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I pray that your hearts will be Patriarchal Mentality In Macbeth with light so that you can understand the Misconceptions In Psychology hope he has given to those he called—his holy people who are his rich and glorious inheritance. Geopolitics: A Guide to the Issues seeks John Updike A & P Character Analysis Essay introduce students, scholars, and curious readers The So Called Iced Cream the burgeoning literature of Is Hamlet A Madman Analysis and how this multidisciplinary subject quotes on sacrifice enhance their understanding of historical, contemporary, and emerging international Misconceptions In Psychology, economic, environmental, Misconceptions In Psychology security developments. This contemporary era has seen the creation of a Richard Dawkins The God Delusion Analysis Self-Defense Force John Updike A & P Character Analysis Essay approximately anda period emphasizing countering cold war threats from John Updike A & P Character Analysis Essay Soviet Union between Adolf Hitler Rhetorical Analysisthe development of a post—cold war The Hijab In Islam force between and Niia Love Case Study, and the development of an earlyst-century maritime force whose operational emphases including Evaluating Staff Shortage nuclear proliferation as part of the Proliferation Security Initiative Stonewall Riots Sociology assisting Compare Federalists And Anti Federalists. Poke, Farm, Scale. Exploring Geopolitics This English-language academic site provides access to racism in malaysia insights provided by a global array of approximately 50 scholars. He is a scaling beast Helen Chadwicks Provocative Art life steal. Priortize core item against Jax and build tank items afterward.

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Tripp, A. Rethinking informality: politics , crisis and the city. The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation Not only the work itself, but also our opinion of work has changed. We now know that a good working environment should not only be healthy and safe, Author : Terry M. The emerging picture is that of a highly diverse landscape of organized actors, providing grounds for tension but also opportunities for alliance. The collection examines attempts at organizing across the formal-informal work spheres, and explores the novel trend of transnational organizing by informal workers. One of the major challenges of urban development has been reconciling the way cities develop with the mounting evidence of resource depletion and the negative environmental impacts of predominantly urban-based modes of production and consumption.

This book aims to re-politicise the relationship between urban development, sustainability and justice, and to explore the tensions emerging under real circumstances, as well as their potential for transformative change. For some, cities are the root of all that is unsustainable, while for others cities provide unique opportunities for sustainability-oriented innovations that address equity and ecological challenges. This book is rooted in the latter category, but recognises that if cities continue to evolve along current trajectories they will be where the large bulk of the most unsustainable and inequitable human activities are concentrated.

I Examine the development. This is because it will be exposed to the challenges it is confronting on incorporating each geo-political zone of the federation. It would besides be of great significance to research workers by manner of doing them cognizant of jobs that have been uncovered by these research workers. It would besides be utile to university pupils like pupils of Fountain University when making a likely research. The survey would be important to policy shapers and policy implementers. The survey is on financial federalism and national integrating in Nigeria. But due to the fact that the history of financial federalism is big and broad. While there are several grounds that financial decentalisation has been adopted around the universe.

Established federations in developed states have been the traditional focal point of political research on financial federalism. However the function of financial federalism as a agency to further growing and development has been questioned in recent literature. Much of the new literature points out that decentalisation can be unsafe. This survey is hence. This is the decentalisation of the administrative system designed to get by with the size. Fiscal Federalism:. The division of the taxing and expenditure maps among degrees of authorities National Development:The measure by measure method and procedure of specifying.

National integrating:National integrating is the consciousness of a common individuality amongst the citizens of a state. It means that though we belong to different castes. This sort of integrating is really of import in the edifice of a strong and comfortable state. Integrity:An undivided or unbroken completeness or entirety with nil desiring to interrupt off. Cardinal Goverment:This is non merely the first but the mega-government which exercise sole powers and its superior to both the State and Local Governments. Goverment:This is the bureau of the opinion category which is charged with the duty of exerting the province powers on behalf of the people.

Aims are hierarchal in nature and are determined or formulated after economic societal and political forces impacting the organisation have been appraised. Development:It is the qualitative and qualities. It means the remotion of obstructions to the imperfect or qualitative transmutation of adult male and such obstructions include hungriness. Administration:Administration is determined action taken in chase of witting intent. It is the systematic ordination of personal businesss and the deliberate usage of resources. It is the marshalling of available labor and stuffs in order to derive that which is desired at the lowest cost in energy.

Understanding Nigerian Government and Politics 2nd erectile dysfunction. Gofaflesh Publications. Issues in Nigerian Government and Politicss: Ibadan. Rex Charles Publications. Spectrum Books Limited. Issues in Federalism: Ethiope Printing Coorporation. Ringing Road. Benin City. Observations on Nigerian Federalism in Elaigwu. Nigeria the Way Forward. Arthur H. Stockwell Limited.

Federal Republic of Nigeria Federal Government Printer. Politics and Economic Development of Nigeria: Boulder. West View Press. Carl Federalism and Opposition in Government Vol 1 adopted from Dare. Positions on Federalism in Akinyen. Reading on Federalism: Lagos. A presentation at the first twelvemonth anniversary talk of Mustapha Akanbi Foundation.

Human Right Watch Joseph R. Spectrum Books. Kincaid J. The Journal of Federalism: intl publius. Federalism in Nigeria: Political Surveies. Gaetano The Governing Class. Kahn: New York. Fiscal Federalism The Nigerian Experience. Paper delivered at the meeting on Fiscal Policy and Growth in Africa. ISBN alk. C Visit www. During this class I learned about the geopolitical theories of individuals such as Halford Mackinder and Friedrich Ratzel along with concepts such as heartland, rimland, Eurasia, and the Great Game.

This knowledge base has helped me immensely as I pursued studies and an academic career incorporating history, library science, and political science. Lawrence and Thames rivers and Sydney Harbor. I also want to thank my teachers from elementary school through higher education who have inspired and exhorted me to achieve educational excellence and promote lifelong learning. This page intentionally left blank Introduction Personal and national economic health, prosperity, and physical security are profoundly affected by geography.

The U. Political unrest and instability in one country or region can have profound effects throughout the world, as crisis regions such as Afghanistan, Egypt, North Korea, and Somalia demonstrate. Jet air travel makes it possible for us to reach most areas of the world in a few hours, including Australia, as I found out during my summer vacation. This expedited travel and transportation also makes it possible to transmit human diseases germs globally and invasive species to unfamiliar ecosystems with serious public health and environmental consequences. However, these technological advances do not alter the climactic, ethnographic, geographical, and sociopolitical realities of conducting naval 2 Geopolitics and military operations in areas as diverse as the South China Sea, the U.

Geopolitics is now a multifaceted topic essential for understanding the multifaceted ways geography and human behavior have shaped and continue shaping historical, current, and emerging international political and security matters. Classical geopolitics, which this writer adheres to, incorporates traditional methodological emphases of this subject as embodied by practitioners such as Halford Mackinder — and Alfred Thayer Mahan — Geopolitics is dynamic, not static. Technology and the infusion of capital can modify, though not negate, the strategic importance of a particular geographic space. While it places particular stress on geographic space as a critically important strategic factor and source of power, it recognizes that geography is only a part of the totality of global phenomena.

This perspective, which is leftist in ideological orientation, seeks to challenge traditional geopolitical interpretations. We also must become more aware of the multiple cultural, economic, historical, military, and political developments and grievances in other countries and global regions and how they can affect our security and living standards in an increasingly globalized and interconnected multipolar world. Enhancements in geographic and geopolitical education must stress the importance of knowing how to correctly read and interpret maps. This includes not just traditional highway maps of cities and states or political maps of countries. Geopolitics: A Guide to the Issues seeks to introduce students, scholars, and curious readers to the burgeoning literature of geopolitics and how this multidisciplinary subject can enhance their understanding of historical, contemporary, and emerging international diplomatic, economic, environmental, and security developments.

It begins with a 20th-century historical overview of global geopolitics and describes some of the individuals shaping this discipline and their key works and ideas. Notes 1. Colin S. Saul B. Cohen, Geography and Politics in a World Divided, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, : 29— Leslie W. October : S21—S De Blij, Why Geography Matters, See George A. It is also an interdisciplinary subject encompassing topics such as demographic movement, economic development, land use, and natural resource distribution.

Numerous individuals were involved in developing German geopolitical thought, including Karl Haushofer — and Friedrich Ratzel — Key factors prompting renewed interests in geopolitics include bipolar cold war U. A world increasingly connected by transportation; instantaneous communication systems such as the Internet; and increasingly interlocked economic, environmental, and military-strategic interactions made it impossible for engaged citizens to ignore geography as an increasingly critical factor in personal, national, and international economics and security.

He goes on to maintain: We all must learn to think like Victorians. Geographical determinists must be seated at the same honored table as liberal humanists, thereby merging the analogies of Vietnam and Munich. Embracing the dictates and limitations of geography will be especially hard for Americans, who like to think that no constraint, natural or otherwise, applies to them. But denying the facts of geography only invites disasters that, in turn, make us victims of geography. He served as director of the American Geographical Society and was responsible for assembling cartographic and geographical data used by Woodrow Wilson at the Versailles Peace Conference.

Additional professional honors Bowman also received included his election to the National Academy of Sciences and becoming president of the Johns Hopkins University in Land settlement was one of his areas of scholarly expertise, and his prominent writings on this and other geopolitical subjects include The New World , Geography in Relation to the Social Sciences , and The Limits of Land Settlement: A Report on Present-Day Possibilities , along with articles examining the relationships between geopolitics, political geography, and power. He criticized early cold war containment policy as being excessively defensive in The Coming Defeat of Communism and Containment or Liberation?

Corbett became a history lecturer at the Royal Naval College in Greenwich in and published England in the Mediterranean, — , which was a comprehensive analysis of naval strategy. Additional Corbett books include England in the Seven Years War , Some Principles of Maritime Strategy , Maritime Operations in the Russo-Japanese War 2 volumes; , and a three-volume analysis of World War I naval battles titled Naval Operations — , in which he had to mute his criticisms of British strategy and tactics at the Battle of Jutland due to their political sensitivity.

He favored using British sea power in a limited way, recognizing the limits it placed on its user during wartime. Corbett saw military history as an intrinsic part of national history and international politics dating back to the Elizabethan age and, 11 12 Geopolitics like Alfred Thayer Mahan, considered sea power synonymous with national power. These sentiments were articulated in The Decline of Europe and other works. Goblet considered geopolitics to be a subtle and complex subject and that theories must be based on rigorously examined existing conditions.

He wanted to keep international relations analysis grounded in concrete reality and proposed developing new and more sophisticated geopolitical analysis techniques to resolve international problems. His works, including Twilight of Treaties , condemned German geopolitics for wrong ideas of geographical determinism that treated nations as metaphysical beings, and he believed that its proponents were modern History of Geopolitics and Biographies of Key Personalities alchemists who added somber fanaticism to their ideas.

Goblet also wrote Political Geography and the World Map and was very interested in Irish geopolitics, on which he wrote extensively. His interests in regionalism and small states rights became increasingly irrelevant in the bipolar post—World War II European security environment. His geopolitical thinking, articulated in works such as Brazilian Geopolitics , saw Golbery advocate exclusive Brazilian leadership in South America. Golbery distrusted neighboring Spanish-speaking countries, such as Argentina, Colombia, and Peru, which he believed wanted to encircle Brazil. Golbery believed Brazil could not escape from the U. He incorporated insights from Mackinder and Mahan into his writings and is an example of how geopolitics played an important role in Brazilian foreign and national security policy making during an era when it was deemphasized in U.

In , Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev — appointed him to lead the Soviet Navy and to implement nuclear weapons into this force and its doctrine. Gorshkov began this process and is also best known for transforming the Soviet Navy from a coastal force to a blue water maritime striking power with aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines capable of challenging U. Gorshkov wrote about his geopolitical philosophy in works such as Red Star Rising at Sea and Seapower of the State as well as various articles in the journal Military Thought.

He wanted to achieve parity with U. Guglialmelli also believed Argentina should develop nuclear weapons if Brazil did; that the United States would support Brazil in any dispute with Argentina; and that advocates of free trade and capitalism from Brazilian, British, and U. He believed there was an Eurasian continental block stretching from Germany through Russia to Japan that Germany could use to conduct a land power—oriented foreign policy against maritime nations such as France and the United Kingdom, and he argued for building such an alliance in Having spent time in Japan between and , Haushofer also admired that country and its politicians.

He increasingly began seeing sea power as an important element in his geopolitical Weltanschauung, and his thought and writings would divide the earth into three north-south regions with a core and periphery and Arctic, temperate, and tropical environments. He was an assiduous promoter of geographic education and favored strengthening the British Empire by granting preferential trading rights to countries and territories within the empire. His geopolitical writings began with Britain and the British Seas , which showed the strategic and imperial implications of the British Isles physical location and natural resource endowment.

This work was written hastily for the Versailles Conference and expanded his geographical pivot ideas. Analyzing the weakness of the emerging postwar order, he contended that power was becoming centralized in large states and that mass political movements were emerging but that populations would be susceptible to manipulation by organizers controlling state machinery. He favored creating new nation-states from the defeated German and Austro-Hungarian empires but saw that countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland would be vulnerable to aggression and subversion from Germany and Russia.

It also supported national self-determination and the League of Nations and established the concept of the Heartland, which included all of Eastern Europe, and that Germany and Russia would vie for control of this region, contending that 1. However, it received more detailed scrutiny in Germany, where Haushofer approved of it and advocated a German-Soviet alliance to defeat maritime powers such as the United Kingdom and the United States. Hitler, though, did not see the Soviet Union as an ally but as a region to be plundered for its resources. He can be praised for being a pioneer in attempting to establish and communicate a reasonably coherent geopolitical theory of international politics and economics.

Some critics see him as an apologist for the British Empire and for what they regard as Western imperialism. Naval Academy in and served on blockade and shoreline duty during the Civil War, despite being susceptible to seasickness. He gradually rose through the ranks and was promoted to captain in This work contained no illuminating strategic insights but demonstrated his writing ability and was noticed in by Stephen B.

Luce — , who was the founder and president of the newly opened U. It asserted that naval and merchant marine assets were the primary reasons England, France, Holland, and Spain won wars, permitting them to seize overseas colonies, eliminate enemy access to these colonies, and exploit their natural resources. The publication timing of these works also proved fortuitous as European powers were dissecting Africa and, along with Japan, had similar objectives for China and East Asia. Expansionist-oriented Americans such as Secretary of State John Hay — , Senator Henry Cabot 19 20 Geopolitics Lodge — , and Theodore Roosevelt — read this work and asserted that the United States would be economically and politically disadvantaged internationally until it abandoned its post—Civil War isolationism.

These individuals went on to argue that the United States should increase its agricultural and industrial exports to overseas markets such as the Far East and would gradually come to advocate larger U. A prodigious literary output would emanate from Mahan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including works such as Lessons of the War with Spain He also sought to promote geographic education in all levels of Chilean society and emphasized Chilean claims in Antarctica.

This work saw him introduce the concept of 21 22 Geopolitics lebensraum to German political discourse and present what he considered seven laws on state growth: 1. State space increases with cultural growth. Territorial growth follows other developmental aspects. A state grows by absorbing other, smaller units. States seek to absorb politically valuable territory as they grow. Tendencies toward territorial growth increase as they pass from state to state.

De Seversky — Seversky was a Russian American naval aviator who played a critical role in publicizing how airpower transformed national security and militarily extended the geographic reach and striking power of national militaries. He initially came to the United States on a military mission in , where he defected and became an advisor to military aviation pioneer Billy Mitchell — In the early s, he began publicizing the potential for American military victory through air power and long-range aircraft, which he articulated in Victory through Air Power His argument stressed using polar projection to enhance global U.

In later works, such as Air Power: Key to Survival and America: Too Young to Die , he argued that whoever gained control History of Geopolitics and Biographies of Key Personalities of airspace overlapping Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, and North America could achieve global dominance and that the United States needed to make its heartland an invincible base so it could project offensive power to all corners of the world.

Seversky criticized the importance of armies and navies and was a tireless advocate of air power, although he exaggerated the extent of its effectiveness. Nevertheless, he helped expand geopolitics to a subject that must include the application and projection of aerospace power along with land and maritime power. His key philosophical tenet was that U. He believed that the Old World and New World were the two principal geographical entities in international politics. Spykman asserted that the Old World included the Eurasian continent, Africa, Australia, and smaller offshore islands adjacent to these areas and that the New World included the Americas in the western hemisphere.

Spykman contended that the New World was not a cohesive alliance but that it was dominated by the United States, and if one state achieved dominance in the Old World and acquired and mobilized eastern hemisphere human power and resources, it could threaten the United States and western hemisphere. Consequently, he believed U. His description of the Old World went on to divide it into four geographical features. Consequently, he believed the United States should project its power in the Rimland to prevent the expansion of a states or alliance of states such as the Soviet Union and believed that Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom would be critical U.

His professional contacts brought him in contact with Isaiah Bowman, and he eventually became an international relations professor at the University of Pennsylvania and a research chief for a Roosevelt administration project on refugee affairs and natural resources. These contacts gave him the opportunity to work closely with eventual secretary of state Dean Acheson — and with Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal — FPRI is now independent of this university, but one of its enduring publications is the scholarly journal Orbis, established in He also served as U. He concluded his career at FPRI and began writing on geopolitical issues such as urging improved relations with Russia to curtail China; advocating enhanced U.

His background was in history and classics, and he saw geography as being a synthesis and a unifying discipline whose objective should be studying the creative relationship between humans and their environment. Vidal de la Bache was particularly interested in regional synthesis and the geographic roles played by pays, or country. He believed that the interaction of civilization and milieu produced ways of live which he believed were the foundations of human geography.

In works such as France and the East and Principles of Human Geography , he recognized the importance of political factors in shaping human landscapes and argued that political geography or geopolitics was best understood within a wider human geographic context. He went on to view provinces in a wider European context, was concerned about the potential for German 25 26 Geopolitics continental hegemony, and ultimately believed transnational groups should substitute for sovereign states in conducting international affairs.

See Klaus Dodds and David Atkinson, eds. Brian W. Robert D. See Geoffrey J. See Francis P. History of Geopolitics and Biographies of Key Personalities See Donald M. Schurman, Julian S. Hattendorf, eds. See David M. Washington, DC: U. Navy, : 11—22; Ronald J. Kelly, Checkerboards and Shatterbelts, 96— See Donald H. See Brian W. Anthony J. See Richard W. John A. Garraty and Mark C. See Stephen M.

Berkeley: University of California Press, : See Woodruff D. See Geoffrey R. It will emphasize recent history along with current and emerging geopolitical practices and trends. Although its initial primary nonindigenous settlers were British convicts, Australia has become a multicultural Anglocentric parliamentary democracy with historical legacy ties to the United Kingdom, critically important economic and security ties to the United States, and growing trade ties and security interests with countries as diverse as China, Indonesia, and other Oceanic island states.

All these 30 Geopolitics combine to make maritime security particularly important in determining Australian economic and strategic interests. It remains a close security partner with the United States, having participated in military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, hosts U. It has a growing but challenging security partnership with Indonesia based on concerns over Islamist terrorism and is heavily dependent on natural resources trade with China.

There is considerable and evolving debate within the Australian governmental and strategic communities as to whether it should be an Asian-oriented nation or continue orienting its security ties primarily toward the United States. The document reviews how international security developments such as terrorism, regional tensions in the Middle East, and the buildup of conventional forces in northeast Asia may affect Canadian security interests.

Retreating ice cover has opened the way for increased shipping, tourism, and resource exploitation, and new transportation routes are being considered, including through the Northwest Passage. These changes in the Arctic could also spark an increase in illegal activity, with important implications for Canadian sovereignty and security and a potential requirement for additional military support.

Its international power strengthened after the Communist revolution and after developing nuclear weapons in the s. Some foreign policy observers also believe the Chinese-dominated Shanghai Cooperation Organization seeks to create a security architecture 33 34 Geopolitics antithetical to U. China also seeks to challenge U. It also possesses a wide variety of geopolitical challenges, including its relationships with Pakistan and their bilateral dispute over Kashmir; relationships with China, Afghanistan, Tibet, Bangladesh, and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC ; and hydropolitics concerns with neighboring countries over rivers such as the Ganges and Indus.

India has increased its security cooperation with Singapore. The Indian Navy has made port visits to countries such as Japan, the Philippines, South Korea, Selected Countries and Their Geopolitical Practices and Vietnam; conducted a Malabar training exercise with Australia, Japan, Singapore, and the United States; and may adopt its own version of the Monroe Doctrine to ensure that no hostile power or combination of powers restricts its access to the Indian Ocean. Consequently, India may seek to enhance its naval forces and presence in this body of water thousands of miles beyond the subcontinent in subsequent decades.

The United States began a comprehensive partnership with Indonesia in , and Defense Secretary Robert Gates met his Indonesian counterpart in Singapore on June 4, , to discuss ways of enhancing this relationship. It conducts intelligence operations against a wide variety of enemies and in received international opprobrium for its secret service Mossad falsifying the passports of civilians from countries as diverse as Australia, France, and the United Kingdom in order to kill a Hamas terrorist leader in Dubai. Israel faces continual challenges maintaining its national security from Palestinian terrorist attacks originating in Gaza, the West Bank, and Lebanon. Such attacks have compelled Israel to build an internationally controversial wall to prevent unauthorized individuals from entering Israel.

It also has had to impose an economic blockade on Gaza to prevent arms shipments from being smuggled into that community by Iran and terrorist organizations such as Hamas to be used in attacks against Israel. It has also conducted military operations in Lebanon against Iranian-supported groups such as Hezbollah. At the same time, Japan has been reluctant to use its general economic prosperity to promote expanded military power as a result of its defeat in World War II and its postwar constitution prohibiting Japanese defense forces from engaging in operations other than self-defense.

Consequently, it has depended on the United States for most of its national security requirements. This document goes on to stress that Japan is not interested in becoming a nuclear military power; that it will retain civilian control of the military; that it will commit to peaceful uses of space while also increasing its C4ISR capabilities; that it will strengthen its maritime security and antipiracy capabilities; and that it will continue the long-standing practice of keeping its defense expenditures at less than 1 percent GDP.

Russian geopolitics, whether it is under Vladimir Putin, Dmitri Medvedev, or some other leader, will be torn between factions advocating these perspectives and various intermediate viewpoints. Russia will likely seek to prevent the deployment of an expanded U. Britain lost its empire in the wake of the costs of two world wars and granting independence to most of its former colonies.

Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow. Navy and ensuring that no power or combination of powers could dominate Europe or other critical global regions such as India and the Middle East to endanger British national interests. Britain has used these principles to promote its highest national ideals, commercial interests, and national survival at considerable cost in blood and treasure throughout the centuries with differing degrees of emphasis, regardless of the political preferences of its governments. Conservative and Labour governments have had to face criticism that they are to subservient to U. These issues will also continue and impact emerging concerns, including determining how to integrate its growing Muslim population, which has shown radical tendencies, as demonstrated by the July 7, , London mass transit bombings, and Selected Countries and Their Geopolitical Practices advocacy by some radical British Muslims of turning Britain into an Islamic state.

These strategists and policy makers would also debate when and if U. In , the George W. Bush administration released its controversial national security strategy that advocated taking preemptive action against potential military threats; working collaboratively with nations and international law as needed but being willing to 43 44 Geopolitics take unilateral action if necessary; stressing the dangers of weapons of mass destruction terrorism; emphasizing that key international cultural and normative differences remain between countries despite globalization; and advocating the expansion of democracy as the best means of enhancing U. It has its supporters, who praise its recognition of what they see as an astute understanding of emerging geopolitical realities, and critics, who contend it has bogged down the United States in costly Middle Eastern wars that have weakened our economy, cost innocent lives, damaged U.

Debate over appropriate global U. See J. Howe Institute, ; Brian S. MacDonald and David S. McDonough, eds. What Is at Stake? Too Much? To Little? Or Just Right? Mark A. Selected Countries and Their Geopolitical Practices See Bernard D. Securities: Implications for the U. Department of Defense, : 31; and U. Peter C. Department of Energy, ; and U. Christopher J. See Kam C. See Toshi Yoshihara and James R. Two Possible Scenarios to Singapore: S.

Kocs, Autonomy or Power? Melanie C. Greenburg, John H. Barton, and Margaret E. See Francis T. Maull, ed. See Graham P. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, See Ibid. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia since c. See Michael B. See Stephen D. Robert O. Farquahar, ed. Mike M. See ibid. See William E. Rapp, Paths Diverging? The Next Decade in the U. The vast literature on potential trends in Russian geopolitics includes William C. Navias, and Nicholas J. See Ira Katznelson and Martin Shefter, eds. See Joseph S. See Samuel P. Flanagan, Ellen L. Frost, and Richard L. Interests Westport, CT: Praeger, Cronon, ed. Shows Its Power to N. Echevarria II, ed. This is what must be our guide and inform our newly rediscovered realism. It makes no attempt to propose solutions to these problems and is not necessarily comprehensive.

However, it seeks to introduce readers to the issues involved and direct them to other resources in this book and on the Internet that provide more detailed analysis and statistics on these areas. Afghanistan is located next to geopolitically contentious areas such as Iran, Pakistan, and central Asian republics such as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

These resources include large amounts of copper, iron, gold, and lithium, which are concentrated in areas such as Ghazni Province near Pakistan, and have been the scene of intense combat between ISAF forces and the Taliban. Geological Survey] mean estimate. The high costs and long lead-times of Arctic oil and natural gas development undercut the immediate importance of these sovereignty claims, while at the same time diminishing the economic incentive to develop these resources. The most recent Canadian defense policy document maintains that its forces will be resourced and equipped to have the ability conduct daily domestic and continental operations in the Arctic to monitor air and maritime threats to national security and demonstrate a visible presence in this resource-rich region.

Canada contends it is in Canadian territorial waters. However, the United States and European Union EU contend the passage should be considered part of international waters. Countries surrounding the Caspian Sea include Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan, and additional countries seeking access to its mineral resources and control of the infrastructure transporting these resources include Afghanistan, Armenia, China, EU countries, Georgia, India, Pakistan, Turkey, the United States, and Uzbekistan. This country also has an unresolved boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan, an Isfara Valley boundary dispute with Tajikistan, a similar dispute with Uzbekistan and serves as a partial cultivation and supply source for cannabis and opium for neighboring countries and as a transit point for southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and Europe.

It is doing this without imposing political democratization, economic development, and human rights conditions often imposed by Western countries. These relationships continued to develop after movements like ZANU came to power. China has also sought to develop energy, transportation, and military ties with countries as diverse as Algeria, Angola, Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, and Zimbabwe. Along with increased U. Beijing has sought to use economic aid to convince some Latin American countries to end diplomatic relations with Taiwan and begin relations with Beijing.

It is also interested in the oil resources possessed by Ecuador and Venezuela, expanding its trade relationships with regional countries, with particular emphasis on enhancing ties with Cuba and acquiring properties in the Panama Canal region. There are also Chinese nationals living in the border region of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, with some of these potentially being involved in import-export fraud and human smuggling. How these Chinese activities in Latin America play out, particularly if there are security crises affecting U. These disruptions may be due to political instability in supplier countries but are especially due to long sea lines of communication. China is building strategic relationships and developing a capability to establish a forward presence along the sea lines of communications SLOCs that connect China to the Middle East.

In the ensuing six decades, there have been near military confrontations between these two countries that were deterred by the threat of U. The most recent of these was in , when U. Some cross-straits trade and cultural exchanges occur between these two countries, and Taiwanese domestic politics involves a balancing act between those who favor maintaining the status quo and those who think Taiwan should declare independence from China even if that risks possible Chinese military invasion.

The proximity of these countries to neighboring countries such as Japan and to U. This criticality has also made individual Internet nodes, particularly those built and maintained by government agencies, vulnerable to hostile attacks from disgruntled individuals, criminal and other terrorist groups, and hostile military and intelligence agencies. Countries like China and North Korea are particularly interested in using asymmetric means of warfare such as cyberwarfare to exploit the vulnerabilities of countries such as the United States as a means of achieving economic, political, and security objectives they would be unable to achieve with conventional military assets. Countries experiencing rapid economic growth such as China and India are looking overseas to access resources they need to maintain and expand their economic opportunities.

Highly economically developed countries such as the United States and other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD countries seek to maintain their economic growth and access to resources at a time of global economic downturn in order to avoid reducing their economic growth, national living standards, and creating political dissension or unrest within their countries. This can cause internecine strife within these countries that is often ethnically based and make them vulnerable to foreign intervention and exploitation such as supporting rebel groups or pirates in the case of Somalia, becoming support bases for terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and increasing their susceptibility to natural and human-caused disasters that may require neighboring states or the international community to intervene.

Other examples of failed states may include Afghanistan, Bolivia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor, North Korea, Yemen, and Zimbabwe, depending on the methodologies used to classify failed states. This often creates great controversy and expense for these sanctuary countries. These countries have different laws and customs for dealing with illegal immigrants and their smugglers and have interest groups supporting and opposing the admission of illegal immigrants. This has been accelerated by technological advances, making it easier for people to travel and conduct business internationally, and by telecommunication advances such as the Internet.

Globalization opponents maintain that there are individuals, groups, and countries that cannot function successfully in an increasingly competitive global economic environment, which can include some labor and business organizations and farm groups. Antiglobalization protests, which can become violent, are regular occurrences at most international political and economic gatherings such as the G20 summits. This can occur through civilian jet airplane travel, international trade cargos, and the deployment of military forces into areas where these forces are not immunized against local diseases.

Consequently, 65 66 Geopolitics world governments and military forces must develop and implement effective epidemiological practices into their policies and operational planning as they interact with other countries and military forces. The countries fought a war in the Himalayan Mountains that resulted in India losing some territory. Both countries have border disputes over the Kashmir region. Pakistan has traditionally had closer diplomatic and security ties with China, while India, after initially having close ties with the former Soviet Union, has increased its ties with the United States, including increasing its economic and security collaboration with the United States through a bilateral nuclear agreement giving India access to nuclear fuel and technology, including reprocessing U.

Balancing its relationships with India and Pakistan and helping these countries build secure nuclear deterrence and command and control structures are ongoing mission critical objectives of U. Its aspirations to achieve nuclear weapons have produced acute concern within the broader international community but have only produced modest rhetorical condemnation and sanctions of questionable economic effect. It has also sought to build ties with opponents of U. Its failure to genuinely cooperate with international efforts to monitor and determine the exact status of its nuclear programs may eventually result in military attacks against this arsenal by the United States or Israel, which would cause tremendous regional instability and threaten oil supplies from this critical strategic region.

Such growing Islamist activism has generated countervailing responses from many European countries. This issue will affect European domestic politics and foreign relations with Islamic countries for the foreseeable future. Israel believes it is entitled to its existence under international law and as part of its religious beliefs. Various diplomatic negotiations involving the United States, EU, United Nations, and some regional Arab countries have achieved mixed results. Israel has remained the target of missile attacks from Iraniansupported groups such as Hamas in the Palestinian-held city of Gaza, and Israel has build a fence separating its territory from Palestinian territory on the West Bank of the Jordan River to prevent terrorist attacks inside Israel.

The May—June controversy involving an Israeli raid on a Turkish boat carrying what it said was humanitarian assistance to Gaza has exacerbated an already strained relationship and created domestic contentiousness in Israel and an international uproar, despite there being a history of arms smuggling to Gaza-based Palestinian terrorist groups. This will remain a front-burner issue in Middle Eastern geopolitics for the foreseeable future. This problem became particularly visible to Americans when the U. The captain was taken hostage before U. On April 14, , the U. This maritime piracy resurgence has resulted in increased international intelligence sharing and cooperation in conducting antipiracy measures. Concern over attacks on its shipping prompted China to send a naval mission to the Gulf of Aden in late to participate in international antipiracy interdiction activities, which continue to the present.

The United States has stepped up its efforts in this area as well as working to develop measures to protect domestic ports and maritime assets from terrorist attack, and governments worldwide have sought to obtain United Nations legal authorization to step up their antipiracy efforts, including determining appropriate rules of engagement. This phenomenon has also occurred in other Latin American countries such as El Salvador and Brazil as well as in Caribbean countries such as Jamaica. A U. Its putative objective is to neutralize, control, or depose governments to ensure self-determined nondemocratic ends.

It has also spread to the United States as many of these gangs have become involved in the U. Some of these gangs are also involved in human smuggling across the U. National Guard units in the Mexican border region. However, the failure to effectively defeat this violence will have also have serious domestic U. Local antagonism toward the Nigerian government and multinational petroleum companies has resulted in attacks on the production infrastructure and employees of these organizations requiring armed security and escort of these commodities. Oil theft by government and petroleum company opponents produces pipeline damage that severely reduces or stops production and increases pollution.

Consequently, any disruptions in the Nigerian production process will have international impact. More than 1. South Korea is a highly developed economy with a strong military and has provided some economic assistance to North Korea. However, there was never a peace treaty ending the — Korean War, and a sometimes tenuous armistice and the presence of U. Any war between these two countries would also involve the United States and affect regional countries such as China, Japan, and Russia in multiple ways, such as the security of their energy supplies, and leave enduring physical and psychic damage on the peninsula and within the region.

Varying analyses provide divergent viewpoints on how to deal with this geopolitical hot spot. These countries supply oil to the U. In , an estimated If the Persian Gulf is closed off, alternative oil and natural gas delivery would have to occur through pipelines crossing Saudi Arabia to the Red Sea or to Turkey through Iraq. Consequently, this region has been a major focus of U. During , EU member countries received 34 percent of their oil imports from Russia and Moscow is particularly interested in getting the domestic economic, foreign policies, and national security policies of these countries and regions to harmonize with Russian Federation policy and to not be seen as collaborating with hostile Western or American economic, foreign, and national security policies toward Russia.

These examples of increased Russian assertiveness will test the viability of Western security architecture, including the NATO alliance. More than 15 million barrels of oil go through this strait per day, over 50, vessels each year, and its narrowest point is 1.

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