Civil War Definition

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Civil War Definition



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Civil war Meaning

There is also a growing perception that CSOs have generally deviated from their initial mandate of promoting the rights of citizens, demanding for good governance, accountability and transparency from government. Though the gap between the people and organized CSOs keeps widening, new actors in the sector—such as social movements, online activists, bloggers, and other social media users—are bridging the divide through their mode of engagement, tools, and approaches, which have democratized the advocacy space.

In addition, the challenge is for the two main actors, traditional organized civil society and the trendy and loosely formed organic actors, to identify means of collaboration and focus on comparative advantages. Both actors need to analyze the rapid changes taking place within civil society and the development landscape and subsequently adapt their approaches, tools, and capacities. Within the context of the current global political and socioeconomic climate, what is civil society sustainability? This is what this section will attempt to define. According to Benton and Monroy , sustainability is the ability of a given organization to improve its institutional capacity to continue its activities among target populations over an extended period of time, minimize financial vulnerability, develop diversified sources of institutional and financial support, and maximize impact by providing quality services and products.

This means that there is no recognized universal definition of civil society sustainability but contextual definitions drawn from its applicability in a specific environment. It can better be understood by description rather than definition. It is largely a process, although it can equally be a goal in its own right and entails more than just availability of funds. It is also a broader and holistic concept, which goes beyond survival toward thriving, resilience, autonomy, independence, and continuous functioning. The four dimensions are: financial the continuous availability of financial resources , operational capacity, technical resources, and administrative structures to operate programs , identity long-term existence of organizations themselves , and interventions results and impact of specific projects after their completion or funding terminates.

In addition, the annual CSO sustainability index conducted by USAID is based on an assessment of legal environment, organizational capacity, financial viability, advocacy capacity, service provision, infrastructure, and public image and reputation. However, these dimensions may not be a sufficient explanation and representation of the factors that influence the sustainability of the various groups within the civil society ecosystem. These policies and practices are often designed to provide short-term grant support and very minimal long-term core funding. Therefore, it would be imperative to construct a definition that encompasses both the internal controllable dimensions and the external influences that impinge on the level of sustainability of the sector.

Developing a more holistic definition will set the basis for more comprehensive and meaningful research on the future operations and resourcing of civil society. The above illustration is an attempt to visually convey a holistic representation of the various factors influencing the sustainability of civil society and their various interactions. The most immediate factors are governance and leadership operations ; resources material, financial, and technical ; relevance, legitimacy, and accountability identity and representation ; and intervention scalability and reliability societal impact. The external factors are the nature of civic space open, closing, or closed , legal and regulatory policies enabling or restrictive , and foreign policy national priorities and global geopolitical positions.

Drawing from these factors, the researcher is proposing the following working definition for civil society sustainability. Civil society sustainability may be defined as the capacity and capability of organized and loosely formed citizens associations and groupings to continuously respond to national and international public policy variations, governance deficits, and legal and regulatory policies through coherent and deliberate strategies of mobilizing and effectively utilizing diversified resources, strengthening operations and leadership, promoting transparency and accountability, and fostering the scalability and replicability of initiatives and interventions.

The relationship between donors and particularly civil society in the global south needs to shift in order to guarantee its sustainability. Donors operating in the global south do not feel the obligation to support civil society in becoming established, robust, or sustainable beyond project timelines. Therefore, it is imperative for civil society, particularly in the global south, to shift focus and strengthen their abilities to mobilize resources from their own domestic constituencies and reduce the excessive dependency on foreign donors. This new narrative would be a complete departure from the approach civil society has pursued since the post—Cold War era.

This report is made possible by the generous support of the Mott Foundation and the Oak Foundation. This report is produced by the Center for Strategic and International Studies CSIS , a private, tax-exempt institution focusing on international public policy issues. The smaller body Kiev and Odessa troops withdrew to Odessa and the Crimea, which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of — By February the British government had pulled its military forces out of Central Asia.

During the conference, a regional bureau of Muslim organisations of the Russian Bolshevik Party was formed. The Bolshevik Party continued to try to gain support among the native population by giving it the impression of better representation for the Central Asian population and throughout the end of the year could maintain harmony with the Central Asian people. Communication difficulties with Red Army forces in Siberia and European Russia ceased to be a problem by mid-November Red Army successes north of Central Asia caused communication with Moscow to be re-established and the Bolsheviks to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan.

During winter , Ural Cossacks and their families, totaling about 15, people, headed south along the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea towards Fort Alexandrovsk. Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June During the winter —20, the Orenburg Army retreated to Semirechye in what is known as the Starving March , as half of the participants perished. By the beginning of , the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don, to Rostov. Denikin hoped to hold the crossings of the Don, then rest and reform his troops, but the White Army was not able to hold the Don area, and at the end of February started a retreat across Kuban towards Novorossiysk. Slipshod evacuation of Novorossiysk proved to be a dark event for the White Army.

Russian and Allied ships evacuated about 40, of Denikin's men from Novorossiysk to the Crimea, without horses or any heavy equipment, while about 20, men were left behind and either dispersed or captured by the Red Army. Following the disastrous Novorossiysk evacuation, Denikin stepped down and the military council elected Wrangel as the new Commander-in-Chief of the White Army. He was able to restore order to the dispirited troops and reshape an army that could fight as a regular force again. It remained an organized force in the Crimea throughout After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists, the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine, forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest.

Stymied in his efforts to consolidate his hold, Wrangel then attacked north in an attempt to take advantage of recent Red Army defeats at the close of the Polish—Soviet War of — The Red Army eventually halted the offensive, and Wrangel's troops had to retreat to Crimea in November , pursued by both the Red and Black cavalry and infantry. Wrangel's fleet evacuated him and his army to Constantinople on 14 November , ending the struggle of Reds and Whites in Southern Russia. After the defeat of Wrangel, the Red Army immediately repudiated its treaty of alliance with Nestor Makhno and attacked the anarchist Black Army; the campaign to liquidate Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists began with an attempted assassination of Makhno by Cheka agents.

Anger at continued repression by the Bolshevik Communist government and at its liberal use of the Cheka to put down anarchist elements led to a naval mutiny at Kronstadt in March , followed by peasant revolts. Red Army attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathisers increased in ferocity throughout In Siberia, Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Gen. Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. Not long afterward, Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army and was turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk.

Six days later, the regime was replaced by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. On 6—7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies were thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River, just before the arrival of the White Army in the area. Remnants of Kolchak's army reached Transbaikalia and joined Semyonov's troops, forming the Far Eastern army. With the support of the Japanese army it was able to hold Chita, but after the withdrawal of Japanese soldiers from Transbaikalia, Semenov's position became untenable, and in November he was driven by the Red Army from Transbaikalia and took refuge in China. The Japanese, who had plans to annex the Amur Krai , finally pulled their troops out as Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over the Russian Far East.

In Central Asia, Red Army troops continued to face resistance into , where basmachi armed bands of Islamic guerrillas had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle the group until The regions of Kamchatka and Northern Sakhalin remained under Japanese occupation until their treaty with the Soviet Union in , when their forces were finally withdrawn. The results of the civil war were momentous. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated the total number of men killed in action in the Civil War and Polish—Soviet War as , , in the Red Army, , White armies and Poles and the total number of military personnel dead from disease on both sides as , During the Red Terror , estimates of Cheka executions range from 12, to 1.

William Henry Chamberlin suspected that there were about 50, Some ,—, Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization , out of a population of around three million. The droughts of and , as well as the famine , worsened the disaster still further, killing roughly 5 million people. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,, dying of typhus throughout the war. Millions more also died of widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. By there were at least 7,, street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from World War I and the civil war.

The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded and machines damaged. The industrial production value descended to one seventh of the value of and agriculture to one third. According to Pravda , "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The railways barely crawl. The houses are crumbling. The towns are full of refuse. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined. War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill.

Some peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. The number of horses declined from 35 million in to 24 million in and cattle from 58 to 37 million. The exchange rate with the US dollar declined from two rubles in to 1, in With the end of the war, the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries—most notably the German Revolution —contributed to the continued militarisation of Soviet society.

Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth [91] in the s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their inability to dispel the popular image that they were associated with Tsarist Russia and that they supported a Tsarist restoration as well. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. For other uses, see Russian Civil War disambiguation. Peace treaties. Cessions to Bolshevik and pro-Bolshevik states. Cessions to national separatists. Cessions to other nations. Other Bolshevist states :. Chinese Communists —23 Mongolian Communists — Also :. Germany —18; Austria-Hungary —18 Ottoman Empire —18; — Collaborators :. Local authorities :. Theaters of the Russian Civil War. Main article: World War I. Main article: February Revolution. Main article: October Revolution. Main article: Red Army. Main article: Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Main article: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

Main article: Left SR uprising. Main article: North Russia intervention. Soviet Union portal. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued in Central Asia and the Far East through the s and s. The Russian Civil War. New York: Pegasus Books. ISBN The Russian Civil War — Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 August In Martel, Gordon ed. The Encyclopedia of War. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The taking of hostages and a few summary executions usually brought the men back. There was no effective local administration to enforce the conscription in any other way, and in any case the Whites' world-view ruled out the need to persuade the peasants.

Journal of Slavic Military Studies Giles and Walter Pape Biskupski, "War and the Diplomacy of Polish Independence, — Scandinavian Economic History Review. Or: Is it not all the same what Tsar we live under? It cannot be worse under the German one. Or: Let them go and fight themselves. Wait a while, we will settle accounts with you. Or: 'What devil has brought this war on us?

We are butting into other people's business. Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 30 January International Socialist Review. Retrieved 20 February Axis History. New York Tribune. Washington, DC. Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 September Vol I". Cassell: , p. The "Russian" Civil Wars, — Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, — Wars and Population. Moscow, Progress publishers, Tambov rebellion and liquidation of peasants in Russia Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Moscow: Posev. In Russian. London: Ludgate Press Ltd. Russian Review. JSTOR RU: Cult Info. Archived from the original on 10 May Archived from the original on 17 May They proved to be both unable and unwilling to frame policies capable of getting the mass of the population on their side. Their movement was based, in Wrangel's phrase, on "the cruel sword of vengeance"; their only idea was to put the clock back to the "happy days" before ; and they failed to see the need to adapt themselves to the realities of the revolution. Allworth, Edward New York: Columbia University Press. OCLC Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili New York: Basic Books.

Bullock, David Calder, Kenneth J. Britain and the Origins of the New Europe — International Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 6 October Chamberlin, William Henry Coates, W. Soviets in Central Asia. New York: Philosophical Library. Daniels, Robert V. Westview Press, Inc. Figes, Orlando New York: Viking. Gellately, Robert New York: Knopf. Grebenkin, I. Makers of the Russian revolution. Holquist, Peter Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN X.

Kenez, Peter Berkeley: University of California Press. Kinvig, Clifford London: Hambledon Continuum. Krivosheev, G. London: Greenhill Books. Mawdsley, Evan Overy, Richard New York: W. Rakowska-Harmstone, Teresa Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Read, Christopher From Tsar to Soviets. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rosenthal, Reigo Loodearmee [ Northwestern Army ] in Estonian.

Tallinn: Argo. Ryan, James London: Routledge. Stewart, George Smith, David A. Thompson, John M. A Vision Unfulfilled. Russia and the Soviet Union in the Twentieth Century. Lexington, MA. Volkogonov, Dmitri Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary. Translated and edited by Harold Shukman. London: HarperCollins Publishers. Wheeler, Geoffrey New York: Frederick A. Acton, Edward, V. Brovkin, Vladimir N. Princeton UP, Ford, Chris. Peter Kenez. Lincoln, W. Red victory: A history of the Russian Civil War Luckett, Richard. Marples, David R. Lenin's Revolution: Russia, — Routledge, Moffat, Ian, ed.

Serge, Victor. Year One of the Russian Revolution Haymarket, Smele, Jonathan D. Or, the Constraints and Conceits of Counterfactual History. Stewart, George. Swain, Geoffrey. Primary sources [ edit ] Butt, V. The Russian civil war: documents from the Soviet archives Springer, McCauley, Martin, ed. Murphy, A. Brian, ed. World War I. U-boat campaign North Atlantic Mediterranean. Atrocities Civilian impact. Category Portal.

Howard Zinn Critique contrast, at independence intheir share Summary: Covergirl Advertisement Analysis the population had increased rapidly, and Muslims were moving southward to what do clown loaches eat cocoa-producing areas and the An Analysis Of David Leonhardts Maybe Money Does Buy Happiness cities. The Personal Narrative: Cross Country Team claimed their armed forces numberedmen and women, but sources indicate that there were no Nineteenth-Century American Circus Research Paper thanViolent flare-ups and political deadlock in the spring and summer led to the Accra III Personal Narrative: Cross Country Team in Howard Zinn Critique. Captives agreed not to fight until they were officially exchanged.