Language Techniques In Jasper Jones Essay

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Language Techniques In Jasper Jones Essay

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Applied ontology is considered a spiritual successor to prior work in philosophy, however many current efforts are more concerned with establishing controlled vocabularies of narrow domains than first principles , the existence of fixed essences or whether enduring objects e. Every field uses ontological assumptions to frame explicit theories, research and applications. For instance, the definition and ontology of economics is a primary concern in Marxist economics , [5] but also in other subfields of economics. Artificial intelligence has retained the most attention regarding applied ontology in subfields like natural language processing within machine translation and knowledge representation , but ontology editors are being used often in a range of fields like education without the intent to contribute to AI.

Ontologies arise out of the branch of philosophy known as metaphysics , which deals with questions like "what exists? One of five traditional branches of philosophy, metaphysics, is concerned with exploring existence through properties, entities and relations such as those between particulars and universals , intrinsic and extrinsic properties , or essence and existence. Metaphysics has been an ongoing topic of discussion since recorded history. Since the mids, researchers in the field of artificial intelligence AI have recognized that knowledge engineering is the key to building large and powerful AI systems [ citation needed ]. AI researchers argued that they could create new ontologies as computational models that enable certain kinds of automated reasoning , which was only marginally successful.

In the s, the AI community began to use the term ontology to refer to both a theory of a modeled world and a component of knowledge-based systems. In particular, David Powers introduced the word ontology to AI to refer to real world or robotic grounding, [8] [9] [10] publishing in literature reviews emphasizing grounded ontology in association with the call for papers for a AAAI Summer Symposium Machine Learning of Natural Language and Ontology, with an expanded version published in SIGART Bulletin and included as a preface to the proceedings.

In , the widely cited web page and paper "Toward Principles for the Design of Ontologies Used for Knowledge Sharing" by Tom Gruber [13] used ontology as a technical term in computer science closely related to earlier idea of semantic networks and taxonomies. Gruber introduced the term as a specification of a conceptualization :. An ontology is a description like a formal specification of a program of the concepts and relationships that can formally exist for an agent or a community of agents.

This definition is consistent with the usage of ontology as set of concept definitions, but more general. And it is a different sense of the word than its use in philosophy. Attempting to distance ontologies from taxonomies and similar efforts in knowledge modeling that rely on classes and inheritance , Gruber stated :. Ontologies are often equated with taxonomic hierarchies of classes, class definitions, and the subsumption relation , but ontologies need not be limited to these forms. Ontologies are also not limited to conservative definitions — that is, definitions in the traditional logic sense that only introduce terminology and do not add any knowledge about the world. Contemporary ontologies share many structural similarities, regardless of the language in which they are expressed.

Most ontologies describe individuals instances , classes concepts , attributes and relations. In this section each of these components is discussed in turn. Ontologies are commonly encoded using ontology languages. A domain ontology or domain-specific ontology represents concepts which belong to a realm of the world, such as biology or politics. Each domain ontology typically models domain-specific definitions of terms. For example, the word card has many different meanings. An ontology about the domain of poker would model the " playing card " meaning of the word, while an ontology about the domain of computer hardware would model the " punched card " and " video card " meanings. Since domain ontologies are written by different people, they represent concepts in very specific and unique ways, and are often incompatible within the same project.

As systems that rely on domain ontologies expand, they often need to merge domain ontologies by hand-tuning each entity or using a combination of software merging and hand-tuning. This presents a challenge to the ontology designer. Different ontologies in the same domain arise due to different languages, different intended usage of the ontologies, and different perceptions of the domain based on cultural background, education, ideology, etc.

At present, merging ontologies that are not developed from a common upper ontology is a largely manual process and therefore time-consuming and expensive. Domain ontologies that use the same upper ontology to provide a set of basic elements with which to specify the meanings of the domain ontology entities can be merged with less effort. There are studies on generalized techniques for merging ontologies, [18] but this area of research is still ongoing, and it's a recent event to see the issue sidestepped by having multiple domain ontologies using the same upper ontology like the OBO Foundry. An upper ontology or foundation ontology is a model of the commonly shared relations and objects that are generally applicable across a wide range of domain ontologies.

It usually employs a core glossary that overarches the terms and associated object descriptions as they are used in various relevant domain ontologies. The Gellish ontology is an example of a combination of an upper and a domain ontology. A survey of ontology visualization methods is presented by Katifori et al. Ontology engineering also called ontology building is a set of tasks related to the development of ontologies for a particular domain.

Ontology engineering aims to make explicit the knowledge contained in software applications, and organizational procedures for a particular domain. Ontology engineering offers a direction for overcoming semantic obstacles, such as those related to the definitions of business terms and software classes. Known challenges with ontology engineering include:. Ontology editors are applications designed to assist in the creation or manipulation of ontologies. It is common for ontology editors to use one or more ontology languages. Aspects of ontology editors include: visual navigation possibilities within the knowledge model , inference engines and information extraction ; support for modules; the import and export of foreign knowledge representation languages for ontology matching ; and the support of meta-ontologies such as OWL-S , Dublin Core , etc.

Ontology learning is the automatic or semi-automatic creation of ontologies, including extracting a domain's terms from natural language text. As building ontologies manually is extremely labor-intensive and time-consuming, there is great motivation to automate the process. Information extraction and text mining have been explored to automatically link ontologies to documents, for example in the context of the BioCreative challenges. An ontology language is a formal language used to encode an ontology. There are a number of such languages for ontologies, both proprietary and standards-based:. The development of ontologies has led to the emergence of services providing lists or directories of ontologies called ontology libraries.

See also: Logic machines in fiction and List of fictional computers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about ontology in information science. For the study of the nature of being, see Ontology. Specification of a conceptualization. Bibliometrics Categorization Censorship Classification Computer data storage Cultural studies Data modeling Informatics Information technology Intellectual freedom Intellectual property Library and information science Memory Preservation Privacy Quantum information science.

Main article: Ontology components. Main article: Upper ontology. Main article: Ontology engineering. Main article: Ontology learning. Main article: Ontology language. Dam ed. Online Etymology Dictionary. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Cambridge Journal of Economics. Retrieved AI Matters. PMC PMID Electronics Today International. Computer Compacts. Machine Learning of Natural Language. ISBN Tamer eds. Encyclopedia of Database Systems. Stanford University. Archived from the original on The filmmakers cut between exciting on-field footage and new interviews, showing how soccer, Brazil and the world changed during the s.

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Special cameras capture color the way the animals themselves see it, giving viewers an entirely new perspective on the great outdoors, all explained clearly and compellingly by the affable Attenborough. The answer? This series is partly an appreciation of our wonderful world and partly a warning that some parts of it may not survive much longer. With the help of special lowlight cameras, the crew for this six-episode series were able to gather images unlike anything previously seen in films like these. As with most modern nature docs, this one delivers a lesson, about the disruptions affecting our delicate ecological balance.

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For a few days in the spring of , social media was abuzz with stories about the massive failures of the Fyre Festival, a multiday pop concert and party that went off the rails almost as soon as crowds started arriving at an island in the Bahamas. The heart of this movie is its wealth of performance footage, which shows the politically outspoken and confrontational Simone staring down audiences, while singing some of the most thrilling American popular music of the s.

Constitution, which was intended to abolish involuntary servitude. This film covers the history of the relationship between racial minorities and law enforcement, and details how a great deal of injustice has been done in the name of fighting crime. At Camp Jened, the director and his friends experienced what the world could be like if it were populated with loving and supporting peers, and filled with facilities that accommodate wheelchairs, among other things. The heartwarming footage from those years is combined with new interviews, in which the former campers talk about how, as adults, they tried make the outside world as inviting as those summers.

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The directors Steven Leckart and Daniel Junge delve into the ways that declining public interest and slashed budgets led to some dangerous, corner-cutting decisions, coming at the expense of a new, more culturally diverse wave of astronauts. One good way to understand the complexities of the modern global economy is to watch this entertaining and eye-opening Oscar winner, about what happened when a Chinese company opened a glass plant in the U. Throughout, the filmmakers Steven Bognar and Julia Reichert raise some important questions about how much Americans are willing to sacrifice to save their manufacturing sector. The words of James Baldwin — heard in vintage interviews, and also read aloud by Samuel L.

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