Meaning Of 2001 A Space Odyssey

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Meaning Of 2001 A Space Odyssey

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2001 A Space Odyssey explained by an idiot

After completing Dr. Strangelove , director Stanley Kubrick became fascinated by the possibility of extraterrestrial life , [8] and resolved to make "the proverbial good science fiction movie". According to his biographer John Baxter , despite their "clumsy model sequences, the films were often well-photographed in colour MGM had subcontracted the production of the film to Kubrick's production company in order to qualify for the Eady Levy , a UK tax on box-office receipts used at the time to fund the production of films in Britain. Kubrick's decision to avoid the fanciful portrayals of space found in standard popular science fiction films of the time led him to seek more realistic and accurate depictions of space travel.

Illustrators such as Chesley Bonestell , Roy Carnon, and Richard McKenna were hired to produce concept drawings, sketches, and paintings of the space technology seen in the film. Kubrick also asked Universe co-director Colin Low about animation camerawork, with Low recommending British mathematician Brian Salt, with whom Low and Roman Kroitor had previously worked on the still-animation documentary City of Gold. It was filmed in Cinerama and shown in the "Moon Dome". Searching for a collaborator in the science fiction community for the writing of the script, Kubrick was advised by a mutual acquaintance, Columbia Pictures staffer Roger Caras , to talk to writer Arthur C.

Clarke , who lived in Ceylon. Although convinced that Clarke was "a recluse, a nut who lives in a tree", Kubrick allowed Caras to cable the film proposal to Clarke. Clarke's cabled response stated that he was "frightfully interested in working with [that] enfant terrible ", and added "what makes Kubrick think I'm a recluse? Kubrick told Clarke he wanted to make a film about "Man's relationship to the universe", [23] and was, in Clarke's words, "determined to create a work of art which would arouse the emotions of wonder, awe In search of more material to expand the film's plot, the two spent the rest of reading books on science and anthropology, screening science fiction films, and brainstorming ideas.

Expressing his high expectations for the thematic importance which he associated with the film, in April , eleven months after they began working on the project, Kubrick selected A Space Odyssey ; Clarke said the title was "entirely" Kubrick's idea. Kubrick said, "It occurred to us that for the Greeks the vast stretches of the sea must have had the same sort of mystery and remoteness that space has for our generation. How much would we appreciate La Gioconda today if Leonardo had written at the bottom of the canvas: "This lady is smiling slightly because she has rotten teeth" — or "because she's hiding a secret from her lover"?

It would shut off the viewer's appreciation and shackle him to a reality other than his own. I don't want that to happen to Originally, Kubrick and Clarke had planned to develop a novel first, free of the constraints of film, and then write the screenplay. Clarke, based on a novel by Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick" to reflect their preeminence in their respective fields. In a interview, Kubrick said:. There are a number of differences between the book and the movie. The novel, for example, attempts to explain things much more explicitly than the film does, which is inevitable in a verbal medium. The novel came about after we did a page prose treatment of the film at the very outset. Arthur took all the existing material, plus an impression of some of the rushes, and wrote the novel.

As a result, there's a difference between the novel and the film I think that the divergences between the two works are interesting. In the end, Clarke and Kubrick wrote parts of the novel and screenplay simultaneously, with the film version being released before the book version was published. Clarke opted for clearer explanations of the mysterious monolith and Star Gate in the novel; Kubrick made the film more cryptic by minimising dialogue and explanation. The screenplay credits were shared whereas the novel, released shortly after the film, was attributed to Clarke alone.

Clarke wrote later that "the nearest approximation to the complicated truth" is that the screenplay should be credited to "Kubrick and Clarke" and the novel to "Clarke and Kubrick". But they felt it would be disloyal to accept Kubrick's offer. Clarke, and the Making of a Masterpiece , the actual relation between Clarke and Kubrick was more complex, involving an extended interaction of Kubrick's multiple requests for Clarke to write new plot lines for various segments of the film, which Clarke was expected to withhold from publication until after the release of the film while receiving advances on his salary from Kubrick during film production.

Clarke agreed to this, though apparently he did make several requests for Kubrick to allow him to develop his new plot lines into separate publishable stories while film production continued, which Kubrick consistently denied on the basis of Clarke's contractual obligation to withhold publication until release of the film. Astronomer Carl Sagan wrote in his book The Cosmic Connection that Clarke and Kubrick had asked him how to best depict extraterrestrial intelligence.

While acknowledging Kubrick's desire to use actors to portray humanoid aliens for convenience's sake, Sagan argued that alien life forms were unlikely to bear any resemblance to terrestrial life, and that to do so would introduce "at least an element of falseness" to the film. Sagan proposed that the film should simply suggest extraterrestrial superintelligence , rather than depict it. He attended the premiere and was "pleased to see that I had been of some help. It was unlikely that Sagan's advice had any direct influence. In a interview not released during Kubrick's lifetime , Kubrick explains one of the film's closing scenes, where Bowman is depicted in old age after his journey through the Star Gate:.

The idea was supposed to be that he is taken in by godlike entities, creatures of pure energy and intelligence with no shape or form. They put him in what I suppose you could describe as a human zoo to study him, and his whole life passes from that point on in that room. And he has no sense of time. We have to only guess what happens when he goes back. It is the pattern of a great deal of mythology, and that is what we were trying to suggest. The script went through many stages. In early , when backing was secured for the film, Clarke and Kubrick still had no firm idea of what would happen to Bowman after the Star Gate sequence. Initially all of Discovery ' s astronauts were to survive the journey; by 3 October, Clarke and Kubrick had decided to make Bowman the sole survivor and have him regress to infancy.

By 17 October, Kubrick had come up with what Clarke called a "wild idea of slightly fag robots who create a Victorian environment to put our heroes at their ease. Early drafts included a prologue containing interviews with scientists about extraterrestrial life, [41] voice-over narration a feature in all of Kubrick's previous films , [a] a stronger emphasis on the prevailing Cold War balance of terror , and a different and more explicitly explained breakdown for HAL. Kubrick made further changes to make the film more nonverbal, to communicate on a visual and visceral level rather than through conventional narrative.

What dialogue remains is notable for its banality making the computer HAL seem to have more emotion than the humans when juxtaposed with the epic space scenes. In January , the production moved to the smaller MGM-British Studios in Borehamwood , where the live-action and special-effects filming was done, starting with the scenes involving Floyd on the Orion spaceplane; [48] it was described as a "huge throbbing nerve center A small elevated platform was built in a field near the studio so that the camera could shoot upward with the sky as background, avoiding cars and trucks passing by in the distance.

Filming of actors was completed in September , [55] and from June until March , Kubrick spent most of his time working on the special-effects shots in the film. Although this technique, known as "held takes", resulted in a much better image, it meant exposed film would be stored for long periods of time between shots, sometimes as long as a year. The film was announced in as a " Cinerama " [57] film and was photographed in Super Panavision 70 which uses a 65 mm negative combined with spherical lenses to create an aspect ratio of 2.

It would eventually be released in a limited " roadshow " Cinerama version, then in 70 mm and 35 mm versions. For the opening sequence involving tribes of apes, professional mime Daniel Richter played the lead ape and choreographed the movements of the other man-apes, who were mostly portrayed by his mime troupe. An earlier version of the film, which was edited before it was publicly screened, included a painting class on the lunar base that included Kubrick's daughters, additional scenes of life on the base, and Floyd buying a bush baby for his daughter from a department store via videophone. Kubrick's rationale for editing the film was to tighten the narrative.

Reviews suggested the film suffered from its departure from traditional cinematic storytelling. The people who like it like it no matter what its length, and the same holds true for the people who hate it. According to his brother-in-law, Jan Harlan , Kubrick was adamant that the trims were never to be seen and had the negatives, which he had kept in his garage, burned shortly before his death. This was confirmed by former Kubrick assistant Leon Vitali : "I'll tell you right now, okay, on Clockwork Orange , The Shining , Barry Lyndon , some little parts of , we had thousands of cans of negative outtakes and print, which we had stored in an area at his house where we worked out of, which he personally supervised the loading of it to a truck and then I went down to a big industrial waste lot and burned it.

That's what he wanted. From early in production, Kubrick decided that he wanted the film to be a primarily nonverbal experience [69] that did not rely on the traditional techniques of narrative cinema, and in which music would play a vital role in evoking particular moods. About half the music in the film appears either before the first line of dialogue or after the final line. Almost no music is heard during scenes with dialogue. The film is notable for its innovative use of classical music taken from existing commercial recordings.

Most feature films, then and now, are typically accompanied by elaborate film scores or songs written specially for them by professional composers. In the early stages of production, Kubrick commissioned a score for from Hollywood composer Alex North , who had written the score for Spartacus and also had worked on Dr. North did not learn that his score had been abandoned until he saw the film's premiere. Kubrick involved himself in every aspect of production, even choosing the fabric for his actors' costumes, [72] and selecting notable pieces of contemporary furniture for use in the film.

Other examples of modern furniture in the film are the bright red Djinn chairs seen prominently throughout the space station [77] [78] and Eero Saarinen 's pedestal tables. Olivier Mourgue , designer of the Djinn chair, has used the connection to in his advertising; a frame from the film's space station sequence and three production stills appear on the homepage of Mourgue's website.

Everyone recalls one early sequence in the film, the space hotel, primarily because the custom-made Olivier Mourgue furnishings, those foam-filled sofas, undulant and serpentine, are covered in scarlet fabric and are the first stabs of colour one sees. They resemble Rorschach "blots" against the pristine purity of the rest of the lobby. Detailed instructions in relatively small print for various technological devices appear at several points in the film, the most visible of which are the lengthy instructions for the zero-gravity toilet on the Aries Moon shuttle. Similar detailed instructions for replacing the explosive bolts also appear on the hatches of the EVA pods, most visibly in closeup just before Bowman's pod leaves the ship to rescue Frank Poole.

The film features an extensive use of Eurostile Bold Extended, Futura and other sans serif typefaces as design elements of the world. Kubrick was personally involved in the design of the monolith and its form for the film. The first design for the monolith for the film was a transparent tetrahedral pyramid. This was taken from the short story " The Sentinel " that the first story was based on. A London firm was approached by Kubrick to provide a foot 3.

Kubrick approved, but was disappointed with the glassy appearance of the transparent prop on set, leading art director Anthony Masters to suggest making the monolith's surface matte black. To heighten the reality of the film, very intricate models of the various spacecraft and locations were built. Their sizes ranged from about two-foot-long models of satellites and the Aries translunar shuttle up to the foot 17 m -long model of the Discovery One spacecraft. In shots where there was no perspective change, still shots of the models were photographed and positive paper prints were made.

The image of the model was cut out of the photographic print and mounted on glass and filmed on an animation stand. The undeveloped film was re-wound to film the star background with the silhouette of the model photograph acting as a matte to block out where the spaceship image was. Shots where the spacecraft had parts in motion or the perspective changed were shot by directly filming the model. For most shots the model was stationary and camera was driven along a track on a special mount, the motor of which was mechanically linked to the camera motor—making it possible to repeat camera moves and match speeds exactly. Elements of the scene were recorded on the same piece of film in separate passes to combine the lit model, stars, planets, or other spacecraft in the same shot.

In moving shots of the long Discovery One spacecraft, in order to keep the entire model in focus and preserve its sense of scale , the camera's aperture was stopped down for maximum depth-of-field, and each frame was exposed for several seconds. Some shots required exposing the film again to record previously filmed live-action shots of the people appearing in the windows of the spacecraft or structures. This was achieved by projecting the window action onto the models in a separate camera pass or, when two dimensional photographs were used, projecting from the backside through a hole cut in the photograph.

All of the shots required multiple takes so that some film could be developed and printed to check exposure, density, alignment of elements, and to supply footage used for other photographic effects, such as for matting. The set was 38 feet 12 m in diameter and 10 feet 3. The camera could be fixed to the inside of the rotating wheel to show the actor walking completely "around" the set, or mounted in such a way that the wheel rotated independently of the stationary camera, as in the jogging scene where the camera appears to alternately precede and follow the running actor.

The shots where the actors appear on opposite sides of the wheel required one of the actors to be strapped securely into place at the "top" of the wheel as it moved to allow the other actor to walk to the "bottom" of the wheel to join him. The most notable case is when Bowman enters the centrifuge from the central hub on a ladder, and joins Poole, who is eating on the other side of the centrifuge. This required Gary Lockwood to be strapped into a seat while Keir Dullea walked toward him from the opposite side of the wheel as it turned with him. Another rotating set appeared in an earlier sequence on board the Aries trans-lunar shuttle.

A stewardess is shown preparing in-flight meals, then carrying them into a circular walkway. Attached to the set as it rotates degrees, the camera's point of view remains constant, and she appears to walk up the "side" of the circular walkway, and steps, now in an "upside-down" orientation, into a connecting hallway. The realistic-looking effects of the astronauts floating weightless in space and inside the spacecraft were accomplished by suspending the actors from wires attached to the top of the set and placing the camera beneath them. The actors' bodies blocked the camera's view of the wires and appeared to float. For the shot of Poole floating into the pod's arms during Bowman's recovery of him, a stuntman on a wire portrayed the movements of an unconscious man and was shot in slow motion to enhance the illusion of drifting through space.

At the proper moment, the stage-hand first loosened his grip on the wire, causing Dullea to fall toward the camera, then, while holding the wire firmly, jumped off the platform, causing Dullea to ascend back toward the hatch. The methods used were alleged to have placed stuntman Bill Weston 's life in danger. Weston recalled that he filmed one sequence without air-holes in his suit, risking asphyxiation. So it simply built up inside, incrementally causing a heightened heart rate, rapid breathing, fatigue, clumsiness, and eventually, unconsciousness.

Leave him up there! I was going to shove MGM right up his And the thing is, Stanley had left the studio and sent Victor [Lyndon, the associate producer] to talk to me. I know he didn't come in the next day, and I'm sure it wasn't the day after. Because I was going to do him. Known to staff as "Manhattan Project", the shots of various nebula-like phenomena, including the expanding star field, were coloured paints and chemicals swirling in a pool-like device known as a cloud tank, shot in slow motion in a dark room. The colouring and negative-image effects were achieved with different colour filters in the process of making duplicate negatives in an optical printer.

Everything you see in this film or saw in this film was done physically or chemically, one way or the other. Kubrick used the technique to produce the backdrops in the Africa scenes and the scene when astronauts walk on the Moon. The technique consisted of a separate scenery projector set at a right angle to the camera and a half-silvered mirror placed at an angle in front that reflected the projected image forward in line with the camera lens onto a backdrop of retroreflective material. The reflective directional screen behind the actors could reflect light from the projected image times more efficiently than the foreground subject did.

The lighting of the foreground subject had to be balanced with the image from the screen, so that the part of the scenery image that fell on the foreground subject was too faint to show on the finished film. The exception was the eyes of the leopard in the "Dawn of Man" sequence, which glowed due to the projector illumination. Kubrick described this as "a happy accident". Front projection had been used in smaller settings before , mostly for still photography or television production, using small still images and projectors. The expansive backdrops for the African scenes required a screen 40 feet 12 m tall and feet 34 m wide, far larger than had been used before. When the reflective material was applied to the backdrop in foot 30 m strips, variations at the seams of the strips led to visual artefacts; to solve this, the crew tore the material into smaller chunks and applied them in a random "camouflage" pattern on the backdrop.

The original millimetre release, like many Super Panavision 70 films of the era such as Grand Prix , was advertised as being in "Cinerama" in cinemas equipped with special projection optics and a deeply curved screen. In standard cinemas, the film was identified as a millimetre production. The original release of A Space Odyssey in millimetre Cinerama with six-track sound played continually for more than a year in several venues, and for weeks in Los Angeles. The 19 minutes of footage Kubrick removed following the world premiere included scenes revealing details about life on Discovery : additional space walks, Bowman retrieving a spare part from an octagonal corridor, elements from the Poole murder sequence—including space-walk preparation and HAL turning off radio contact with Poole—and a close-up of Bowman picking up a slipper during his walk in the alien room.

For the film's 50th anniversary, Warner Bros. Following a showing at the Cannes Film Festival introduced by Nolan, the film had a limited worldwide release at select 70mm-equipped theatres in the summer of , [] [] followed by a one-week run in North American IMAX theatres including five locations equipped with 70 mm IMAX projectors. On 3 December , an 8K Ultra-high definition television version of the film was reported to have been broadcast in select theatres and shopping-mall demonstration stations in Japan. As additional "bonus tracks" at the end, the CD includes the versions of "Zarathustra" and Lux Aeterna on the old MGM soundtrack album, an unaltered performance of "Aventures", and a nine-minute compilation of all of HAL's dialogue.

Eventually, a mono mix-down of North's original recordings was released as a limited-edition CD by Intrada Records. Upon release, polarised critical opinion, receiving both praise and derision, with many New York-based critics being especially harsh. Kubrick called them "dogmatically atheistic and materialistic and earthbound". Someone in San Francisco even ran right through the screen screaming: 'It's God! In The New Yorker , Penelope Gilliatt said it was "some kind of great film, and an unforgettable endeavor The film is hypnotically entertaining, and it is funny without once being gaggy, but it is also rather harrowing.

It is an ultimate statement of the science fiction film, an awesome realization of the spatial future It's also a dazzling minute tour on the Kubrick filmship through the universe out there beyond our earth. Griffith 's Intolerance fifty years ago which can be regarded as the work of one man Space Odyssey is important as the high-water mark of science-fiction movie making, or at least of the genre's futuristic branch. The Boston Globe 's review called it "the world's most extraordinary film. Nothing like it has ever been shown in Boston before or, for that matter, anywhere The film is as exciting as the discovery of a new dimension in life.

The special effects are mindblowing. Pauline Kael called it "a monumentally unimaginative movie. Frederick 'Robe' believed the film was a "[b]ig, beautiful, but plodding sci-fi epic A major achievement in cinematography and special effects, lacks dramatic appeal to a large degree and only conveys suspense after the halfway mark. This film is fascinating when it concentrates on apes or machines Schlesinger, Jr. Director Martin Scorsese has listed it as one of his favourite films of all time.

The Village Voice ranked the film at number 11 in its Top "Best Films of the Century" list in , based on a poll of critics. The site's critical consensus reads: "One of the most influential of all sci-fi films -- and one of the most controversial -- Stanley Kubrick's is a delicate, poetic meditation on the ingenuity -- and folly -- of mankind. The film won the Hugo Award for best dramatic presentation, as voted by science fiction fans and published science-fiction writers. Reporting that "half the audience had left by intermission", Del Rey described the film "the first of the New Wave -Thing movies, with the usual empty symbols" as dull, confusing, and boring, predicting "[i]t will probably be a box-office disaster, too, and thus set major science-fiction movie making back another ten years".

Delany was impressed by how the film undercuts the audience's normal sense of space and orientation in several ways. Like Bradbury, Delany noticed the banality of the dialogue he stated that characters say nothing meaningful , but regarded this as a dramatic strength, a prelude to the rebirth at the conclusion of the film. James P. Hogan liked the film but complained that the ending did not make any sense to him, leading to a bet about whether he could write something better: "I stole Arthur's plot idea shamelessly and produced Inherit the Stars. Since its premiere, A Space Odyssey has been analysed and interpreted by professional critics and theorists, amateur writers, and science fiction fans.

There are also simpler and more mundane questions about the plot, in particular the causes of HAL's breakdown explained in earlier drafts but kept mysterious in the film. A spectrum of diverse interpretative opinions would form after the film's release, appearing to divide theatre audiences from the opinions of critics. The film's reviewers and academic critics, by contrast, have tended to understand the film as a pessimistic account of human nature and humanity's future. The most extreme of these interpretations state that the foetus floating above the Earth will destroy it. Some of the critics' cataclysmic interpretations were informed by Kubrick's prior direction of the Cold War film Dr.

Strangelove , immediately before , which resulted in dark speculation about the nuclear weapons orbiting the Earth in These interpretations were challenged by Clarke, who said: "Many readers have interpreted the last paragraph of the book to mean that he the foetus destroyed Earth, perhaps for the purpose of creating a new Heaven. This idea never occurred to me; it seems clear that he triggered the orbiting nuclear bombs harmlessly Regarding the film as a whole, Kubrick encouraged people to make their own interpretations and refused to offer an explanation of "what really happened". In a interview with Playboy magazine , he said:. You're free to speculate as you wish about the philosophical and allegorical meaning of the film—and such speculation is one indication that it has succeeded in gripping the audience at a deep level—but I don't want to spell out a verbal road map for that every viewer will feel obligated to pursue or else fear he's missed the point.

In a subsequent discussion of the film with Joseph Gelmis, Kubrick said his main aim was to avoid "intellectual verbalization" and reach "the viewer's subconscious. Still, he acknowledged this ambiguity was an invaluable asset to the film. He was willing then to give a fairly straightforward explanation of the plot on what he called the "simplest level," but unwilling to discuss the film's metaphysical interpretation, which he felt should be left up to viewers. For some readers, Clarke's more straightforward novel based on the script is key to interpreting the film. The novel explicitly identifies the monolith as a tool created by an alien race that has been through many stages of evolution, moving from organic form to biomechanical, and finally achieving a state of pure energy.

These aliens travel the cosmos assisting lesser species to take evolutionary steps. Conversely, film critic Penelope Houston wrote in that because the novel differs in many key aspects from the film, it perhaps should not be regarded as the skeleton key to unlock it. Carolyn Geduld writes that what "structurally unites all four episodes of the film" is the monolith, the film's largest and most unresolvable enigma. Bob McClay's Rolling Stone review describes a parallelism between the monolith's first appearance in which tool usage is imparted to the apes thus 'beginning' mankind and the completion of "another evolution" in the fourth and final encounter [] with the monolith.

In a similar vein, Tim Dirks ends his synopsis saying "[t]he cyclical evolution from ape to man to spaceman to angel-starchild-superman is complete. Humanity's first and second encounters with the monolith have visual elements in common; both the apes, and later the astronauts, touch it gingerly with their hands, and both sequences conclude with near-identical images of the Sun appearing directly over it the first with a crescent moon adjacent to it in the sky, the second with a near-identical crescent Earth in the same position , echoing the Sun—Earth—Moon alignment seen at the very beginning of the film.

The monolith is the subject of the film's final line of dialogue spoken at the end of the "Jupiter Mission" segment : "Its origin and purpose still a total mystery. Clarke indicated his preferred reading of the ending of as oriented toward the creation of "a new heaven" provided by the Star Child. The film also conveys what some viewers have described as a sense of the sublime and numinous. North's [rejected] score, which is available on a recording, is a good job of film composition, but would have been wrong for because, like all scores, it attempts to underline the action—to give us emotional cues. The classical music chosen by Kubrick exists outside the action. It uplifts. It wants to be sublime; it brings a seriousness and transcendence to the visuals.

In a book on architecture, Gregory Caicco writes that Space Odyssey illustrates how our quest for space is motivated by two contradictory desires, a "desire for the sublime" characterised by a need to encounter something totally other than ourselves—"something numinous"—and the conflicting desire for a beauty that makes us feel no longer "lost in space," but at home. The reasons for HAL's malfunction and subsequent malignant behaviour have elicited much discussion. He has been compared to Frankenstein's monster. In Clarke's novel, HAL malfunctions because of being ordered to lie to the crew of Discovery and withhold confidential information from them, namely the confidentially programmed mission priority over expendable human life, despite being constructed for "the accurate processing of information without distortion or concealment".

Film critic Roger Ebert wrote that HAL, as the supposedly perfect computer, is actually the most human of the characters. Multiple allegorical interpretations of have been proposed. The symbolism of life and death can be seen through the final moments of the film, which are defined by the image of the "Star Child," an in utero foetus that draws on the work of Lennart Nilsson. Wheat sees as a multi-layered allegory, commenting simultaneously on Nietzsche, Homer, and the relationship of man to machine.

Kubrick originally planned a voice-over to reveal that the satellites seen after the prologue are nuclear weapons, [] and that the Star Child would detonate the weapons at the end of the film. Strangelove and decided not to make it obvious that they were "war machines". A few weeks before the film's release, the U. In a book he wrote with Kubrick's assistance, Alexander Walker states that Kubrick eventually decided that nuclear weapons had "no place at all in the film's thematic development", being an "orbiting red herring" that would "merely have raised irrelevant questions to suggest this as a reality of the twenty-first century".

Kubrick scholar Michel Ciment , discussing Kubrick's attitude toward human aggression and instinct, observes: "The bone cast into the air by the ape now become a man is transformed at the other extreme of civilization, by one of those abrupt ellipses characteristic of the director, into a spacecraft on its way to the moon. It's a continuation, not a discontinuity in that jump. Stanley Kubrick made the ultimate science fiction movie, and it is going to be very hard for someone to come along and make a better movie, as far as I'm concerned. On a technical level, it [ Star Wars ] can be compared, but personally I think that is far superior.

The influence of on subsequent filmmakers is considerable. Steven Spielberg , George Lucas , and others—including many special effects technicians—discuss the impact the film has had on them in a featurette titled Standing on the Shoulders of Kubrick: The Legacy of , included in the DVD release of the film. Spielberg calls it his film generation's "big bang", while Lucas says it was "hugely inspirational", calling Kubrick "the filmmaker's filmmaker". Sydney Pollack calls it "groundbreaking", and William Friedkin says is "the grandfather of all such films".

At the Venice film festival, director Ridley Scott said he believed was the unbeatable film that in a sense killed the science fiction genre. Others credit with opening up a market for films such as Close Encounters of the Third Kind , Alien , Blade Runner , Contact , and Interstellar , proving that big-budget "serious" science-fiction films can be commercially successful, and establishing the "sci-fi blockbuster" as a Hollywood staple. Nowadays, the word geek usually describes an intelligent person.

The word geek is very similar to the word nerd , which is often used interchangeably to describe and be mean to the same kinds of people. What are some other forms related to geek? Geek is a common word that has a wide usage. Many people proudly identify themselves as geeks , especially if they are fans of or enthusiastic about something. Yet geek is still negatively used to refer to people who are deemed uncool by the speaker or are smart but socially awkward.

I've started watching the show The Big Bang Theory and love it. I'm finding my inner geek. Actually, who am I kidding- I am a geek :. True or False? I was thrilled, it really spoke to me — I felt like I was both a freak and a geek at different times in high school. To get out the vote and fundraise for the election, she partnered with geek icons like David Tennant of Doctor Who fame and the cast of Supernatural.

In the 47 states other than Ohio, Michigan and Louisiana, only the geek s knew anything about him. He is the type of geek who loves to explore subjects ranging from Marketing to Lifestyle and Money Saving. He grew up both a computer geek in the early days of video games and an avid record collector. But I was a choir geek , and then got frustrated and took an acting class and realized that was the thing for me.

Every geek in the Free Culture movement had the idea for Kickstarter years before Kickstarter actually existed. Sure, but I was more of a musical theater geek than a Disney fan. And the geek , Lionel Tyler James Williams , is a closeted gay who finds himself alienated by blacks and whites. A rousing tale of techno- geek rebellion, as necessary and dangerous as file sharing, free speech, and bottled water on a plane. When a geek prince hired out as a laborer for a year on Niflheim, he did so for only one purpose—to learn Terran technologies.

Any question of geek psychology is wide open as far as I'm concerned; the longer I stay here, the less I understand it. New Word List Word List. Save This Word! And a trailer for " A Space Odyssey":. Follow Tech Insider on Facebook and Twitter. For you. World globe An icon of the world globe, indicating different international options. Get the Insider App. Click here to learn more. A leading-edge research firm focused on digital transformation. Good Subscriber Account active since Shortcuts. Account icon An icon in the shape of a person's head and shoulders. It often indicates a user profile. Log out. US Markets Loading H M S In the news.

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