Who Was Odysseus

Wednesday, February 23, 2022 10:31:11 PM

Who Was Odysseus



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Greek Mythology: Story of Odysseus

It is not only the goddess who puts on a camouflage, though; Odysseus also pulls off the disguise power to progress his goals and objectives. Odysseus was the king of Ithaca at the time when Palamedes sent him to the Trojan War, which lasted for ten years. He sets sail for Ithaca but in the face of fate wonders for a decade when his ships were instantly drifted to Thrace by a violent storm. It was the beginning of an expedition. Throughout the The Odyssey, disguise helped the main character, Odysseus,develop through humility and understanding, which eventually led the character back to Ithaca.

This journey was made with the aid of the goddess Athena, who disguised Odysseus. Odysseus faces many challenges and tragedies during this adventure. During his travel back home, he was put to trial on different occasions by the monstrosity that nearly destroyed him. His intelligence and sly behavior made him pull through the various dangerous situations he met. Ultimately, he succeeded in getting back home, and this, he owes to Athena, the goddess, who always supported him throughout his travel.

Unfortunately, Poseidon noticed him floating in the waters and was compelled to make him drown, had it not been for goddess Ino who saved him. The following excerpt supports that, indeed, the goddess Athena disguised Odysseus to help him. Homer and Johnston She made her way to the gaily painted room where a young girl lay asleep: Nausicaa, the daughter of generous King Alcinous. Athena also had to pour a sea fog around Odysseus to protect him, and then she assumed the shape of a little girl and showed him the way to the palace Homer and Johnston Athena again used this tactic when Odysseus had safely reached his homeland.

The goddess did not want the people to notice his return until he had taken revenge upon the suitors of his wife. Back in his homeland way before the Trojan War, Odysseus was a king. He had a wife and a son whom he had left an infant when he had to leave for Troy. Being transformed into a stranger, Odysseus had managed to convince Alcinous to bring him back to his homeland. He had to put away his pride to get the much-needed help in reaching home.

Athena disguised Odysseus as a beggar to get revenge against the suitors. This shows where his loyalty had lied. Telemachus is loyal for his courage to stand in for his father while he was away and him helping him during a battle. Throughout the Odyssey, Odysseus faces the wrath of the gods, and fights battles against many mythical creatures such as Polyphemus, and the his grueling mental battle with the sirens. Also, Odysseus shows his resiliency numerous times during his journey back to Ithaka, especially when he is faced with difficult challenges such as the journey past the Sirens. Odysseus possess the character strengths of loyalty and compassion because he cares deeply for his comrades. Odysseus feels a deep sense of loyalty towards his comrades as shown when he immediately returns to bury his friend.

He exhibits compassion and loyalty towards his trusted friends throughout the book; he always puts the safety and well-being of his men first. Telemachus sees Mentes, who is actually a disguised Athena, for the first time in the beginning of The Odyssey. In the poem, The Odyssey, Homer gives us insight of how a tough, cunning, and wise man is brought through twenty years of suffering to reach is home that he weeps for so much. Odysseus, the king of Ithaca, is a man that is looked at as a celebrity by humans because of his skillful fighting, and by the gods because of his intelligence and wits.

The king went through numerous tasks and obstacles to get back to his homeland. One task in particular proves his power and the love he has for his loyal and wise wife, Penelope. Looking at lines four hundred fifty-one through four hundred seventy-one, the moment Odysseus, while disguised by the God Athena, proves to the suitors and workers that he is the rightful husband, king, and lord by stringing his own bow and shooting it through twelve axes; the task was quick and perfect for Odysseus. Ody also is capable of deeds of strength and courage. He shows this in the book by when he gets home to Ithaca after 20 years with him almost dying many times. Also, what fits with that is a great warrior. This means that the epic hero was at war before the epic.

During the preparation for departure, however, Odysseus's youngest crewman, Elpenor, fell from a roof and died. Circe subsequently bore Odysseus a son, Telegonus, who would eventually cause his father's death. After speaking to Kirke, Odysseus decided to talk with Tiresias, so he and his men journeyed to the River Acheron in Hades, where they performed sacrifices which allowed them to speak to the dead. Odysseus sacrificed a ram, attracting the dead spirits to the blood. He held them at bay and demanded to speak with Tiresias, who told him how to pass by Helios's cattle and the whirlpool-causing monster Charybdis. Tiresias also told him that, after his return to Ithaca, he must take a well-made oar and walk inland with it to parts where no-one mixed sea salt with food, until someone asked him why he carries a winnowing fan.

At that place, he must fix the oar in the ground and make a sacrifice to appease Poseidon. Tiresias also told Odysseus that, after that was done, he would die an old man, "full of years and peace of mind"; his death would come from the sea and his life ebb away gently. Some read this as saying that his death would come away from the sea, as opposed to out of the sea.

While in Hades, Odysseus also met Achilles who told him that he would rather be a slave on earth than the king of the dead , Agamemnon, and his mother, Anticlea. The soul of Ajax, still sulking about Achilles's armour, refused to speak to Odysseus, despite the latter's pleas of regret. Odysseus also met his comrade, Elpenor, who told him of the manner of his death and begged him to give him an honorable burial. At Elpenor's funeral, Circe warned Odysseus of the dangers of the singing creatures The Sirens who lured men to their death on the rocks around their island.

She advised him to avoid them but said that, if he really felt that he must listen, he should have his men plug their ears with beeswax and tie him to the mast to keep him from escaping. Odysseus told his men to do so. As they passed the island, the three Sirens began to sing beautifully, promising him wisdom and knowledge of past and future. Enchanted by their song, he struggled and tried to break free, but Eurylochus and Perimedes bound him even more tightly until they passed beyond the island. Odysseus had been told by Circe that he would have a choice between two paths home. One was the Wandering Rocks, where either all made it through or all died, and which had only previously been passed by Jason , with Zeus 's help.

Odysseus, however, chose the second path: on one side of the strait was a monster called Charybdis, whose whirlpool would sink the ship; on the other was a monster called Skylla, daughter of Crataeis, who had six heads and could seize and eat six men. The advice was to sail close to Scylla and lose six men but not to fight, lest they should lose more men. Odysseus did not dare tell his crew of the sacrifice, or they would have cowered below and not rowed, in which case all would have ended up in Charybdis. Six men duly died. Odysseus said that the desperate cries of the wretched, betrayed men were the worst thing he had ever known. Clearly this affected morale and left the survivors feeling mutinous. Finally, Odysseus and his surviving crew approached an island, Thrinacia, which was sacred to Helios, who kept hallowed cattle there.

Odysseus, having been warned by Tiresias and Circe not to touch these cattle, told his men that they would not land there. Eurylochus first argued that the men were mourning, then refused to travel by night and finally threatened mutiny. Outnumbered, Odysseus gave in. The men were soon trapped on the island by adverse winds and, after their food stores had run out, began to get hungry. Odysseus went inland to pray for help and fell asleep.

In his absence, Eurylochus reasoned that they might as well eat the cattle and be killed by the gods as die of starvation, and claimed that they would offer sacrifices and treasure to appease the gods if they returned alive to Ithaca. When they slaughtered the cattle, the guardians of the island, Helios's daughters Lampetia and Phaethusa, told their father, who told to Zeus that he would take the sun down to Hades if justice was not done. When the ship put to sea, a storm conjured by Zeus killed all the rest but Odysseus.

The crewless ship was sucked into Charybdis, but Odysseus survived by clinging to an olive tree below Scylla's cave. When Charybdis spat out the remains of his ship, he let go and landed on the keel, which drifted across the sea for nine days. Then on the tenth day, he was washed up on an island. The island, Ogygia, was home to the nymph Calypso daughter of Atlas , who held Odysseus captive as her lover for seven years, promising him immortality if he agreed to stay. On behalf of Athena, Zeus intervened and sent Hermes to tell Calypso to let him go. Odysseus duly departed on a small raft, furnished by Calypso with provisions of water, wine and food, only to be hit by a storm from his old enemy Poseidon.

He was washed up on the island of Scheria and found by Nausicaa, the daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of the Phaeacians, who entertained him well. The bard Demodocus sung a song about the Trojan War. As Odysseus, as yet unidentified by the Phaeacians, had been at Troy and longed to return home, he wept at it, at which point Alcinous pressed him for his true identity. It is here that the story of Odysseus's trip from Troy to Scheria, which occupies books nine to twelve of The Odyssey, is told. After his recital, the Phaeacians offer him passage home, with all the hoardings he obtained along the way and the gifts the Phaecians themselves bestowed upon him showing xenia, the idea of hospitality.

Poseidon, on seeing Odysseus's return, was furious and decided to cast a ring of mountains around Scheria so that they could never sail again. This would have been very damaging to the Phaeacians, for they were seafarers, but Zeus persuaded Poseidon not to go ahead with the idea. Instead, he turned the ship on which Odysseus journeyed home to stone. Back in Ithaca, Penelope was having difficulties, her husband having been gone for twenty years. She did not know whether he was alive or dead, and was beset with numerous men who thought that a fairly young widow and queen of a small but tidy kingdom was a great prize: they pestered her to declare Odysseus dead and choose a new husband.

They loitered about the palace, eating her food, drinking her wine and consorting with her maidservants. Penelope was despondent about her husband's absence, especially the mystery of his fate. He could come home at any time—or never. Temporising, she fended the suitors off for years, using stalling tactics that eventually began to wear thin. Odysseus arrived on Ithaca alone.

Upon landing, he was disguised by Athena as an old man or beggar, and welcomed by his old swineherd, Eumaeus, who did not recognize him but nevertheless treated him well. Odysseus's faithful dog, Argos, was the first to recognize him. Aged and decrepit, the animal did its best to wag its tail, but Odysseus did not want to be found out and had to maintain his cover, so the weary dog died in peace. His son, Telemachus , after returning from a year of searching for information about his father, was the first human to know his father returned after Athena revealed Odysseus for who he was in front of him. The second human to recognize him was his old wet nurse, Euryclea, who knew him well enough to see through his rags, recognising an old scar on his leg, received while hunting boar with Autolycus's sons.

Odysseus learned that Penelope had remained faithful to him, pretending to weave a burial shroud for his father, and claiming that she would only choose a suitor when she was finished. Every day she wove a length of shroud, and every night undid her work, until one day a maid betrayed her. The suitors demanded that she finally choose a new husband. When Odysseus arrived at his house, disguised as a beggar, he sat in the hall, where he observed the suitors and was repeatedly humiliated by them. Presently, he went to Penelope and told her that he had met Odysseus, spinning a haughty tale about his bravery in battle. Penelope, still ignorant of the beggar's identity, began to cry. She went to the suitors and told them that whoever could string Odysseus's bow and shoot an arrow through 12 axe-handles would marry her.

This was to Odysseus's advantage, as only he could string his bow. It is believed that his bow was a composite, requiring great skill and leverage to string, rather than brute strength. Penelope then announced what he, as the beggar, had told her. The suitors each tried to string the bow, but their attempts were in vain. Odysseus then took it, strung it, lined up twelve axe-handles and shot an arrow through all twelve. Athena then took off his disguise, and, with the help of his son, Philoteus and Eumaeus, he slaughtered all the suitors.

Antinous was the first to be slain, taking an arrow fired by Odysseus in the throat while drinking in the great hall. Odysseus used arrows first, but, when he eventually ran short, he killed the remaining suitors with spears. Caught by surprise and deprived of arms by Telemachus, the suitors at a distinct disadvantage, and were only able to arm themselves after it was too late. When all the suitors were dead, justice was meted out to the goatherd Melanthius and the female servants, who had been helping the suitors. Penelope, still not certain that the beggar was indeed her husband, tested him. She ordered her maid to make up Odysseus's bed and move it from their bedchamber into the hall outside his room.

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