Hunger Problem In America

Tuesday, December 7, 2021 6:19:38 AM

Hunger Problem In America

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I am child hunger in America

A article in the American Journal of Public Health declared that "Adopting key elements of the human rights framework is the obvious next step in improving human nutrition and well-being. It characterizes current US domestic policy on hunger as being needs-based rather than rights-based, stating:. The needs-based approach assumes that people who lack access to food are passive recipients in need of direct assistance. Programs and policy efforts that use this approach tend to provide assistance without expectation of action from the recipient, without obligation and without legal protections.

Because "there is no popularly conceived, comprehensive plan in the U. In , the American Bar Association adopted a resolution urging the US government "to make the realization of a human right to adequate food a principal objective of U. Jesse Jackson has stated that it was Martin Luther King 's dream that all Americans would have a right to food. Recent studies suggest that food insecurity in the United States has doubled overall and tripled among households with children since the start of the COVID pandemic.

As a result of lost wages, individuals and families working in these industries are increasingly more likely to be food and housing insecure. Unemployment and food insecurity, linked to the COVID pandemic , have disproportionately affected people of color and communities. Women in particular, have been more vulnerable than men to job loss as a result of the COVID pandemic. Women, especially minority women, are overrepresented in education, healthcare, and hospitality industries.

According to No Kid Hungry and The Hunger Partnership, more than 22 million kids get a free or reduced-price school lunch on an average school day. The largest and only universal [] program is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program , formerly known as the food stamp program. Despite efforts to increase uptake, an estimated 15 million eligible Americans are still not using the program. Historically, about 40 million Americans were using the program in , while in , 18 million were claiming food stamps.

After cut backs to welfare in the early s and late s, private sector aid had begun to overtake public aid such as food stamps as the fastest growing form of food assistance, although the public sector provided much more aid in terms of volume. This changed in the early 21st century; the public sector's rate of increase in the amount of food aid dispensed again overtook the private sector's. President George W. Bush 's administration undertook bipartisan efforts to increase the reach of the food stamp program, increasing its budget and reducing both the stigma associated with applying for aid and barriers imposed by red tape. Most other programs are targeted at particular types of citizen. The largest of these is the School Lunch program , which in helped feed 32 million children a day.

The second largest is the School Breakfast Program , feeding 16 million children in The next largest is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children , which provide food aid for about 9 million women and children in A program that is neither universal nor targeted is Emergency Food Assistance Program. This is a successor to the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation which used to distribute surplus farm production direct to poor people; now the program works in partnership with the private sector, by delivering the surplus produce to food banks and other civil society agencies.

Another potential approach to mitigating hunger and food insecurity is modifying agricultural policy. Current agricultural policy favors monocultures and large corporate farming. These are usually not in favor of community food needs. An alternative agricultural policy would turn toward more diversity in crops and allow communities to more locally define their own agricultural and food system policies that are socially, economically, ecologically, and culturally appropriate.

Local and state governments can also work to pass legislation that calls for the establishment of healthy food retailers in low-income neighborhoods classified as food deserts. If it is unfeasible to implement policies aimed at grocery store construction in low-income neighborhoods, local and state governments can instead invest in transportation infrastructure.

Local governments can also mitigate hunger and food insecurity in low-income neighborhoods by establishing community gardens. According to the Journal of Applied Geography , community gardens are most successful when they are developed using a bottom-up approach, in which community members are actively engaged from the start of the planning process. Despite the many advantages of community gardens, community members may face challenges in regard to accessing and securing land, establishing organization and ownership of the garden, maintaining sufficient resources for gardening activities, and preserving safe soils.

The oldest type of formal hunger relief establishment used in the United States is believed to be the almshouse , but these are no longer in existence. In the 21st century, hunger relief agencies run by civil society include:. There are several federal laws in the United States that promote food donation. Federal Food Donation Act of encourages Federal agencies and Federal agency contractors to donate healthy food items to non-profit organizations for redistribution to food insecure individuals.

These policies have also created debate over whether it is sustainable to rely on surplus food for food aid. While some view this as a "win-win" solution as it feeds people while reducing food waste, others argue that it prevents either issue of food waste and food insecurity from being systematically addressed from the root issue. Individuals are unable to shop for food in grocery stores, they are told that surplus food is an acceptable way for their need to be addressed, not all of their nutritional needs may be met, there isn't always consist amounts and variation of food available to those in need, and it takes away from a solution that would fully address people's right to food.

Food Justice is a social movement approach to combating hunger. Food Justice seeks to provide greater food access to all communities through the creation of local food systems, such as urban agriculture and farmers markets. Locally based food networks move away from the globalized economy to provide food solutions and needs appropriate to the communities they serve. Organizations in the movement often aim to reduce the high prevalence of food deserts and lack of nutritious foods seen in neighborhoods of color.

Race and class play significant roles in the location of food deserts and high food insecurity. Historically, communities of color have been subject to policies and laws that reduce their ability to be self-sufficient in food production. Community members past and present work as farm laborers while their own communities do not have power or access in their own food systems. Because of this history of inequality, there are growing projects to promote and enable low-income and people of color to create sustainable food systems.

European colonists attempting to settle in North America during the 16th and early 17th century often faced severe hunger. Compared with South America, readily available food could be hard to come by. Many settlers starved to death, leading to several colonies being abandoned. Other settlers were saved after being supplied with food by Native Americans , with the intercession of Pocahontas being a famous example.

It did not take long however for colonists to adapt to conditions in the new world, discovering North America to be a place of extraordinary fertility. According to author Peter K. Eisinger, the historian Robert Beverley 's portrayal of America as the "Garden of the World" was already a stock image as early as Even by , low prevalence of hunger had helped provide American Colonists with an estimated life expectancy of 51 years, while in Britain the figure was 37, in France 26 - by , life expectancies had improved to 56 years for the U.

Until the early 19th century, even the poorest citizens of the United States were generally protected from hunger by a combination of factors. The ratio of productive land to population was high. Upper class Americans often still held to the old European ideal of Noblesse oblige and made sure their workers had sufficient food. Labour shortages meant the poor could invariably find a position - although until the American Revolution this often involved indentured servitude , this at least protected the poor from the unpredictable nature of wage labor , and sometimes paupers were rewarded with their own plot of land at the end of their period of servitude.

Additionally, working class traditions of looking out for each other were strong. Social and economic conditions changed substantially in the early 19th century, especially with the market reforms of the s. While overall prosperity increased, productive land became harder to come by, and was often only available for those who could afford substantial rates. It became more difficult to make a living either from public lands or a small farm without substantial capital to buy up to date technology. Sometimes small farmers were forced off their lands by economic pressure and became homeless.

American society responded by opening up numerous almshouses , and some municipal officials began giving out small sums of cash to the poor. Such measures did not fully check the rise in hunger; by , life expectancy in the US had dropped to 43 years, about the same as then prevailed in Western Europe. The number of hungry and homeless people in the U. Though economic developments were hugely beneficial overall, driving America's Gilded Age , they had a negative impact on some of the poorest citizens. As was the case in Europe, many influential Americans believed in classical liberalism and opposed federal intervention to help the hungry, as they thought it could encourage dependency and would disrupt the operation of the free market.

The s saw the AICP and the American branch of the Charity Organization Society successfully lobby to end the practice where city official would hand out small sums of cash to the poor. Despite this, there was no nationwide restrictions on private efforts to help the hungry, and civil society immediately began to provide alternative aid for the poor, establishing soup kitchens in U. By the turn of the century, improved economic conditions were helping to reduce hunger for all sections of society, even the poorest. During World War I and its aftermath, the U.

An early critic who argued against the U. The United States' progress in reducing domestic hunger had been thrown into reverse by the Great depression of the s. The existence of hunger within the U. Both civil society and government responded. Existing soup kitchens and bread lines run by the private sector increased their opening times, and many new ones were established. Government sponsored relief was one of the main strands of the New Deal launched by President Franklin D. Some of the government established Alphabet agencies aimed to relieve poverty by raising wages, others by reducing unemployment as with the Works Progress Administration. The Federal Surplus Relief Corporation aimed to directly tackle hunger by providing poor people with food.

According to sociology professor Janet Poppendieck, hunger within the US was widely considered to be a solved problem until the mids. There was however a minimum charge; some people could not afford the stamps, causing them to suffer severe hunger. The food bank , a new form of civil society hunger relief agency, was invented in by John van Hengel. A second response to the "rediscovery" of hunger in the mid-to-late sixties, spurred by Joseph S. Clark's and Robert F. Kennedy's tour of the Mississippi Delta , was the extensive lobbying of politicians to improve welfare. The Hunger lobby , as it was widely called by journalists, was largely successful in achieving its aims, at least in the short term.

In a Senate subcommittee held widely publicized hearings on the issue, and in President Richard Nixon made an emotive address to Congress where he called for government action to end hunger in the U. In the s, U. According to Poppendieck, welfare was widely considered preferable to grass roots efforts, as the latter could be unreliable, did not give recipients consumer-style choice in the same way as did food stamps, and risked recipients feeling humiliated by having to turn to charity.

In the early s, President Ronald Reagan 's administration scaled back welfare provision, leading to a rapid rise in activity from grass roots hunger relief agencies. Poppendieck says that for the first few years after the change, there was vigorous opposition from the political Left, who argued that the state welfare was much more suitable for meeting recipients needs. This idea was questionable to many, well other thought it was perfect for the situation. But in the decades that followed, while never achieving the reduction in hunger as did food stamps in the s, food banks became an accepted part of America's response to hunger.

In the s under Reagan's administration, the Task Force on Food Assistance formally defined hunger in the US for the first time, stating it was a social phenomenon where one doesn't have the means to obtain sufficient food. Starting in , a Food Security Supplement was added to the Census to gather data on how many Americans struggle to acquire food, a survey that remains in place to this day. In , a review of USDA hunger measurements led to the separate definitions of "food insecure" and "hungry", and created different levels of food insecurity based on data measurements.

This act also gave states more control over administering the program, and added limitations to who was eligible for benefits. Demand for the services of emergency hunger relief agencies increased further in the late s, after the "end of welfare as we know it" with President Clinton's Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act. In comparison to other advanced economies, the U. As was generally the case across the world, hunger in the U. By , about 50 million Americans were food insecure, approximately 1 in 6 of the population, with the proportion of children facing food insecurity even higher at about 1 in 4.

Hunger has increasingly begun to sometimes affect even middle class Americans. According to a study by UCLA Center for Health Policy Research , even married couples who both work but have low incomes will sometimes now require emergency food assistance. In the s and 90s, advocates of small government had been largely successful in un-politicizing hunger, making it hard to launch effective efforts to address the root causes, such as changing government policy to reduce poverty among low earners.

In contrast to the s and 70s, the 21st century has seen little significant political lobbying for an end to hunger within America, though by there had been an increase in efforts by various activists and journalists to raise awareness of the problem. American society has however responded to increased hunger by substantially increasing its provision of emergency food aid and related relief, from both the private and public sector, and from the two working together in partnership.

According to a USDA report, The report stated the fall was not statistically significant. The percentage of households experiencing very low food security remained at 5. Preston stated that one in seven Americans struggle with hunger, with food banks in the US now more active than ever. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Food insecurity.

Further information: Food desert. Main article: Food insecurity among college students in the United States. Further information: Food security in the Central Valley, California. Moreover, the price of consumer goods was too high at the time, due to the collapse of many industries. The irony is that rural American areas were producing enough food to feed the nations. However, the high transportation costs made it difficult for the food to reach the people.

People find themselves in this situation for a number of different reasons. Causes of someone being in poverty can be blamed on that person, while others are out of that person's power. Each person or family has their own personal reason for them being in the state of poverty. There is no way to try and define them all. But what are some of the most common reasons for someone finding themselves without a home? Globally and historically, poverty has been the major determinant of child and adult health and even in rich nations such as the UK; it remains a major cause of ill health with huge public health consequences. Poverty is both a source and an aftereffect of poor health.

Poverty increases the chances of poor health. Poverty creates ill-health by forcing people to live in bad environments that make them sick, without decent shelter, clean water or adequate sanitation. Poor health in turn traps communities in poverty. Also including - -malnutrition and starvation, violent backgrounds, or non-involvement of parents—is more common in homes towards incomes that are in poverty level. Clearly projecting that an individual who has lived in poverty during their childhood, it is more difficult to attain a quality education to pursue within the effects of poverty.

Education in poverty has become a major conflict in sufficient learning for students today. Poverty is a major factor in this regard and accounts for close to 70 percent of the factors that cause streetism in Ethiopia. The levels of poverty is increasing in urban areas and children have no choice but to go out and look for jobs to earn enough to assist their families or themselves FSCEiii. Census Bureau. This number, though shockingly high for a country of such enormous wealth, had fallen in recent years, but the coronavirus pandemic put a huge burden on already-struggling families, and the impact of that is not yet fully known.

One of the most effective way to help families and children is through federal nutrition programs. These are critical lifelines for families in need. No Kid Hungry supports these important programs, though we focus our efforts on other federal programs that we know can make an enormous difference for hungry kids, such as the school breakfast program , the national summer meals program and the afterschool meals program. Making breakfast part of the regular school day, just like lunch, has a powerful effect on kids.

When schools serve breakfast after the morning bell rings, it means a lot more kids get a healthy start to their day. Millions of kids rely on school for regular meals. But in the summer, those meals disappear. No Kid Hungry is helping community leaders with the funding and know-how they need to start summer meals sites, as well as advocating for needed changes to the national summer meals program.

Currently, the national summer meals programs reaches just 16 percent of the children who need help when school is out of session. For kids who rely on free meals at school, summer can be the hungriest time of year. This program is the newest federal child nutrition program, so No Kid Hungry is working to ensure that more kids, families and teachers know about it and are able to take advantage of it. For too many children in America, school lunch may be the last healthy meal of the day.

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