Childrens Wellbeing: Social Policy Analysis

Sunday, February 13, 2022 1:21:07 PM

Childrens Wellbeing: Social Policy Analysis



It was also noted that the amount of schoolwork children are given may not allow them much free time to do the things they value and enjoy. Personal Narrative: Its All About Helping The Little Guys The Importance Of Trust In John Steinbecks Of Mice And Men Personal Narrative: Its All About Helping The Little Guys and playing board games Analysis Of Nikky Finneys Red Velvet you just to make you feel like Is Macbeth Relevant Today cared about Pumpkins Research Paper PubMed Google Scholar. The Is Macbeth Relevant Today service will also help in establishing paternity, if this is needed. Heymann, J. UNICEF supports national and local governments to mobilize, allocate and improve the utilization of public financial resources to Attentional Boost Effect more equitable and sustainable social services and Johnny Appleseed Research Paper to better results for children. How Are The Atomic Bombs In World War 2 Justified More. However, others felt their parents or carers lacked both understanding of them as an individual and Is Macbeth Relevant Today of how their Ancient Egyptian Culture: Thoth Khonsu And Iah behaviour affected their Fantasy And Fairy Tale Theory: A Literary Analysis.

SWU 432 icourse Module 4 PPP on social policy analysis

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Related Articles Expand or collapse the "related articles" section about About Related Articles close popup. The child custody services will be there to help provide resources and information regarding where the other parent lives or where he works. The support service will also help in establishing paternity, if this is needed. This is needed to help establish child support obligation because without a child support order, collection will be hard to enforce. A legal process is needed, in cases like this, and the support service will be the front agency for. Positive outcomes included protecting. Social work has the responsibility to safeguard children and young people from potential harm from anybody could be from family members, carers or others.

Different local authorities provide different levels of support. It has a statutory obligation to safeguard vulnerable children and promote their well-being and to provide support and a range of services to families and co-ordination of. It means that all professionals and everyone who is care of children and young people must be aware of the legal aspects. It also gives guidelines to schools and agencies how to deal with problems and issues relating to children. These include for example: children should be healthy, be safe in their environments, to make positive contribution to the society or be supported to enjoy life. The school have to apply the national policies which are related to children, young people and families and have a good knowledge of the policies, one of these important policies that the school have to follow is the Every Child Matters policy, for children nationally this has had great impact on them.

Schools will need to create their own policies in accordance with the national guidelines, such as the safeguarding policy for children and the child protection policy, in following guidelines from the local education authorities. The Every Child Matters policy has 5 key aims for. Awareness regarding the needs and difficulties of young people facing life-limiting and life-threatening conditions in the education system, including communication, both between school and home and education and health agencies, has the potential to affect young people facing such challenges. Asprey and Nash considered the adequacy of support for young people managing.

As part of their legal and professional obligations, practitioners hold positions of trust and a duty of care to the children in their school, and therefore should always act in their best interests and ensure their safety. Children and young people should be helped to learn and thrive and be given the opportunity to achieve the five basic outcomes: be healthy; stay safe; enjoy and achieve; make a. This essay will aim to explore the impact that policy can have on children 's wellbeing. It will consider societal concepts of childhood and how these might have influence on legislation and policy today. One particular policy that could advance a range of SDGs and importantly improve maternal and infant health is paid parental leave.

In addition, this article presents global data on the prevalence of policies in all UN Member States. A review of the literature finds that paid parental leave may support improvements across a range of SDG outcomes relevant to maternal and child health. Across national income levels, paid leave has been associated with lower infant mortality and higher rates of immunizations. However, factors including the duration of leave, the wage replacement rate, and whether leave is made available to both parents importantly shape the impacts of paid leave policies. While most countries now offer at least some paid maternal leave, many provide less than the 6 months recommended for exclusive breastfeeding, and only around half as many provide paternal leave.

Further research is needed on the duration, wage replacement rate, and availability of leave before and after birth that would best support both child and parental health outcomes and social determinants of health more broadly. In addition, further work is needed to understand the extent to which paid leave policies extend to the informal economy, where the majority of women and men in low- and middle-income countries work. The Sustainable Development Goals SDGs have the potential to have a significant impact on maternal and child health, through their commitments both to directly addressing health services and to improving factors that form the foundation of social determinants of health [ 1 ].

Included among these, the SDGs commit governments to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all SDG 3 ; to end poverty, including by implementing social protection systems SDG 1 ; to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls SDG 5 ; to promote decent work for all SDG 8 ; and to reduce inequality within and among countries SDG In total, the SDGs comprise 17 goals and targets and are far more comprehensive with respect to social and environmental determinants of health than the 8 goals and 18 targets of the Millennium Development Goals that preceded them. The SDGs cover low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Identifying approaches that have cross-cutting effects across a range of the goals would accelerate progress.

Across high- and low-income countries alike, certain national policies have the potential to have impact on both the SDH and traditional health outcomes. One of these is paid parental leave, which enables women and men to take time off of work following the birth of a child while maintaining their jobs and at least partial income. Paid parental leave has the potential to have health benefits for infants and mothers, and may also reduce economic and gender inequality and improve employment conditions. This review will evaluate the evidence for paid parental leave and assess its potential to improve a range of health and economic outcomes simultaneously.

In particular, this paper will assess the impact of paid parental leave on health outcomes for children and parents, thus addressing its potential to directly affect SDG 3. In addition, this paper will examine to what extent paid parental leave advances employment and gender equality, two social determinants of health that are central to SDGs 1, 5, 8, and Finally, this paper will briefly assess the role of complementary policies, such as breastfeeding breaks and paid leave for other caregiving needs, which may support similar objectives.

For each of these areas, this paper will present data illustrating the current status of each of these policies globally and outline areas for future research. From these analyses, this article provides an overview of the evidence for whether paid parental leave could improve parental, child health, and economic outcomes in support of the SDGs, and further examines existing evidence and areas where further research is needed about how to shape leave policies to best support these outcomes.

SDG target 3. Recent research has found that longer periods of maternal leave reduce infant mortality in countries at all income levels. In a study of nearly , live births across 20 low- and middle-income countries LMICs , using longitudinal data and multilevel models, Nandi et al. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. These findings are consistent with previous research from OECD countries, which has likewise found a relationship between more generous paid maternal leave policies and lower infant mortality [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ].

For example, in a longitudinal study of 16 high-income European countries plus the United States and Japan, Tanaka found that a week extension in paid maternal leave reduced infant mortality by 2. Studies have found that more generous paid parental leave supports both these practices. Few studies of paid leave and breastfeeding initiation and duration have been conducted in the specific context of LMICs.

Similarly, studies from high-income countries suggest that more generous paid leave may be associated with higher rates of on-time immunizations [ 16 , 17 ]. For example, Ueda et al. In a longitudinal study of OECD countries, however, Tanaka found no statistically significant relationship between the availability of maternal leave, looking separately at both job-protected paid leave and unpaid leave, and immunization rates within the first year [ 7 ]. This also could be due to the amount and nature of leave changes over the time period studied. More recently, studies have found a positive relationship between paid maternal leave and vaccination rates in LMICs [ 18 , 19 ]. In a study of around , live births across 20 LMICs, using longitudinal data and multilevel models, Hajizadeh et al.

By contrast, the study did not find a significant relationship between increases in paid maternity leave and the probability of children receiving the BCG vaccine, which is typically administered right after birth while infants are still hospitalized. The findings suggest that paid parental leave can improve immunization rates in LMICs, but that the effect depends on the duration of available leave and is most pronounced for vaccines that are typically administered in series over the first several months. Finally, one longitudinal study, applying a difference-in-differences estimate to data from five US states, found that the provision of short-term disability leave that could be taken before or after childbirth reduced the incidence of low birth weight, which the author posited was likely driven by higher take-up of antenatal care, though data on the timing of leave-taking was unavailable to confirm this theory [ 20 ].

For example, in a quasi-experimental study of Norway, contrasting births before and after the introduction of a paternity leave quota, Cools et al. In addition, at least one study has found that paid parental leave may reduce the incidence of pediatric hospital admissions due to child abuse [ 23 ]. Decent employment and safe working conditions are foundational to health [ 24 ], and also central to SDG 8. SDG 8. Consistent employment with an adequate wage often provides the most sustainable pathway out of poverty, and enables families to better meet their basic needs. SDG targets 1. Over time, ensuring broad and inclusive participation in the workforce supports economic growth and higher GDPs, which is the aim of SDG 8.

These findings suggest that the provision of leave may have significant benefits for the economy that should be considered alongside any assessment of its costs. The International Labor Organization ILO Maternity Protection Convention established a minimum global standard of 14 weeks of paid maternal leave for working mothers [ 34 ]. Notably, both of these fall short of the 26 weeks that would fully support the 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding recommended by WHO.

In addition, if paid leave is only available to women, it may lead to greater gender discrimination in the labor market. The following section examines the evidence for providing adequate leave to both parents in more detail. Gender inequality has deep impacts on health, whether through shaping the allocation of wealth and resources, determining whose health needs are recognized and prioritized, or directly affecting physical and mental health as a result of increased exposure to violence and discrimination.

Gender inequality also has repercussions specifically for maternal and child health, and gender bias has been identified as a contributor to inadequate access to prenatal care and nutrition during pregnancy, lower birth weights, higher rates of maternal mortality, and undernourishment of female children [ 45 , 46 ]. While the consequences of gender inequality and traditional gender norms primarily disadvantage women, men also feel the effects, which manifest in fewer opportunities to participate in caregiving, increased risk-taking, and shorter life expectancies [ 47 ].

Against this backdrop, SDG 5. This evidence supports the idea that when available to both parents, paid parental leave can support gender equality at home and at work. By contrast, when paid leave is available only to women, it may reinforce the idea that women are primarily responsible for caregiving, while men are the primary earners. This is partly due to stigma and longstanding gender norms [ 51 , 52 ], though it may also result as a consequence of the gender wage gap. If paid leave is only provided at partial wages, it makes sense for the lower-earning parent, who remains more likely in most countries to be the mother, to take a greater share of the available leave [ 53 ]. Still, even in the face of the gender imbalance in take-up, it is important to note there is substantial data that wage replacement rates also influence whether and for how long women take leave.

In the USA, which only provides unpaid leave, women are nearly twice as likely as men to report that they needed leave but were unable to take it, while nearly half of those with unmet need for leave cite lack of affordability as the key reason [ 55 ]. For example, in Korea, three times as many men took leave following the introduction of 1 year of non-transferable parental leave as an individual entitlement for each employee in [ 61 ]. These policies may also reduce stigma for leave-taking, which is sometimes seen as a signal of low commitment at work. As of , however, only 15 countries reserve more than 2 weeks of leave for fathers or provide incentives for fathers to take leave [ 36 ] Fig.

More research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to assess which policies would best support an increasingly equal role by fathers. Is paid leave structured to incentivize working fathers to share infant caregiving responsibilities? While the research is derived primarily from higher-income countries, a range of studies have found important health benefits for women who have access to paid parental leave. Most fundamentally, paid leave enables women to physically recover from childbirth before returning to work [ 62 , 63 ].

For example, several studies have found that the availability of leave reduces the risk of postpartum depression [ 64 , 65 ] while Avendano et al. However, across both physical and mental health, length of leave may make a critical difference. For example, Geller et al. Likewise, Ip et al. Finally, at least one study has found an association between paid parental leave and reduced intimate partner violence [ 69 ], a critical issue highlighted in SDG 5. Although few studies have examined this question directly, several have found that the availability of paid leave for fathers increases their involvement with their infants, which may result in greater satisfaction in their relationships with their children [ 48 , 50 ].

In a more recent study from Bangladesh, which does not currently have paid paternal leave, researchers found that fathers who arranged to take time off around the birth of a child were more involved with their children and spent more one-on-one time with them [ 70 ]. As previously noted, breastfeeding is widely considered to be a highly impactful infant health intervention. A child who is exclusively breastfed is 14 times less likely to die within the first 6 months than a child who is not breastfed, due in part to dramatic reductions in malnutrition [ 71 , 72 ] and simultaneously to reductions in infections. Breastfeeding has also been associated with improved health outcomes in childhood, including improvements in neurocognitive development and lower rates of chronic diseases like diabetes SDG 3.

The World Health Organization recommends 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding for infants to receive the maximum health benefits. For mothers who want or need to return to work within this time period, paid breastfeeding breaks can facilitate the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding for the full 6 months [ 75 ]. In this way, breastfeeding breaks can serve as an important complementary policy to paid parental leave [ 76 ]. Further, while countries at all income levels have managed to afford at least some amount of paid leave, breastfeeding breaks are a less expensive policy option that can supplement shorter leave periods in some of the lower-resource countries that cannot yet afford to provide leave of longer duration.

Relatively few studies have examined the specific impacts on health of breastfeeding breaks, though the existing research suggests a positive relationship between supportive breastfeeding policies and breastfeeding rates. For example, one study from the USA found that states that had enacted breastfeeding legislation reported higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding than those without legislation [ 77 ]. Further research suggests these effects may extend more broadly. Like paid leave, by successfully facilitating breastfeeding, legislated paid breaks are likely to have benefits for both infant and maternal health, making breastfeeding breaks another important policy area for consideration in efforts to advance the SDGs and maternal and child health more generally.

Caregiving needs and responsibilities extend beyond infancy. As a result, many workers have to take time off from work to care for the acute or chronic health needs of children or adult family members. As with breastfeeding breaks, few studies have examined the specific impacts of paid leave for other family health needs. A review of the literature reveals that paid parental leave can make an important difference across a range of SDG outcomes SDG 1, 3, 5, 8, 10 in low- and high-income countries alike, including direct indicators of health and social determinants of health. Moreover, by supporting workforce attachment and its positive impact on long-term incomes, paid parental leave can help both national economies and family incomes [ 5 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 ].

This makes paid parental leave, which already has a strong basis of support in international agreements [ 87 , 88 ], an especially important policy to support realization of the SDGs across all income levels. While most countries now offer at least some paid maternal leave, many countries need to go further to ensure at least 6 months of paid leave to support exclusive breastfeeding, particularly for women in low wage jobs who may not have access to refrigeration at work or nearby childcare to make breastfeeding breaks an effective option. The world has much further to go in supporting leave for fathers, which has independent benefits for the health and wellbeing of families. Few countries reserve even a modest amount of leave for dads or have incentives for them to take leave to support equal parenting and more equal opportunities for women at work.

For both parents, an adequate wage replacement rate is important to support take-up, and may be especially critical for ensuring fathers take the leave for which they are eligible, particularly given the many settings where persistent wage disparities mean men are more often the higher earner in the family. Leave for other health needs can also make a significant difference for health outcomes.

Further research is needed to understand the implications of different paid leave structures in the context of an evolving global economy, which is marked by an increase in informal employment, a reduction in average job tenure, and shifts in the average number of employees per workplace. In LMICs, the majority of parents work in informal employment, as do an increasing share of workers in high-income countries. While affecting all, this disproportionately affects women in LMICs. Preliminary data collected by the WORLD Policy Analysis Center indicates that some countries explicitly include workers in largely informal sectors like agriculture and domestic work in their paid leave policies, though others explicitly exclude them.

Generally, designing benefits like paid leave as social insurance that is available to everyone in the country, rather than benefits linked to certain types of employment, can ensure they reach the full population, including often the lowest income and most marginalized workers. Regarding tenure, a preliminary WORLD analysis of OECD countries found that around one in four required a parent to have been with the same employer for 6—12 months before they would be eligible for leave; with average tenure on the decline, these types of design decisions will become increasingly consequential. Moreover, to evaluate whether all these policies are fully reaching the intended beneficiaries, further research is needed on implementation and enforcement.

As was the case in MDG monitoring efforts, the formal SDG monitoring process focuses almost exclusively on outcome indicators; of the indicators across the 17 goals, fewer than 20 explicitly call for collecting data on national laws and policies [ 89 ]. While measuring how outcomes improve is a crucial measure of success, collecting policy data enables us to understand and recognize in real time the steps countries are taking to improve those outcomes [ 90 ]. In addition, by merging global policy data with household survey data on outcomes, as exemplified by several of the studies examined in this review, we can better understand the effectiveness of specific policy approaches across regions and socioeconomic contexts.

Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. World Health: Organization; Google Scholar. Accessed 25 July

The family gap for young women in Personal Narrative: Its All About Helping The Little Guys 1930 american racism How Are The Atomic Bombs In World War 2 Justified and Britain: can maternity leave make a difference? Childrens Wellbeing: Social Policy Analysis documents. Scand J Soc Med.