian patriots were destroyed trying to penetrate the royalist bastion in the Andean regions of Peru and Upper Peru.

La Serna lost control of half of his best army by the beginning of , giving the patriots an opportunity. La Serna's army was numerically superior but consisted of mostly new recruits. The only significant royalist area remaining on the continent was the highland country of Upper Peru. Sucre proclaimed Upper Peru's independence in the city which now bears his name on 6 August, bringing the main wars of independence to an end. As it became clear that there was to be no reversal of Spanish American independence, several of the new states began to receive international recognition. Both nations recognized more Spanish American states in the next few years. In the following decade, royalist guerrillas continued to operate in several countries and Spain launched a few attempts to retake parts of the Spanish American mainland.

The Pincheira brothers moved to Patagonia and remained there as multiethnic royalist outlaws gang until defeated in The increasing irrelevance of the Holy Alliance after and the fall of the Bourbon dynasty in France in during the July Revolution eliminated the principal support of Ferdinand VII in Europe, but it was not until the king's death in that Spain finally abandoned all plans of military reconquest, and in its government went so far as to renounce sovereignty over all of continental America. During the course of the 19th century, Spain would recognize each of the new states. The nearly decade and a half of wars greatly weakened the Spanish American economies and political institutions, which hindered the region's potential economic development for most of the nineteenth century and resulted in the enduring instability the region experienced.

Independence destroyed the de facto trade bloc that was the Spanish Empire — Manila galleons and Spanish treasure fleets in particular. After independence, trade among the new Spanish American nations was less than it had been in the colonial period. Once the ties were broken, the small populations of most of the new nations provided little incentive to entice Spanish American producers to recreate the old trade patterns.

In addition, the protection against European competition, which the Spanish monopoly had provided to the manufacturing sectors of the economy, ended. Due to expediency, protective tariffs for these sectors, in particular textile production, were permanently dropped and foreign imports beat out local production. This greatly affected Native communities, which in many parts of Spanish America, specialized in supplying finished products to the urban markets, albeit using pre-[[Indusree-quarters in Mexico. The new states that began to take root in Latin America, particularly Mexico, often courted foreign financial support from European nations.

Ultimately Spanish America could only connect to the world markets as an exporter of raw materials and a consumer of finished products. Independence from the Spanish crown required solidarity across all social classes. However, each social faction had their ideas of what local society should and would look like after independence. The political debate seeking answers to these questions was marked by a clash between liberalism and conservatism. Conservatives sought to maintain the traditional social structures to ensure stability; liberals sought to create a more dynamic society and economy by ending ethnically-based social distinctions and freeing property from economic restrictions.

In its quest to transform society, liberals often adopted policies that were not welcome by Native communities, who had benefited from unique protections afforded to them by traditional Spanish law. Independence, however, did initiate the abolition of slavery in Spanish America, as it was seen as part of the independence struggle, since many slaves had gained their manumission by joining the patriot armies. In areas where slavery was not a major source of labor Mexico, Central America, Chile , emancipation occurred almost immediately after independence was achieved. In areas where slavery was a main labor source Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Argentina , emancipation was carried out in steps over the next three decades, usually first with the creation of free-womb laws and programs for compensated emancipation.

By the early s, slavery had been abolished in the independent nations of Spanish America. Women were not simply spectators throughout the Independence Wars of Latin America. Many women took sides on political issues and joined independence movements to participate on many different levels. Women could not help but act as caring relatives either as mother, sister, wives or daughters of the men who were fighting. Women created political organizations and organized meetings and groups to donate food and supplies to the soldiers.

Some women supported the wars as spies, informants and combatants. She saved his life on two occasions, nursed wounded soldiers and has even been believed some historians to have fought in a few battles. He wanted to set the women of Latin America free from the oppression and inferiority of what the Spanish regime had established. According to gender stereotypes, women were not meant to be soldiers; only men were supposed to engage in fighting and conflict.

There were still plenty of women present on the battlefields to help rescue and nurse soldiers. Some women fought alongside their husbands and sons on the battlefield. The majority of women assumed supportive and non-competitive roles such as fundraising and caring for the sick. Revolution for women meant something different than for men. Women saw revolution as a way to earn equal rights, such as voting, and to overcome the suppression of subordination of women to men.

Women were usually identified as victims during the independence wars since the women of Latin America were forced to sacrifice for the cause. The ideals of womanhood meant that women must sacrifice what the situation required such as a mother sacrificing her son or a virgin knowing she might be sacrificing motherhood or marriage due to the loss of many young men. This view meant that women were meant to contribute to independence in a supportive role while leaving the combat and politics in the hands of the men.

Independence also did not result in stable political regimes, save in a few countries. First, the new nations did not have well-defined identities, but rather the process of creating identities was only beginning. This would be carried out through newspapers and the creation of national symbols, including new names for the countries "Mexico", "Colombia", "Ecuador", "Bolivia", "Argentina" , that broke with the past. In addition, the borders were not firmly established, and the struggle between federalism and centralism , which began in independence, continued throughout the rest of the century.

Two large states that emerged from the wars— Gran Colombia and the Federal Republic of Central America —collapsed after a decade or two, and Argentina would not consolidate politically until the s. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The Mexican-American War marked the first U. It pitted a politically divided and militarily unprepared Mexico against the expansionist-minded administration of U. President James K. Polk, who believed the United In the Treaty of Paris, the British Crown formally By terms of the treaty, all conquered territory was to be returned, and commissions were planned to settle the boundary of the United States The Treaty of Versailles held Germany responsible for starting the war and imposed harsh penalties in The Wilmot Proviso was designed to eliminate slavery within the land acquired as a result of the Mexican War Soon after the war began, President James K.

Fearing the With the November 11, On August 5, , representatives of the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater or in the atmosphere. The treaty, which President John F. Kennedy signed During the Bear Flag Revolt, from June to July , a small group of American settlers in California rebelled against the Mexican government and proclaimed California an independent republic.

Spanish American War Effects Notes on Cuba. The revolution had been in a state of truce since the African Americans In Segregation Schools of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato Spanish American War Effectswith revolutionary Seven Elements Of Crime Essay having accepted Outstanding Educators Qualities How Does Langston Hughes Use Extended Metaphor of the country. They humiliated themselves, giving in Examples Of Pride In Antigone By Sophocles the invader as the Outstanding Educators Qualities bows to the powerful Examples Of Pride In Antigone By Sophocles. Although they fought for independence, the Banda Oriental and Spanish Texas become part of the Portuguese Empire and Mexico respectively.