Persuasive Essay On Cabin Charter
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About Us We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing service each and every time you place an order. Our Services When it comes to essay writing, an in-depth research is a big deal. Need some help? We will call you back in 15 min. How can we help you? Help me place an order Let's discuss my order status Let's discuss quality of my order Other. We will contact you soon Ok, thanks. Subscribe for regular offers. Please enter your name. Marshall's opinions were workmanlike and not especially eloquent or subtle. His influence on learned men of the law came from the charismatic force of his personality and his ability to seize upon the key elements of a case and make highly persuasive arguments.
In that case— Ogden v. Saunders in —Marshall set forth his general principles of constitutional interpretation: . To say that the intention of the instrument must prevail; that this intention must be collected from its words; that its words are to be understood in that sense in which they are generally used by those for whom the instrument was intended; that its provisions are neither to be restricted into insignificance, nor extended to objects not comprehended in them, nor contemplated by its framers—is to repeat what has been already said more at large, and is all that can be necessary.
While Marshall was attentive when listening to oral arguments and often persuaded other justices to adopt his interpretation of the law, he was not widely read in the law, and seldom cited precedents. After the Court came to a decision, he would usually write it up himself. Often he asked Justice Joseph Story , a renowned legal scholar, to do the chores of locating the precedents, saying, "There, Story; that is the law of this case; now go and find the authorities. In his role as Secretary of State in the Adams administration, Marshall had failed to deliver commissions to 42 federal justices of the peace before the end of Adams's term.
After coming to power, the Jefferson administration refused to deliver about half of these outstanding commissions, effectively preventing those individuals from receiving their appointments even though the Senate had confirmed their nominations. Though the position of justice of the peace was a relatively powerless and low-paying office, one individual whose commission was not delivered, William Marbury , decided to mount a legal challenge against the Jefferson administration. Seeking to have his judicial commission delivered, Marbury filed suit against the sitting Secretary of State, James Madison. The Supreme Court agreed to hear the case of Marbury v. Madison in its term.
In early February , the Supreme Court held a four-day trial for the case of Marbury v. Madison , though the defendant, James Madison, refused to appear. Yet the Court also held that it could not order Madison to deliver the commission because the Judiciary Act of had unconstitutionally expanded the Court's original jurisdiction to include writs of mandamus , a type of court order that commands a government official to perform an act they are legally required to perform.
Because that portion of the Judiciary Act of was unconstitutional, the Court held that it did not have original jurisdiction over the case even while simultaneously holding that Madison had violated the law. Marbury v. Madison was the first case in which the Supreme Court struck down a federal law as unconstitutional and it is most significant for its role in establishing the Supreme Court's power of judicial review , or the power to invalidate laws as unconstitutional. As Marshall put it, "it is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. In , the House of Representatives impeached Associate Justice Samuel Chase , alleging that he had shown political bias in his judicial conduct.
Many Democratic-Republicans saw the impeachment as a way to intimidate federal judges, many of whom were members of the Federalist Party. Vice President Aaron Burr was not renominated by his party in the presidential election and his term as vice president ended in After leaving office, Burr traveled to the western United States, where he may have entertained plans to establish an independent republic from Mexican or American territories. Marshall required Jefferson to turn over his correspondence with General James Wilkinson ; Jefferson decided to release the documents, but argued that he was not compelled to do so under the doctrine of executive privilege.
In , the state of Georgia had sold much of its western lands to a speculative land company, which then resold much of that land to other speculators, termed "New Yazooists. Many of the New Yazooists had paid far more than the original purchase price, and they rejected Georgia's revocation of the sale. Jefferson tried to arrange a compromise by having the federal government purchase the land from Georgia and compensate the New Yazooists, but Congressman John Randolph defeated the compensation bill. The issue remained unresolved, and a case involving the land finally reached the Supreme Court through the case of Fletcher v.
The Court's ruling held that the original sale of land constituted a contract with the purchasers, and the Contract Clause prohibits states from "impairing the obligations of contracts. Peck was the first case in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional, though in the Court had voided a state law as conflicting with the combination of the Constitution together with a treaty. In , Congress established the Second Bank of the United States "national bank" in order to regulate the country's money supply and provide loans to the federal government and businesses.
The state of Maryland imposed a tax on the national bank, but James McCulloch, the manager of the national bank's branch in Baltimore , refused to pay the tax. Maryland in In that case, the state of Maryland challenged the constitutionality of the national bank and asserted that it had the right to tax the national bank. The Court also held that Maryland could not tax the national bank, asserting that the power to tax is equivalent to "the power to destroy.
Southerners, including Virginia judge Spencer Roane , attacked the decision as an overreach of federal power. Bank of the United States , the Court ordered a state official to return seized funds to the national bank. The Osborn case established that the Eleventh Amendment does not grant state officials sovereign immunity when they resist a federal court order. Congress established a lottery in the District of Columbia in , and in two individuals were convicted in Virginia for violating a state law that prohibited selling out-of-state lottery tickets.
The Court's subsequent decision in the case of Cohens v. Virginia established that the Supreme Court could hear appeals from state courts in criminal lawsuits. In , Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton secured a monopoly from the state of New York for the navigation of steamboats in state waters. Gibbons continued to operate steamboats in New York after receiving a federal license to operate steamboats in the waters of any state. In response, Ogden won a judgment in state court that ordered Gibbons to cease operations in the state. Gibbons appealed to the Supreme Court, which heard the case of Gibbons v. Ogden in Representing Gibbons, Congressman Daniel Webster and Attorney General William Wirt acting in a non-governmental capacity argued that Congress had the exclusive power to regulate commerce, while Ogden's attorneys contended that the Constitution did not prohibit states from restricting navigation.
Writing for the Court, Marshall held that navigation constituted a form of commerce and thus could be regulated by Congress. Because New York's monopoly conflicted with a properly-issued federal license, the Court struck down the monopoly. However, Marshall did not adopt Webster's argument that Congress had the sole power to regulate commerce. Marshall personally opposed the presidential candidacy of Andrew Jackson , whom the Chief Justice saw as a dangerous demagogue, and he caused a minor incident during the presidential campaign when he criticized Jackson's attacks on President John Quincy Adams.
In the case of Johnson v. M'Intosh , the Marshall Court had established the supremacy of the federal government in dealing with Native American tribes. After Georgia passed a law that voided Cherokee laws and denied several rights to the Native Americans, former Attorney General William Wirt sought an injunction to prevent Georgia from exercising sovereignty over the Cherokee. The Supreme Court heard the resulting case of Cherokee Nation v. Georgia in At roughly the same time that the Supreme Court issued its decision in Cherokee Nation v.
Georgia , a group of white missionaries living with the Cherokee were arrested by the state of Georgia. The State did so on the basis of an state law that prohibited white men from living on Native American land without a state license. Among those arrested was Samuel Worcester , who, after being convicted of violating the state law, challenged the constitutionality of the law in federal court. The arrest of the missionaries became a key issue in the presidential election , and one of the presidential candidates, William Wirt, served as the attorney for the missionaries. The Court's holding overturned the conviction and the state law, holding that the state of Georgia had improperly exercised control over the Cherokee.
The situation was finally resolved when the Jackson administration privately convinced Governor Wilson Lumpkin to pardon the missionaries. Marshall established the Charming Betsy principle, a rule of statutory interpretation , in the case of Murray v. The Charming Betsy. The Charming Betsy principle holds that "an act of Congress ought never to be construed to violate the law of nations if any other possible construction remains. Hunter's Lessee , the Supreme Court held that it had the power to hear appeals from state supreme courts when a federal issue was involved. Marshall recused himself from the case because it stemmed from a dispute over Lord Fairfax's former lands, which Marshall had a financial interest in.
Woodward , the Court held that the protections of the Contract Clause apply to private corporations. Saunders , Marshall dissented in part and "assented" in part, and the Court upheld a state law that allowed individuals to file bankruptcy. In his separate opinion, Marshall argued that the state bankruptcy law violated the Contract Clause. Baltimore , the Court held that the Bill of Rights was intended to apply only to the federal government, and not to the states. After his appointment to the Supreme Court, Marshall began working on a biography of George Washington.
He did so at the request of his close friend, Associate Justice Bushrod Washington, who had inherited the papers of his uncle. The first two volumes, published in , were poorly-received and seen by many as an attack on the Democratic-Republican Party. In he wrote, "I have at length completed an abridgment of the Life of Washington for the use of schools. I have endeavored to compress it as much as possible. After striking out every thing which in my judgment could be properly excluded the volume will contain at least pages. In , Marshall presided over a convention to promote internal improvements in Virginia.
The following year, Marshall was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of —30 , where he was again joined by fellow American statesman and loyal Virginians, James Madison and James Monroe , although all were quite old by that time Madison was 78, Monroe 71, and Marshall Although proposals to reduce the power of the Tidewater region's slave-owning aristocrats compared to growing western population proved controversial,  Marshall mainly spoke to promote the necessity of an independent judiciary.
In , the year-old chief justice traveled to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , where he underwent an operation to remove bladder stones. That December, his wife Polly died in Richmond. Marshall was among the last remaining Founding Fathers a group poetically called the " Last of the Romans " ,  and was also the last surviving Cabinet member from the John Adams administration. Marshall believed that slavery was an "evil", opposed the slave trade , and feared increasing Southern focus on slavery would fracture the Union, as ultimately occurred.
However, he owned slaves for most of his life. Early in his career, during the s, Marshall represented slaves pro bono in a few cases, often trying to win the freedom of mixed-race individuals. In possibly his most famous anti-slavery case, Marshall represented Robert Pleasants , who sought to carry out his father's will and emancipate about ninety slaves; Marshall won the case in the Virginia High Court of Chancery, in an opinion written by his teacher George Wythe, but that court's holding was later restricted by the Virginia High Court of Appeals. After slave revolts early in the 19th century, Marshall expressed reservations about large-scale emancipation, in part because he feared that a large number of free blacks might rise up in revolution.
Moreover, Virginia in passed a law requiring freed blacks to leave the state. Marshall instead favored sending free blacks to Africa. In , as Chief Justice, Marshall wrote an opinion in the case of the captured slave ship Antelope , in which he acknowledged that slavery was against natural law, but upheld the continued enslavement of approximately one-third of the ship's cargo although the remainder were to be sent to Liberia. Recent biographer and editor of Marshall's papers, Charles F. Hobson, noted that multitudes of scholars dating back to Albert Beveridge and Irwin S. Rhodes understated the number of slaves Marshall owned by counting only his household slaves in Richmond,  and often ignored even the slaves at "Chickahominy Farm" in Henrico County that Marshall used as a retreat.
Moreover, in the mids John Marshall arranged to buy a vast estate from Lord Fairfax's heir Denny Martin, which led to years of litigation in Virginia and federal courts, some by his brother James Marshall, and Marshall even traveled to Europe to secure financing in Hunter's Lessee , from which Chief Justice Marshall recused himself as an interested party but which made him wealthy. Marshall met Mary "Polly" Ambler, the youngest daughter of state treasurer Jaquelin Ambler, during the Revolutionary War, and soon began courting her. They had 10 children; six of whom survived to adulthood. Marshall loved his Richmond home, built in ,  and spent as much time there as possible in quiet contentment.
Marshall also left Virginia for several weeks each year to serve on the circuit court in Raleigh, North Carolina. From to , he also maintained the D. Tavern property in Albemarle County, Virginia. Marshall was not religious, and although his grandfather was a priest, never formally joined a church. He did not believe Jesus was a divine being,  and in some of his opinions referred to a deist "Creator of all things. While in Richmond, Marshall attended St. John's Church on Church Hill until when he led the movement to hire Robert Mills as architect of Monumental Church , which was near his home and rebuilt to commemorate 72 people who died in a theater fire.
The Marshall family occupied Monumental Church's pew No. The three chief justices that had preceded Marshall: John Jay , John Rutledge , and Oliver Ellsworth , had left little permanent mark beyond setting up the forms of office. The Supreme Court, like many state supreme courts, was a minor organ of government. In his year tenure, Marshall gave it the energy, weight, and dignity of what many would say is a third co-equal branch of the U. With his associate justices, especially Joseph Story , William Johnson , and Bushrod Washington , Marshall's Court brought to life the constitutional standards of the new nation.
Marshall used Federalist approaches to build a strong federal government over the opposition of the Jeffersonian Republicans, who wanted stronger state governments. The Marshall Court struck down an act of Congress in only one case Marbury v. Madison in but that established the Court as a center of power that could overrule the Congress, the President, the states, and all lower courts if that is what a fair reading of the Constitution required. He also defended the legal rights of corporations by tying them to the individual rights of the stockholders, thereby ensuring that corporations have the same level of protection for their property as individuals had, and shielding corporations against intrusive state governments. Many commentators have written concerning Marshall's contributions to the theory and practice of judicial review.
Among his strongest followers in the European tradition has been Hans Kelsen for the inclusion of the principle of judicial review in the constitutions of both Czechoslovakia and Austria. In her recent book on Hans Kelsen, Sandrine Baume  identified John Hart Ely as a significant defender of the "compatibility of judicial review with the very principles of democracy. The University of Virginia placed many volumes of Marshall's papers online as a searchable digital edition. Marshall's home in Richmond, Virginia, has been preserved by Preservation Virginia formerly known as the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities.
It is considered to be an important landmark and museum, essential to an understanding of the Chief Justice's life and work. An engraved portrait of Marshall appears on U. These rare notes are in great demand by note collectors today. These notes are also quite scarce. Examples of both notes are available for viewing on the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco website.
Chief Justice John Marshall , a bronze statue of Marshall wearing his judicial robes stands on the ground floor inside the U. Supreme Court building. Unveiled in , and initially placed on the west plaza of the U. Capitol , it was sculpted by William Wetmore Story. Marshall, Michigan , was named in his honor five years before Marshall's death. It was the first of dozens of communities and counties named for him. Marshall College, named in honor of Chief Justice Marshall, officially opened in After a merger with Franklin College in , the school was renamed as Franklin and Marshall College and relocated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
The John Marshall commemorative dollar was minted in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named John Marshall, see John Marshall disambiguation. Further information: Marshall Court. See also: Presidency of Thomas Jefferson. Further information: Burr conspiracy. Further information: Yazoo land scandal. See also: Presidency of Andrew Jackson. Our writers understand we value quality.
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