Osage Allotment Act

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Osage Allotment Act

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Find answers to questions like where did the Chickasaw tribe live, what clothes did they wear and what food did they eat? Discover what happened to the Chickasaw tribe with facts about their wars and history. What was the lifestyle and culture of the Chickasaw tribe? The Chickasaw tribe are descendants of people called the Chickemicaws, who were among the first inhabitants of the ancient Mexican empire and the Mississippian culture. These ancient people built earthwork mounds at their villages located throughout the Mississippi River valley refer to the Natchez Tribe for more facts. The Chickasaw people established villages across the Deep South and used dugout canoes to travel along the rivers and waterways.

Their numbers diminished due to the diseases brought by the Europeans including the Spanish, French and British. They allied with the British against the French who attacked the Chickasaw in numerous military expeditions, attempting to break the stranglehold the Chickasaw imposed upon French commerce on the lower Mississippi. The French were defeated by the fierce warriors on every occasion. Following the War of Independence the 'civilizing programs' began. Many Chickasaw people adopted European practises such as European style dress, housing and farming techniques but were eventually sent to reservations. Where did the Chickasaw tribe live?

The Chickasaw are people of the Southeast Native American cultural group. The location of their tribal homelands are shown on the map. The geography of the region in which they lived dictated the lifestyle and culture of the Chickasaw tribe. Map showing location of the Southeast Native American Tribes. What did the Chickasaw tribe live in? The Chickasaw tribe lived in different types of shelters over the years. The Mississippian culture people built earthwork mounds at their villages with grass houses. As the Chickasaw people lived a semi-nomadic lifestyle on the Mississippi flood plain, they built their houses on stilts called Chickees. The land allotted to the Indians included desert or near-desert lands unsuitable for farming. In addition, the techniques of self-sufficient farming were much different from their tribal way of life.

Many Indians did not want to take up agriculture, and those who did want to farm could not afford the tools, animals, seed, and other supplies necessary to get started. There were also problems with inheritance. Often young children inherited allotments that they could not farm because they had been sent away to boarding schools. Multiple heirs also caused a problem; when several people inherited an allotment, the size of the holdings became too small for efficient farming.

The documents featured here include maps of Indian Territory before and after enactment of the Dawes Act and two documents from the page enrollment application of American humorist Will Rogers. Clement V. Click to Enlarge. Testimony of Clement V. Under the terms of the treaty, the lands ceded to the Cherokees would "in no future time be included within the territorial limits or jurisdiction of any State or Territory" and the Cherokees were promised a land patent verifying their ownership of the land.

In , in what is called the Cherokee removal or Trail of Tears , most of the Cherokees, living primarily in northern Georgia , were forcibly relocated to Indian territory and their new lands. A census in had counted 16, Cherokees. The Cherokee Outlet was little used for decades after its creation. The Cherokees were farmers rather than ranchers or hunters, but the nomadic and warlike Plains Indians recognized no ownership of the outlet except by themselves, and used the outlet for hunting.

They resisted encroachments on their range, whether by Whites or other Indians. A substantial number of Cherokees were slave owners. The census of counted 1, slaves among the Cherokees and 7. After the American Civil War, the United States demanded a new treaty see Reconstruction Treaties to punish the Cherokees because of the support of many of them for the Confederacy. The price for the land was to be negotiated with the U. President deciding on a price if one could not be agreed to by the Cherokee and the Indian tribes wishing to buy the land.

Meanwhile, the Indian peoples in neighboring Kansas came under intense pressure from the U. With new lands available to them in the Cherokee Outlet, the various Indian people living in Kansas were induced by the U. The practical impact of this settlement of non-Cherokee Indians in the eastern portion of the Cherokee Outlet was to cut the Cherokee off from easy access to the western part of the outlet, thus making it "virtually useless" to them. In , mixed-blood Cherokee Jesse Chisholm laid out the Chisholm Trail from Texas to Kansas , and the next year, the first large cattle herd was driven through the Cherokee Outlet from Texas to the railroad in Abeline, Kansas. Cattle drives following the Chisholm Trail, and numerous side trails continued to pass through the outlet for the next 20 years.

The Texans began to halt in the outlet to graze and winter their cattle. Ranchers in Kansas also began to use the outlet for grazing their herds. The Cherokees attempted to collect fees for grazing rights, which were confirmed by the U. Senate in , but collection of the fees was difficult. In , cattlemen, mostly Kansans, formed the Cherokee Strip Livestock Association to manage a chaotic situation in the outlet. The more than members of the Livestock Association divided up the land, erecting fences and corrals and building ranch houses. Also during the s, Bill McDonald , acting as deputy U. President Benjamin Harrison forbade all grazing in the Cherokee Outlet after October 2, , which eliminated all profit from leasing the land.

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