Incarcerated Women In Erin Georges A Woman Doing Life

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Incarcerated Women In Erin Georges A Woman Doing Life

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Whoever falls into your hands is forfeited. Just as a thousand years ago the Huns under their King Attila made a name for themselves, one that even today makes them seem mighty in history and legend, may the name German be affirmed by you in such a way in China that no Chinese will ever again dare to look cross-eyed at a German. Vignette-style graphics placed an array of smaller scenes around the central image. Ehrhart, Puck , September 8, Pughe, Puck , November 21, The eight-nation military intervention during the Boxer Uprising in China in amounted to a global case study of how nations with superior technology wreaked violence abroad in the name of bringing about peace and civilization.

Additional images from the issue depict barbaric behavior by the multinational force that intervened in China during the Boxer Uprising. The graphics include pillage, rape, and wanton executions. The anti-imperialist Life magazine was similarly attuned to the hypocrisy of cloaking military violence in pious rhetoric. The following year, Life cartoonist William H. The Life cartoon takes a different view of the barbarism in these events, focussing on Allied brutality against the Chinese.

The caption refers to a Bible passage in which belief is nearly, but not completely reached. Walker, Life , April 25, In this mocking Life cartoon, a Chinese man with an overturned Bible at his feet laughs ironically at how both the Bible and Uncle Sam relish scenes of slaughter. The date indicates that the specific reference is to Allied reprisals against Chinese civilians following the Boxer Uprising. Boxers practiced spirit-possession rituals, often meeting in Buddhist temples, and attacked Christian missionaries and Chinese converts. Missionaries preaching the Gospel in rural China violated local religious practices.

This rueful cartoon places Confucius and Jesus side-by-side and laments the failure of all parties to practice what they preach. What did the public back home know about the fighting of these far-off wars? Each of the three major turn-of-the-century wars left a trail of contention in the visual record. Life published many graphics that showed the humanitarian costs inflicted by war and political aggression—despoliation, looting, concentration camps, torture, and genocide—often awkwardly interspersed amongst humorous sketches and domestic scenes.

The graphics protesting U. Under the American flag, patriotic words end with a question mark:. Do those benighted wretches fail to realize what we have accomplished in their islands? We may have burnt certain villages, destroyed considerable property and incidentally slaughtered a few thousand of their sons and brothers, husbands and fathers, etc. Were we to transport an army more than half way around the earth merely to listen to peace propositions? Two years ago the main street of Manila did not possess a single saloon. Now there are thirteen on this one street! And they complain that drunken American soldiers insult the native women.

She may be red-handed, and at times drunk, but she is there for business. The Native: Ever since my home was burned to the ground and my wife and children shot. The Stranger : How long have you been civilized? The Native : Ever since my home was burned to the ground and my wife and children shot. Dominated by full-page graphics, many issues were thematic visual essays developed by a single artist. In the September 28, issue, artist Jean Veber excoriated the shameful subject of the concentration camps British forces used to weaken Boer resistance in the Anglo-Boer War of — Initially, the camps were conceived as shelters for women and children war refugees. British armies had difficulty stopping mounted Boer commandos spread out over large areas of open terrain.

The campaign was stepped up to target the civilian population that provided crucial support for guerrilla fighters in both the Transvaal and Orange Free State republics. Families were burned out of their homes and imprisoned in concentration camps. Though black Africans did not fight in the war, over , were rounded up and confined in camps separate from the white internees. All of the hastily organized camps, for whites and blacks alike, had inadequate accommodations, wretched sanitation, and unreliable food supplies, leading to tens of thousands of deaths from disease and starvation. A post-conflict report calculated that close to 28, white Boers perished the vast majority of them children under sixteen , while fatalities among incarcerated native Africans numbered over 14, at the very least.

The British people had a long history of supporting imperial wars and as the conflict escalated, criticism in cartoon form declined and was supplanted by patriotic messages. French artists, on the other hand, leveled charges of barbarism against Great Britain and other imperial powers, including their own country, in vivid graphics.

Stark images such as these helped make public a subject that was generally suppressed. British soldiers laugh at the spectacle of Boer prisoners of war being shocked by an electric fence. An iron railing through which an electric current runs is the healthiest and safest of fences. It allows prisoners to enjoy the view from the outside and have the illusion of freedom Official Report to the War Office. Women and children were included among the Boer prisoners of the British. The French caption mocks British hypocrisy in officially praising the humanitarian behavior of their armed forces.

I relegated an escort. The humanity of our soldiers is admirable and does not tire despite the ferocity of the Boers In the eyes of the West, China was dangerously close to chaos as the new century began. World powers competing for spheres of influence within her borders had grown ever bolder in their demands as the Qing rulers appeared increasingly weak. Western missionaries had penetrated the interior, and the missions they established disrupted village traditions. The influx of cheap Western goods eroded generations-long trading patterns, while telegraph and railroad lines were constructed in violation of superstitions, eliciting deep resentment among Chinese. Some of the poorest provinces in the north were further stressed by a destructive combination of flooding and prolonged drought.

There, membership in militant secret societies swelled, most prominently in the Yi He Quan Society of the Righteous Fist , a sect known to Westerners as the Boxers. Christian missionaries, their Chinese converts, and eventually all foreigners were blamed for the troubles and attacked by Boxer bands of disenfranchised young men. By the spring of , Boxer attacks were spreading toward the capital city of Beijing. Foreign buildings and churches were torched and the Beijing-Tianjin railway and telegraph lines were dismantled, cutting communication with the capital. A rescue expedition made up of troops from eight nations, under the command of the British Vice-Admiral Edward Seymour, left Tianjin for Beijing.

The expedition met with unexpectedly fierce opposition from Boxers and Qing dynasty troops and was forced to retreat. On June 17, while the fate of Seymour and his men remained unknown to the outside world, Allied navies attacked and captured the forts at Taku. In one of the most lasting images of the conflict, the legation quarter in Beijing—overflowing with some foreign diplomats, their families, and soldiers, along with some 2, Chinese Christians—was put to siege. As the disturbance escalated, so did news coverage around the world. All Missionaries and Converts Being Exterminated. Priests Horribly Tortured. No blow has been struck except for liberty and humanity, and none will be. As the caption indicates, this cover illustration dismisses charges of imperialism that critics directed against American expansion at the turn of the century.

After Allied forces were dispatched to relieve the sieges in Tianjin and Beijing, however, it did not take long before news reports and complementary visual commentary began to take note of barbaric conduct on both sides of the conflict. In an unprecedented alliance, the second expeditionary force was comprised of from largest troop size to smallest Japan, Russia, Great Britain, France, U. Allied troops departed Tianjin for Beijing on August 4. Despite several victories in the battle for Tianjin, chaotic Chinese forces melted away before the Allied advance.

With little opposition, Allied troops foraged for food and water in deserted villages, where the few who remained—often servants left to protect property—usually met with violence. Accusations of atrocities against civilians on the ten-day march to Beijing were made in first-hand accounts of the mission. Although protested by some commanders, no single approach prevailed among these competitive armies thrown together in a loose coalition.

Newspapers carried pictures of corpses and stories of rape and plunder, notably in the wealthy merchant city of Tongzhou just before troops reached Beijing. In , occupation forces roamed the countryside to pillage, loot, and hunt for Boxers. Many peasants vaguely suspected of being Boxers were executed. A laughing missionary in the lead, blood-soaked soldiers of the Allied forces tread on the bodies of women and children while carrying severed heads on a pike.

Heine provided Simplicissimus with what has become a justly famous image: an armed knight, representing the West, pours a torrent of blood over Asia, while his sword drips blood on Africa. Thomas Theodor Heine. Source: The Weimar Classics Foundation. The satirical weekly, Simplicissimus , flourished from to with a hiatus from to As the cartoon record of these turn-of-the-century years repeatedly demonstrates, moreover, it was taken for granted by the imperialists that the people on whom they were bestowing the light of civilization were literally—and often grotesquely—of various shades of darker complexion.

As Twain saw it, the U. Extending the Blessings of Civilization to our Brother who Sits in Darkness has been a good trade and has paid well, on the whole; and there is money in it yet, if carefully worked—but not enough, in my judgement, to make any considerable risk advisable. It ends with a stranger entering the church and delivering a devastating description of the carnage experienced by invaded countries. Indeed, the visual record was, in its unique way, more powerful—more literally graphic—than words alone could ever be. Estimates of civilian fatalities, on the other hand, range from , to possibly well over a million. It evoked both the fact that the bulk of the U. In mid , Life published this chilling view of the war in the Philippines that was to drag on for several more years.

Uncle Sam, armed and dangerous, cocks an eyebrow as he displays his handiwork: countless dead Filipino soldiers laid out in rows. All this for politics—is civilization advancing? A scrawny female figure in the background appears to be a skull-faced depiction of Britannia, grown thin and solitary through endless pursuit of war. The full sardonic irony of the rendering, however, resides in the dead occupants of the graves. All are erstwhile British soldiers.

Their diverse identities, however, reflect the global reach and ethnic diversity of the British empire—and the extent to which England relied on colonial subjects to fight its imperialist wars. In this cartoon from the French special issue on concentration camps in the Boer War, a gaunt Britannia is the only living creature in a vast graveyard for dead British soldiers. Generic names on the gravestones are coupled with places of origin, including England, Scotland, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, Gibraltar, India, Ceylon, and Egypt, indicating the diversity of those recruited to fight and die for the British Empire.

The artist signed his name on the grave on the lower right. And the political cartoons of the time—subjective, emotional, ideological, highly politicized and at the same time, politically diversified—convey this complexity with unparalleled sophistication and intensity. It is all too easy to assume that Americans, English, and others on the home front could not see what their nations were doing overseas. The turn-of-the-century visual record tells us otherwise. Ellen Sebring is an artist, filmmaker, and for a decade was the Creative director of the Visualizing Cultures project at M. She researches visual narrative and digital historiography using the visual historical record. This article was adapted from Visualizing Cultures.

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