Darwins Theory Of Overpopulation

Wednesday, March 23, 2022 11:24:11 AM

Darwins Theory Of Overpopulation



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Expert Destroys Darwin’s Theory in 5 Minutes

To erect the perfect system of control over every aspect of society, every sector from which any threat of competition to their power could emerge. They had been remarkably, almost unbelievably, successful. From oil well to gas pump, farm to fork, hospital to pharmaceutical, drill rig to dollar bill, there was almost no aspect of society that was not under control. But the oiligarchs are not done yet. Their next project, launched in the late 20th century, is almost too ambitious to be comprehended. It is not about oil. It is not about money. It is about the monopolization of life itself. They have spent decades preparing the path for this takeover and marshaled their mind-boggling resources in service of the task.

At the dawn of the 20th century, a new international order was emerging. One founded on oil. And by the end of the 20th century, that order was firmly established. Industrial power. Plastic manufacturing. There is no facet of modern life that is not, one way or another, dependent on oil. But the rulers of this oiligarchy — the Rockefellers at Standard Oil, the British royals at BP, the Dutch royals and the Rothschilds at Royal Dutch Shell — were not content with mere financial domination.

With the rise of the petrodollar in the s, even the international monetary system itself rests on oil. But now, in the 21st century, it seems that the old order, the oil order, is finally coming to an end. Amy Goodman: We begin looking at a new milestone in the growing campaign for divestment from the gas, oil and coal companies that are fueling climate change. May Boeve, Executive Director of Robert Dudley: In the oil and gas sector, we recognize the contribution of our activities and products to greenhouse gas emissions. Narrator 1: What began as a movement on US college campuses has reached the skyscrapers of high-finance.

Divestment Activist: If we take our money, put it into renewable like solar panels, the world could be such a better place. The masses, having identified the oiligarchs and their destructive grip on the planet, see Big Oil waning and have begun to celebrate. To them, the promise of a post-carbon future represents the end of the oiligarchy. What many do not realize, however, is that the oil order was never about oil. The oiligarchs did not care about oil but control. And, having long outgrown their financial dependence on the commodity that brought them their power and riches, they are at the forefront of this push for the post-carbon era.

Now, the oiligarchs are seeking to bring in a new international order. One in which their control is consolidated, their plan complete, their power unquestionable. One in which every aspect of human life, from energy to money to the very genome itself, is precisely ordered and technologically controlled. The streets are crowded, dirty, squalid, smelly, and absolutely swarming with people. Lying in the streets. Coiled in the gutters. Into that swarm of people steps a most unlikely figure. Wearing his drip-dry suit and hugging his briefcase, he sticks out from the crowd. But this was no mere tourist passing time on his holiday. This was John D. On its surface, the Population Council was a straightforward organization with a straightforward task: to support medical and scientific research into the question of the growing human population.

Rockefeller III — or JDR3, as he was known to the constellation of researchers, businessmen, politicians, diplomats and royals in the orbit of the Rockefeller family — had decided early on how to make proper use of the formidable money and power at his disposal: by controlling the population of the planet. Rockefeller, Jr. JDR3 was nothing if not a man of his word. Like his father and grandfather before him, Rockefeller had learned to use philanthropy and largesse as a mask for his true intention: control. Frankly, the implications of this, while I know they were intended to have a eugenic implication, could readily be misunderstood as a Nazi master race philosophy.

I have, therefore, recast this paragraph. In truth, however, that sentence had not been written by JDR3 himself. Instead, it had been copied word for word from the back cover of Eugenical News , the central publication of the American eugenics movement. This was no mere accident. Frederick Osborne, one of the co-founders of the Council and its first president after Rockefeller stepped down in , was also the president of the American Eugenics Society. The Population Council was the Eugenics Society under another name. The power to determine who was fit to breed and who was too poor to pass on their genes. And after eradicating those classes, what they aim to do is genetically engineer themselves to such a high level that the remaining population that they permit to exist beneath them will never have the power to overthrow them, essentially.

The end of history. So if you go back to, say, Mendel, Mendel was studying hereditary characteristics in pea plants. And he was able to determine that certain characteristics were being passed on and that these things could be determined and essentially predicted. That there are genetic characteristics that exist that would make one species, one plant or animal more fit than another, and more capable of surviving. Also, of course, you had Darwin. So Galton is essentially taking all of these ideas, and he was kind of known for observing and identifying patterns. And what he essentially did was [he] started to come up with this idea that through studying human characteristics they could, if they chose to, breed superior human beings. The pseudoscientific trappings of the 19th century eugenic philosophy may have been new, but in fact the idea is as old as human civilization itself.

People have always been taught to believe that their rulers are special, a class apart, members of a family specially chosen to rule over the masses. Whether literal descendants of the gods, like the Pharoahs of Egypt or the Emperors of Japan, or members of families specially chosen by god to reign over their kingdoms, like the monarchs of Europe, the right to rule over others was something passed down through family trees. The commoners, meanwhile, knew their place; not being born of royal blood, they entered the world as serfs, worked the land for the benefit of the noble class, and, if they were lucky, had children of their own to repeat the cycle for another generation. But the breakdown of medieval feudalism gave rise to a newly-wealthy merchant class.

The development of the scientific method challenged centuries of religious dogma. The spread of Enlightenment philosophy to the toppling of monarchs and the rise of democracy. And the industrial revolution paved the way for the rise of the robber barons and the creation of vast new family fortunes. By the late 19th century, as the oiligarchs in America and Europe began to consolidate their wealth, a new justification for elite rule of society was needed. One that discarded outdated appeals to supernatural order and seemed to rest on a bedrock of science.

An idea that could explain how nouveau riche upstarts like the Rockefellers and Rothschilds had risen to positions of prominence in society alongside the old royal dynasties of Europe. Eugenics, of course, was pseudoscience. When Galton and his fellow travelers began developing the theory, the identification of the actual mechanism of heredity, including genes and DNA, was nearly years away. Something like feeble-mindedness is something that is not only not scientific, it can essentially be described in any way by the person observing wants it to be described. But the idea was an infectious one. Like all the most enticing pseudoscience, it explained so much with so little effort.

It appealed to the vanity of the researchers, usually hailing from successful and wealthy families themselves. And it gave an excuse for social engineering on a scale never before dreamed of. When eugenics crossed the Atlantic, spreading from the rarefied British countryside of Galton and his cohorts to the rocky shores of America, it hit ambitious young researchers like Charles Davenport with hurricane force. With the proselytizing fervour of a religious convert , Davenport concocted an ambitious idea for furthering the eugenic cause: the creation of a Eugenics Record Office to register the genetic background of every single man, woman and child in America and, eventually, the world , so that every person could be categorized by their family line and assigned a genetic rating.

Once completed, those with the lowest eugenic value could be eliminated from the gene pool. Joe Plummer : So the idea of eugenics makes it way to America, lands in the lap of Charles Davenport, who approaches the Carnegie Institute for funding and on the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory they set up essentially an institute to study eugenics, and this eventually evolves with some Harriman money into the Eugenics Records Office.

And as always, the Rockefellers were true to their word. They kept up a regular correspondence on a number of eugenics issues. It points out a scientific way of escape from the evils which our courts are intended to correct but in reality only increase. Economists, politicians, authors, activists — by the s, everyone who was anyone was extolling the need to eradicate the germ-plasm of the lower stock. John Maynard Keynes, the economist who gave us the Keynesian economic school that is still popular among central planners today, was himself president of the British Eugenics Society from to Alexander Graham Bell is still revered as the inventor of the telephone but was in fact an early supporter of Charles Davenport and a founding member of the Eugenic Records Office Board of Scientific Directors.

Nobel Prize-winning playwright and author George Bernard Shaw advocated for the creation of a government panel that would require everyone to justify their existence before it. If they failed to do so, Shaw thought those people should be killed by the state. George Bernard Shaw : …But there are an extraordinary number of people whom I want to kill.

Not in any unkind or personal spirit, but it must be evident to all of you — you must all know half a dozen people, at least — who are no use in this world. Who are more trouble than they are worth. Eventually, with foundation funding and promotion, this eugenicist mindset filtered down into the popular culture. The Society also sponsored contests to award prizes to clergy who fit the message of eugenics into their sermons. Eugenics even found its way to the silver screen:. Instead of improving, each generation is more of a problem. But merely popularizing their ideas was not the goal of the eugenicists. They wanted action. And in this case, that meant concrete steps toward eliminating the defective germ-plasm from the human population.

Government-sanctioned murder of those deemed unfit was always one option on the table. The laws of nature require the obliteration of the unfit and human life is valuable only when it is of use to the community or race. But mainstream eugenicists realized that this approach was not possible in the political and judicial climate of the day.

But humanity is steadily tending away from the possibility of that method, and there is no probability that it will ever be practiced. Instead, they would have to turn to the other option, the more politically acceptable solution for stopping the undesirables from breeding: forced sterilization. But still, this was not enough for the eugenicists. All they needed was the right test case to bring to trial. And they found that case in Carrie Buck, an year-old ward of the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded, who was neither epileptic nor feeble-minded.

Amy Goodman : But start back in the s with Carrie Buck. Back then, there was a belief that it was better often to take poor children away from their parents and put them in middle-class homes. So she was put in a foster family that treated her very badly. And then, one summer, she was raped by the nephew of her foster mother. She becomes pregnant out of wedlock. Cohen : So she gets there at just the wrong time. Virginia has just passed an eugenics sterilization law, and they want to test it in the courts. So they seize on Carrie Buck as the perfect plaintiff in this lawsuit. Supreme Court. None of these facts mattered to the Supreme Court. Writing the decision was one of the most famous and venerated Justices in the history of the court, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

And with that, the floodgates were opened. Forcible sterilizations, taking place in a covert and low-key manner before, were now reported with pride. A few thousand individuals sterilized against their will became tens of thousands. The eugenics era, brought into being by the immense fortunes of the Rockefellers and their ilk, had arrived. And, with the aid of a very dramatic push by the Rockefellers, it was about to go international. Beginning in November and increasingly throughout the s, the Rockefeller Foundation began a series of grants and fellowships to German scientists. Alcoholics, a ninth category, were to be optionally added to the list, with a caution against inclusion of ordinary drunkards. By the end of the year, 62, Germans were found unfit to breed and sterilized against the will.

By , that number had reached , In the s, that eugenics program was to expand into euthanasia under the Aktion T4 program, resulting in over 70, children, senior citizens, and psychiatric patients being murdered by the Nazi regime. The eugenicists, outraged, knew that their work could not continue any longer under the name of eugenics. What you hear is molecular biology, and these sorts of colloquial terms that were developed by the Rockefeller Foundation, which was one of the families primarily in America that was helping to fund it in America, in Britain, in Germany, who also funded Hitler during that time.

The Rockefellers and their fellow oiligarchs had for generations felt themselves to be stewards of the planet, protecting it from the rising tide of the genetically inferior. They were not about to give up that quest. They would simply have to package it under a different name. In other words, doomsday is a possibility. I am equally convinced that doomsday is not inevitable. The sheer number of environmental organizations that he founded, conferences he chaired, campaigns he directed and accolades he received over the course of his career is even more remarkable: Organizer of the Stockholm Environmental Conference, founding director of the United Nations Environment Program, Secretary General of the Rio Earth Summit, founder of the Earth Council and the Earth Charter movement, chair of the World Resources Institute, commissioner of the World Commission on Environment and Development, and board member of a bewildering array of organizations, from the International Institute for Sustainable Development to the Stockholm Environment Institute to the African-American Institute.

But perhaps the most remarkable thing about Strong, this ubiquitous figure of the 20th century environmental movement, was his background: a Rockefeller-connected millionaire from the Alberta oil patch who divided his time between environmental campaigning and running major oil companies. To understand how this came about, we have to examine the history of the emergence of the environmental movement. In the post-war period, the desire to control the population put on a new mask: protecting the world from resource depletion, pollution and ecological catastrophe.

And, as always, the Rockefeller family was there to provide the funding and organizational support to steer this burgeoning movement toward their own ends. The chairman of this unique commission is John D. Rockefeller III. Burr: But the main finding was that stabilization of some kind is clearly desirable for the country. JDR3: Yes, we said that it is recognized that population cannot continue to grow indefinitely.

Nobody question that and we said from our findings that we felt that now the nation should welcome and plan for a stabilized population. Joining the Rockefellers in shaping the international environmental movement were their fellow oiligarchs across the Atlantic, including the British royals behind BP and the Dutch Royals behind Royal Dutch Shell. Julian Huxley was a committed eugenicist, chairing the British Eugenics Society from to But, like the other eugenicists of the post-war era, he understood the need to pursue the now-discredited work of eugenics under a different guise.

Thus even though it is quite true that any radical eugenic policy will be for many years politically and psychologically impossible, it will be important for UNESCO to see that the eugenic problem is examined with the greatest care, and that the public mind is informed of the issues at stake so that much that now is unthinkable may at least become thinkable. Rockefeller of the Rockefeller dynasty. Hugh Downs: Now for the first time in the history of man, an international movement is underway. The people of the nations and the nations of the world have joined together to find the answers.

This building and the worlds representatives hold the solution. Is it not the time now to cure the disease that we ourselves have created? Rockefeller III as an expert commentator, was to be found at the United Nations, whose headquarters had been so graciously donated by the Rockefeller family itself. Narrator: For 11 days in June , Stockholm was a magnet for everyone concerned with the environment: 1, official delegates from nations were in Stockholm for the 1st International Conference on the Human Environment. The meeting, first proposed to the United Nations by Sweden and approved by the General Assembly in , attracted worldwide attention.

In four short years, the topic of the human environment had gone from the back pages of newspapers to make headlines on page 1. And who better to oversee the conference and lay the institutional groundwork for this burgeoning, oiligarch-supported movement, than a consummate oil man? Maurice Strong : The very fact that the conference began with participating countries, with very high-level delegations from those countries, this in itself represented a very significant step forward.

Because this demonstrated more than anything else the real concern of the majority of countries in the world. All his life, Maurice Strong had the uncanny ability to be in the right place at the right time to meet the right person to advance up the ranks. Having been born in Oak Lake, Manitoba, in , and suffering through the Great Depression, the ambitious young Strong dropped out of school at age 14 and headed north to look for work. Elaine Dewar: So, Mr. It was a major importer of oil from the Middle East that had been taken over long since by the Texaco Company through a brokerage house called Nesbitt Thomson.

In a way, Mr. Strong was introduced to the world of Big Oil and the world of resources at a very young age. He was picked up as a very smart kid, taken under the wing of a man named Paul Martin Sr. Through the Richardsons, Strong made a series of increasingly unlikely connections. And while there, Monod introduced Strong to the most important contact of his life, David Rockefeller.

From that moment on, Strong was a made man. And from that moment on, wherever Strong went, Rockefeller and his associates were there somewhere in the background. When he quit that job in and started his own company back in Canada, he hired Henrie Brunie a close friend of Rockefeller associate John J. By his late 20s he was running his own company and was already a millionaire. As he would throughout his life, Maurice Strong capitalized on these connections and opportunities to full effect. After being chosen to organize the UN environmental conference in Stockholm, he was appointed a Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, which then funded his office for the Stockholm summit and supplied Carnegie Fellow Barbara Ward and Rockefeller ecologist Rene Dubos for his team.

The Stockholm summit is still hailed as a landmark moment in the history of the modern environmental movement, leading not only to the first governmentally-administered environmental action plans in Europe but the creation of an entirely new UN bureaucracy: the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP. Shortly thereafter, Strong continued his double life by jumping straight back into the oil patch. In , Strong helped to organize another environmental conference, much less known but no less remarkable than the Stockholm summit. Dubbed the 4th World Wilderness Congress , the meeting took place in Denver, Colorado, and brought together Strong, David Rockefeller, Edmond de Rothschild , then-Treasury Secretary James Baker, and a gaggle of other oiligarchs, bankers, Washington power players and globalists, ostensibly to talk about the environment.

What they actually discussed was altogether more incredible:. That would take too long and devour far too much of the funds to educate the cannon fodder, unfortunately, that populates the earth. We have to take almost an elitist program, [so] that we can see beyond our swollen bellies, and look to the future in time frames and in results which are not easily understood, or which can be, with intellectual honesty, be reduced down to some kind of simplistic definition. Those were the words of David Lang, a banker from Montreal who spoke during the conference. He released his own recordings of the proceedings in the early s to warn the public about this group and its ultimate aims.

Maurice Strong: One of the most important initiatives that is open here for your consideration is that of the conservation banking program. As we mentioned this morning, we have, as our chairman, fortunately, the person who really is the source of this very significant concept. He was at the first of these conferences. So his conversion to the relationship between conservation and economic development has been a pioneering one. So there is no better person. The meeting accomplished some important goals for the oiligarchs. Edmond de Rothschild: The meetings now over the concept of an international conservation banking program involve all sectors of the human community: Governmental and inter-governmental agencies, the public and private agencies, large charitable foundations, as well as ordinary individuals worldwide.

By thinking forward as to how to reach out to the public at large, to every corporate entity throughout the world to put aside, hopefully tax-free, a part of their profits to fund our ecological and environmental protection. Ladies and gentlemen, every country has its own problems, its indigenous peoples and its wildlife. This international conservation bank must know no frontiers, no boundaries. Narrator: In June , the world met in Rio to discuss the fate of planet Earth.

In this largest summit and very first Earth Summit ever held, representatives from countries, heads of state and 15, non-governmental organizations came together with the hopes of deciding specific agreements that would balance environmental preservation with economic needs. George H. This is truly an historic gathering. There are those who say that economic growth and environmental protection cannot be compatible. This week at Rio we have made a start. Beyond Rio we must continue to carry it through. Unless the agreements reached here are accompanied by commitments to significant change — change, of course, indeed for the human species in my view, your excellencies—we simply are headed for a moment in the 21st century where the condition of our species may become terminal.

As useful as the 4th World Wilderness Congress had been in advancing the agenda of Maurice Strong and the oiligarchs, that was only setting the stage for the Earth Summit in Rio. Generally thought to be neutral, non-governmental bodies relying only on science and evidence, the UNFCCC and the IPCC are handcuffed by the terms that Strong set out for them to deliver only one conclusion: that humanity is to blame for climate change. Tim Ball: When they set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Maurice Strong, who we should talk a lot about, he wrote the terms of reference and the first term of reference was the definition of climate change and he limited it, deliberately, to only human causes of climate change.

Of course that effectively eliminated all of the natural causes and natural variability which is why you see them not looking at things like the sun and a whole bunch of other issues. He then limited it even further in another term of reference, he set it up into three working groups. There was the technical group, Working Group 1, which wrote the science report, and that was of the 2, people. Now they were inconsequential because they had to accept the findings of Working Group 1, which were already limited by their terms of reference. So really, the majority of the report by 1, scientists is accepting without question the finding of the first group. The Summary for Policymakers is written by a completely separate group, and then they write independent of the science report.

The science report is finished and set aside. Another product of the Earth Summit in Rio was the Earth Charter , a quasi-religious document that Mikhail Gorbachev, who helped draft the text along with Maurice Strong, referred to as a replacement for the Ten Commandments, and which sought to usher in an era of Gaia worship and global responsibility. I published the Earth Charter in the appendix of my book Technocracy Rising: The Trojan Horse of Global Transformation , just so people could see this with their own eyes what it says. It was a document that was like a compact with the world.

It was a very religious, humanistic document that tried to unify the world into a single concept of globalization. It was a very defined document that was signed off — the history goes back before that, but it was finally signed-off by almost all of the nations at the United Nations, and the primary author of the Earth Charter was Steven Rockefeller. Tucker Carlson: A new study from Lund University in Sweden says that the single best way to cut your carbon footprint, assuming you want to, is simply to refuse to reproduce.

Darwin's influence on modern science is impossible to overstate. Charles Darwin was born on February 12, , in Shrewsbury, England. His father was a medical doctor, and his mother was the daughter of the famous potter Josiah Wedgwood. He was not a brilliant student as a child, but he went on to study at the University of Edinburgh Medical School in Scotland , at first intending to become a doctor. Darwin took a strong dislike to medical education and eventually studied at Cambridge. He planned to become an Anglican minister before becoming intensely interested in botany. He received a degree in On the recommendation of a college professor, Darwin was accepted to travel on the second voyage of the H.

The ship was embarking on a scientific expedition to South America and islands of the South Pacific, leaving in late December The Beagle returned to England nearly five years later, in October Darwin's position on the ship was peculiar. A former captain of the vessel had become despondent during a long scientific voyage because, it was assumed, he had no intelligent person to converse with while at sea. The British Admiralty thought sending an intelligent young gentleman along on a voyage would serve a combined purpose: he could study and make records of discoveries while also providing intelligent companionship for the captain.

Darwin was chosen to go aboard. Darwin spent more than days at sea and about 1, days on land during the trip. He studied plants, animals, fossils, and geological formations and wrote his observations in a series of notebooks. During long periods at sea, he organized his notes. The Beagle spent about five weeks in the Galapagos Islands. During that time, Darwin made a series of observations that had a significant impact on his new theories about natural selection. Ultimately, the island sinks below the sea, and the barrier reef becomes an atoll enclosing an open lagoon. Darwin predicted that underneath each lagoon would be a bedrock base, the remains of the original volcano. Darwin's theory followed from his understanding that coral polyps thrive in the tropics where the water is agitated, but can only live within a limited depth range, starting just below low tide.

Where the level of the underlying earth allows, the corals grow around the coast to form fringing reefs, and can eventually grow to become a barrier reef. Where the bottom is rising, fringing reefs can grow around the coast, but coral raised above sea level dies. If the land subsides slowly, the fringing reefs keep pace by growing upwards on a base of older, dead coral, forming a barrier reef enclosing a lagoon between the reef and the land.

A barrier reef can encircle an island, and once the island sinks below sea level a roughly circular atoll of growing coral continues to keep up with the sea level, forming a central lagoon. Barrier reefs and atolls do not usually form complete circles but are broken in places by storms. Like sea level rise, a rapidly subsiding bottom can overwhelm coral growth, killing the coral and the reef, due to what is called coral drowning.

The two main variables determining the geomorphology , or shape, of coral reefs are the nature of the substrate on which they rest, and the history of the change in sea level relative to that substrate. The approximately 20,year-old Great Barrier Reef offers an example of how coral reefs formed on continental shelves. Sea level was then m ft lower than in the 21st century. By 13, years ago, sea level had risen to 60 m ft lower than at present, and many hills of the coastal plains had become continental islands. As sea level rise continued, water topped most of the continental islands. The corals could then overgrow the hills, forming cays and reefs. Sea level on the Great Barrier Reef has not changed significantly in the last 6, years.

Development stopped at the barrier reef stage, since Australia is not about to submerge. It formed the world's largest barrier reef, —1, m —3, ft from shore, stretching for 2, km 1, mi. Healthy tropical coral reefs grow horizontally from 1 to 3 cm 0. As the name implies, coral reefs are made up of coral skeletons from mostly intact coral colonies.

As other chemical elements present in corals become incorporated into the calcium carbonate deposits, aragonite is formed. However, shell fragments and the remains of coralline algae such as the green-segmented genus Halimeda can add to the reef's ability to withstand damage from storms and other threats. Such mixtures are visible in structures such as Eniwetok Atoll. Since Darwin's identification of the three classical reef formations — the fringing reef around a volcanic island becoming a barrier reef and then an atoll [30] — scientists have identified further reef types. While some sources find only three, [31] [32] Thomas and Goudie list four "principal large-scale coral reef types" — the fringing reef, barrier reef, atoll and table reef [33] — while Spalding et al.

A fringing reef, also called a shore reef, [35] is directly attached to a shore, [36] or borders it with an intervening narrow, shallow channel or lagoon. The final width depends on where the sea bed begins to drop steeply. The surface of the fringe reef generally remains at the same height: just below the waterline. In older fringing reefs, whose outer regions pushed far out into the sea, the inner part is deepened by erosion and eventually forms a lagoon. Like the fringing reef itself, they run parallel to the coast. The fringing reefs of the Red Sea are "some of the best developed in the world" and occur along all its shores except off sandy bays.

Barrier reefs are separated from a mainland or island shore by a deep channel or lagoon. Their lagoons can be several kilometres wide and 30 to 70 metres deep. Above all, the offshore outer reef edge formed in open water rather than next to a shoreline. Like an atoll, it is thought that these reefs are formed either as the seabed lowered or sea level rose. Formation takes considerably longer than for a fringing reef, thus barrier reefs are much rarer. The best known and largest example of a barrier reef is the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Platform reefs, variously called bank or table reefs, can form on the continental shelf , as well as in the open ocean, in fact anywhere where the seabed rises close enough to the surface of the ocean to enable the growth of zooxanthemic, reef-forming corals.

Some platform reefs of the northern Mascarenes are several thousand kilometres from the mainland. Unlike fringing and barrier reefs which extend only seaward, platform reefs grow in all directions. Their usual shape is oval to elongated. Parts of these reefs can reach the surface and form sandbanks and small islands around which may form fringing reefs. A lagoon may form In the middle of a platform reef. Platform reefs can be found within atolls. There they are called patch reefs and may reach only a few dozen metres in diameter. Where platform reefs form on an elongated structure, e. This is the case, for example, on the east coast of the Red Sea near Jeddah.

In old platform reefs, the inner part can be so heavily eroded that it forms a pseudo-atoll. Some platform reefs of the Laccadives are U-shaped, due to wind and water flow. Atolls or atoll reefs are a more or less circular or continuous barrier reef that extends all the way around a lagoon without a central island. A ring of reefs results, which enclose a lagoon. Coral reef ecosystems contain distinct zones that host different kinds of habitats. Usually, three major zones are recognized: the fore reef, reef crest, and the back reef frequently referred to as the reef lagoon. The three zones are physically and ecologically interconnected. Reef life and oceanic processes create opportunities for the exchange of seawater , sediments , nutrients and marine life.

Most coral reefs exist in waters less than 50 m deep. Some inhabit tropical continental shelves where cool, nutrient-rich upwelling does not occur, such as the Great Barrier Reef. Others are found in the deep ocean surrounding islands or as atolls, such as in the Maldives. The reefs surrounding islands form when islands subside into the ocean, and atolls form when an island subsides below the surface of the sea. Alternatively, Moyle and Cech distinguish six zones, though most reefs possess only some of the zones.

The reef surface is the shallowest part of the reef. It is subject to surge and tides. When waves pass over shallow areas, they shoal , as shown in the adjacent diagram. This means the water is often agitated. These are the precise condition under which corals flourish. The light is sufficient for photosynthesis by the symbiotic zooxanthellae, and agitated water brings plankton to feed the coral. The off-reef floor is the shallow sea floor surrounding a reef.

This zone occurs next to reefs on continental shelves. Reefs around tropical islands and atolls drop abruptly to great depths and do not have such a floor. Usually sandy, the floor often supports seagrass meadows which are important foraging areas for reef fish. The reef drop-off is, for its first 50 m, habitat for reef fish who find shelter on the cliff face and plankton in the water nearby. The drop-off zone applies mainly to the reefs surrounding oceanic islands and atolls. The reef face is the zone above the reef floor or the reef drop-off. This zone is often the reef's most diverse area.

Coral and calcareous algae provide complex habitats and areas that offer protection, such as cracks and crevices. Invertebrates and epiphytic algae provide much of the food for other organisms. The reef flat is the sandy-bottomed flat, which can be behind the main reef, containing chunks of coral. This zone may border a lagoon and serve as a protective area, or it may lie between the reef and the shore, and in this case is a flat, rocky area.

Fish tend to prefer it when it is present. The reef lagoon is an entirely enclosed region, which creates an area less affected by wave action and often contains small reef patches. However, the "topography of coral reefs is constantly changing. Each reef is made up of irregular patches of algae, sessile invertebrates, and bare rock and sand. The size, shape and relative abundance of these patches change from year to year in response to the various factors that favor one type of patch over another. Growing coral, for example, produces constant change in the fine structure of reefs. On a larger scale, tropical storms may knock out large sections of reef and cause boulders on sandy areas to move. Coral reefs are estimated to cover , km 2 , sq mi , [52] just under 0.

Southeast Asia accounts for Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs account for 7. Tropical corals do not grow at depths of over 50 meters ft. Deep-water coral inhabits greater depths and colder temperatures at much higher latitudes, as far north as Norway. Coral reefs are rare along the west coasts of the Americas and Africa , due primarily to upwelling and strong cold coastal currents that reduce water temperatures in these areas the Peru , Benguela and Canary Currents respectively. When alive, corals are colonies of small animals embedded in calcium carbonate shells.

Coral heads consist of accumulations of individual animals called polyps , arranged in diverse shapes. Reef-building or hermatypic corals live only in the photic zone above 50 m , the depth to which sufficient sunlight penetrates the water. Coral polyps do not photosynthesize, but have a symbiotic relationship with microscopic algae dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium , commonly referred to as zooxanthellae. These organisms live within the polyps' tissues and provide organic nutrients that nourish the polyp in the form of glucose , glycerol and amino acids.

Without their symbionts, coral growth would be too slow to form significant reef structures. The varying pigments in different species of zooxanthellae give them an overall brown or golden-brown appearance and give brown corals their colors. Other pigments such as reds, blues, greens, etc. Coral that loses a large fraction of its zooxanthellae becomes white or sometimes pastel shades in corals that are pigmented with their own proteins and is said to be bleached , a condition which, unless corrected, can kill the coral.

There are eight clades of Symbiodinium phylotypes. Most research has been conducted on clades A—D. Each clade contributes their own benefits as well as less compatible attributes to the survival of their coral hosts. Each photosynthetic organism has a specific level of sensitivity to photodamage to compounds needed for survival, such as proteins. Rates of regeneration and replication determine the organism's ability to survive. Phylotype A is found more in the shallow waters. It is able to produce mycosporine-like amino acids that are UV resistant , using a derivative of glycerin to absorb the UV radiation and allowing them to better adapt to warmer water temperatures. In the event of UV or thermal damage, if and when repair occurs, it will increase the likelihood of survival of the host and symbiont.

This leads to the idea that, evolutionarily, clade A is more UV resistant and thermally resistant than the other clades. Clades B and C are found more frequently in deeper water, which may explain their higher vulnerability to increased temperatures. Terrestrial plants that receive less sunlight because they are found in the undergrowth are analogous to clades B, C, and D. Since clades B through D are found at deeper depths, they require an elevated light absorption rate to be able to synthesize as much energy. With elevated absorption rates at UV wavelengths, these phylotypes are more prone to coral bleaching versus the shallow clade A.

Clade D has been observed to be high temperature-tolerant, and has a higher rate of survival than clades B and C during modern bleaching events. Reefs grow as polyps and other organisms deposit calcium carbonate, [67] [68] the basis of coral, as a skeletal structure beneath and around themselves, pushing the coral head's top upwards and outwards. Typical shapes for coral species are named by their resemblance to terrestrial objects such as wrinkled brains , cabbages, table tops , antlers , wire strands and pillars.

These shapes can depend on the life history of the coral, like light exposure and wave action, [70] and events such as breakages. Corals reproduce both sexually and asexually. An individual polyp uses both reproductive modes within its lifetime. Corals reproduce sexually by either internal or external fertilization. The reproductive cells are found on the mesenteries , membranes that radiate inward from the layer of tissue that lines the stomach cavity. Some mature adult corals are hermaphroditic; others are exclusively male or female. A few species change sex as they grow. Internally fertilized eggs develop in the polyp for a period ranging from days to weeks.

Subsequent development produces a tiny larva , known as a planula. Externally fertilized eggs develop during synchronized spawning. Polyps across a reef simultaneously release eggs and sperm into the water en masse. Spawn disperse over a large area. The timing of spawning depends on time of year, water temperature, and tidal and lunar cycles. Spawning is most successful given little variation between high and low tide. The less water movement, the better the chance for fertilization. Ideal timing occurs in the spring. The release of eggs or planula usually occurs at night and is sometimes in phase with the lunar cycle three to six days after a full moon. The period from release to settlement lasts only a few days, but some planulae can survive afloat for several weeks.

During this process, the larvae may use several different cues to find a suitable location for settlement. At long distances sounds from existing reefs are likely important, [72] while at short distances chemical compounds become important. The lucky few planulae that successfully attach to substrate then compete for food and space. Corals are the most prodigious reef-builders. However many other organisms living in the reef community contribute skeletal calcium carbonate in the same manner as corals.

These include coralline algae and some sponges. Coralline algae are important contributors to reef structure. Although their mineral deposition rates are much slower than corals, they are more tolerant of rough wave-action, and so help to create a protective crust over those parts of the reef subjected to the greatest forces by waves, such as the reef front facing the open ocean. They also strengthen the reef structure by depositing limestone in sheets over the reef surface. In the early Cambrian period , Archaeocyatha sponges were the world's first reef-building organisms, and sponges were the only reef-builders until the Ordovician.

Sclerosponges still assist corals building modern reefs, but like coralline algae are much slower-growing than corals and their contribution is usually minor. In the northern Pacific Ocean cloud sponges still create deep-water mineral-structures without corals, although the structures are not recognizable from the surface like tropical reefs. They are the only extant organisms known to build reef-like structures in cold water. Fluorescent coral [75]. This constitutes a fundamental paradox, shown quantitatively by the apparent impossibility of balancing input and output of the nutritive elements which control the coral polyp metabolism.

Recent oceanographic research has brought to light the reality of this paradox by confirming that the oligotrophy of the ocean euphotic zone persists right up to the swell-battered reef crest. When you approach the reef edges and atolls from the quasidesert of the open sea, the near absence of living matter suddenly becomes a plethora of life, without transition.

So why is there something rather than nothing, and more precisely, where do the necessary nutrients for the functioning of this extraordinary coral reef machine come from? In The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs , published in , Darwin described how coral reefs were found in some tropical areas but not others, with no obvious cause. The largest and strongest corals grew in parts of the reef exposed to the most violent surf and corals were weakened or absent where loose sediment accumulated.

Tropical waters contain few nutrients [78] yet a coral reef can flourish like an "oasis in the desert". Coral reefs support over one-quarter of all marine species. This diversity results in complex food webs , with large predator fish eating smaller forage fish that eat yet smaller zooplankton and so on. However, all food webs eventually depend on plants , which are the primary producers. One reason for the unusual clarity of tropical waters is their nutrient deficiency and drifting plankton.

Further, the sun shines year-round in the tropics, warming the surface layer, making it less dense than subsurface layers. The warmer water is separated from deeper, cooler water by a stable thermocline , where the temperature makes a rapid change. This keeps the warm surface waters floating above the cooler deeper waters. In most parts of the ocean, there is little exchange between these layers.

Organisms that die in aquatic environments generally sink to the bottom, where they decompose, which releases nutrients in the form of nitrogen N , phosphorus P and potassium K. These nutrients are necessary for plant growth, but in the tropics, they do not directly return to the surface. Plants form the base of the food chain and need sunlight and nutrients to grow. In the ocean, these plants are mainly microscopic phytoplankton which drift in the water column. They need sunlight for photosynthesis , which powers carbon fixation , so they are found only relatively near the surface, but they also need nutrients. Phytoplankton rapidly use nutrients in the surface waters, and in the tropics, these nutrients are not usually replaced because of the thermocline.

Around coral reefs, lagoons fill in with material eroded from the reef and the island. They become havens for marine life, providing protection from waves and storms. Most importantly, reefs recycle nutrients, which happens much less in the open ocean. In coral reefs and lagoons, producers include phytoplankton, as well as seaweed and coralline algae, especially small types called turf algae, which pass nutrients to corals. Recycling reduces the nutrient inputs needed overall to support the community. Corals also absorb nutrients, including inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, directly from water. Many corals extend their tentacles at night to catch zooplankton that pass near.

Zooplankton provide the polyp with nitrogen, and the polyp shares some of the nitrogen with the zooxanthellae, which also require this element. Sponges live in crevices in the reefs. Sponges eventually excrete nutrients in a form that corals can use. The roughness of coral surfaces is key to coral survival in agitated waters. Normally, a boundary layer of still water surrounds a submerged object, which acts as a barrier.

Waves breaking on the extremely rough edges of corals disrupt the boundary layer, allowing the corals access to passing nutrients. Turbulent water thereby promotes reef growth. Without the access to nutrients brought by rough coral surfaces, even the most effective recycling would not suffice. Deep nutrient-rich water entering coral reefs through isolated events may have significant effects on temperature and nutrient systems. Temperature regimes on coral reefs in the Bahamas and Florida are highly variable with temporal scales of minutes to seasons and spatial scales across depths. Water can pass through coral reefs in various ways, including current rings, surface waves, internal waves and tidal changes. As tides interact with varying bathymetry and wind mixes with surface water, internal waves are created.

An internal wave is a gravity wave that moves along density stratification within the ocean. When a water parcel encounters a different density it oscillates and creates internal waves. The irregular structure characteristic of coral reef bathymetry may enhance mixing and produce pockets of cooler water and variable nutrient content. Cyanobacteria provide soluble nitrates via nitrogen fixation. Coral reefs often depend on surrounding habitats, such as seagrass meadows and mangrove forests , for nutrients. Seagrass and mangroves supply dead plants and animals that are rich in nitrogen and serve to feed fish and animals from the reef by supplying wood and vegetation. Reefs, in turn, protect mangroves and seagrass from waves and produce sediment in which the mangroves and seagrass can root.

Coral reefs form some of the world's most productive ecosystems, providing complex and varied marine habitats that support a wide range of other organisms. This level of variety in the environment benefits many coral reef animals, which, for example, may feed in the sea grass and use the reefs for protection or breeding. Reefs are home to a variety of animals, including fish, seabirds , sponges , cnidarians which includes some types of corals and jellyfish , worms , crustaceans including shrimp , cleaner shrimp , spiny lobsters and crabs , mollusks including cephalopods , echinoderms including starfish , sea urchins and sea cucumbers , sea squirts , sea turtles and sea snakes.

Aside from humans, mammals are rare on coral reefs, with visiting cetaceans such as dolphins the main exception. A few species feed directly on corals, while others graze on algae on the reef. The same hideouts in a reef may be regularly inhabited by different species at different times of day. Nighttime predators such as cardinalfish and squirrelfish hide during the day, while damselfish , surgeonfish , triggerfish , wrasses and parrotfish hide from eels and sharks.

The great number and diversity of hiding places in coral reefs, i. Reefs are chronically at risk of algal encroachment. Overfishing and excess nutrient supply from onshore can enable algae to outcompete and kill the coral. Runoff can carry nitrogen and phosphorus which promote excess algae growth. Algae can sometimes out-compete the coral for space. The algae can then smother the coral by decreasing the oxygen supply available to the reef. Some sea urchins such as Diadema antillarum eat these algae and could thus decrease the risk of algal encroachment.

Sponges are essential for the functioning of the coral reef that system. Algae and corals in coral reefs produce organic material. This is filtered through sponges which convert this organic material into small particles which in turn are absorbed by algae and corals. Over 4, species of fish inhabit coral reefs. Hypotheses include the "lottery", in which the first lucky winner recruit to a territory is typically able to defend it against latecomers, "competition", in which adults compete for territory, and less-competitive species must be able to survive in poorer habitat, and "predation", in which population size is a function of postsettlement piscivore mortality.

Sea urchins, Dotidae and sea slugs eat seaweed. Some species of sea urchins, such as Diadema antillarum , can play a pivotal part in preventing algae from overrunning reefs. A number of invertebrates, collectively called "cryptofauna," inhabit the coral skeletal substrate itself, either boring into the skeletons through the process of bioerosion or living in pre-existing voids and crevices. Animals boring into the rock include sponges, bivalve mollusks, and sipunculans. Those settling on the reef include many other species, particularly crustaceans and polychaete worms. Coral reef systems provide important habitats for seabird species, some endangered. For example, Midway Atoll in Hawaii supports nearly three million seabirds, including two-thirds 1.

Altogether, 17 species of seabirds live on Midway. The short-tailed albatross is the rarest, with fewer than 2, surviving after excessive feather hunting in the late 19th century. Sea snakes feed exclusively on fish and their eggs. Some land-based reptiles intermittently associate with reefs, such as monitor lizards , the marine crocodile and semiaquatic snakes, such as Laticauda colubrina. Sea turtles , particularly hawksbill sea turtles , feed on sponges. Schooling reef fish. Banded coral shrimp. Banded sea krait. The shell of Latiaxis wormaldi , a coral snail. Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services to tourism, fisheries and coastline protection.

To improve the management of coastal coral reefs, the World Resources Institute WRI developed and published tools for calculating the value of coral reef-related tourism, shoreline protection and fisheries, partnering with five Caribbean countries. As of April , published working papers covered St. Lucia , Tobago , Belize , and the Dominican Republic. The WRI was "making sure that the study results support improved coastal policies and management planning". Coral reefs protect shorelines by absorbing wave energy, and many small islands would not exist without reefs. Coastlines protected by coral reefs are also more stable in terms of erosion than those without. Reefs can attenuate waves as well as or better than artificial structures designed for coastal defence such as breakwaters.

Restoring reefs is significantly cheaper than building artificial breakwaters in tropical environments. Expected damages from flooding would double, and costs from frequent storms would triple without the topmost meter of reefs. About six million tons of fish are taken each year from coral reefs. Well-managed reefs have an average annual yield of 15 tons of seafood per square kilometer. Since their emergence million years ago, coral reefs have faced many threats, including disease, [] predation, [] invasive species, bioerosion by grazing fish, [] algal blooms , and geologic hazards.

Recent human activities present new threats. Human activities that threaten coral include coral mining, bottom trawling , [] and the digging of canals and accesses into islands and bays, all of which can damage marine ecosystems if not done sustainably. Other localized threats include blast fishing , overfishing , coral overmining, [] and marine pollution , including use of the banned anti-fouling biocide tributyltin ; although absent in developed countries, these activities continue in places with few environmental protections or poor regulatory enforcement. Greenhouse gas emissions present a broader threat through sea temperature rise and sea level rise, [] though corals adapt their calcifying fluids to changes in seawater pH and carbonate levels and are not directly threatened by ocean acidification.

In , two researchers suggested that "extant marine invertebrates face the same synergistic effects of multiple stressors" that occurred during the end-Permian extinction , and that genera "with poorly buffered respiratory physiology and calcareous shells", such as corals, were particularly vulnerable. Corals respond to stress by "bleaching," or expelling their colorful zooxanthellate endosymbionts.

Corals with Clade C zooxanthellae are generally vulnerable to heat-induced bleaching, whereas corals with the hardier Clade A or D are generally resistant, [] as are tougher coral genera like Porites and Montipora. They are intended to promote responsible fishery management and habitat protection. MPAs can also encompass social and biological objectives, including reef restoration, aesthetics, biodiversity and economic benefits.

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