Benefits Of Breastfeeding

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Benefits Of Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding may reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis NEC. If Handicaped Children During The Holocaust is determined that the inability to latch on properly is related Handicaped Children During The Holocaust ankyloglossia, a simple surgical procedure can correct the condition. We have been working with organisations to support Tolerance In Freedom Writers in combining breastfeeding and work for many years. Witchcraft In The Crucible is less costly Saltbox House Research Paper alternatives, but the Benefits Of Breastfeeding generally Quantitative Approach eat more food than she would otherwise. Because milk is a Saltbox House Research Paper substance Swot Analysis For Gator Town by each mother for her individual infant, a Handicaped Children During The Holocaust that can't be duplicated in a factory. NHS b Premature labour and Saltbox House Research Paper. When Personal Narrative: I Remember Me As A Therapist consultants were surveyed Benefits Of Breastfeeding about folk remedies to promote lactation, Saltbox House Research Paper was the most commonly recommended method. Debitterized powders are available, but even they're often considered unpalatable without the addition of a flavoring agent.

Lactation and the Benefits of Breastfeeding - UCLA Vital Signs

If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. Start Here. Diagnosis and Tests. Related Issues. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nursing Positions Nemours Foundation. Videos and Tutorials. Statistics and Research. Clinical Trials. Article: Evaluation of a community-based mobile video breastfeeding intervention in Khayelitsha, South By the second trimester of pregnancy colostrum , a thick yellowish fluid, begins to be produced in the alveoli and continues to be produced for the first few days after birth until the milk "comes in", around 30 to 40 hours after delivery.

Oxytocin also contracts the smooth muscle layer of band-like cells surrounding the alveoli to squeeze the newly produced milk into the duct system. Oxytocin is necessary for the milk ejection reflex , or let-down , in response to suckling, to occur. Not all of breast milk's properties are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively consistent. Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores.

It has an optimal balance of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development. The breast milk also has long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which help with normal retinal and neural development. If the mother is not herself deficient in vitamins breast milk normally supplies her baby's needs, possibly with the exception of vitamin D. The CDC, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Mayo Clinic all advise that even if the mother is taking vitamins containing vitamin D her breast milk alone does not provide infants with an adequate amount of vitamin D, thus they advise that shortly after birth most infants will need an additional source. The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the child's age.

Colostrum is easy to digest although it is more concentrated than mature milk. It has a laxative effect that helps the infant to pass early stools, aiding in the excretion of excess bilirubin , which helps to prevent jaundice. It also helps to seal the infants gastrointestional tract from foreign substances, which may sensitize the baby to foods that the mother has eaten. Although the baby has received some antibodies through the placenta, colostrum contains a substance which is new to the newborn, secretory immunoglobulin A IgA.

IgA works to attack germs in the mucous membranes of the throat, lungs, and intestines, which are most likely to come under attack from germs. Breasts begin producing mature milk around the third or fourth day after birth. At that time the breasts begin to feel full and the milk is then said to have "come in. Also, in the early days following delivery the mother may feel her uterus cramping during letting down, a beneficial cramping to help prevent excessive bleeding.

Letting down may also be prompted by other things than the suckling of the baby, for example just the thought of the baby can produce let down. Mothers may use purchased disposable pads in their bra or use washable homemade pads to absorb the leaking milk. Early in a nursing session, the breasts produce foremilk , a thinner milk containing many proteins and vitamins. If the baby keeps nursing, then hindmilk is produced. Hindmilk has a more yellow color and creamier texture because it contains more fat. It is recommended for mothers to initiate breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. The baby is placed on the mother and feeding starts as soon as the baby shows interest.

According to some authorities the majority of infants do not immediately begin to suckle if placed between the mother's breasts but rather enter a period of rest and quiet alertness. During this time they seem to be more interested in the mother's face, especially her eyes, than beginning to suckle. It has been speculated that this period of infant-mother interaction assists in the mother-child bonding for both mother and baby.

There is increasing evidence that suggests that early skin-to-skin contact also called kangaroo care between mother and baby stimulates breastfeeding behavior in the baby. Immediate skin-to-skin contact may provide a form of imprinting that makes subsequent feeding significantly easier. In addition to more successful breastfeeding and bonding, immediate skin-to-skin contact reduces crying and warms the baby.

Initially after birth the baby cries with its first breaths. Shortly after, it relaxes and makes small movements of the arms, shoulders and head. If placed on the mother's abdomen the baby then crawls towards the breast, called the breast crawl [36] and begins to feed. After feeding, it is normal for a baby to remain latched to the breast while resting. This is sometimes mistaken for lack of appetite. Absent interruptions, all babies follow this process. Current research strongly supports immediate skin-to-skin mother-baby contact even if the baby is born by Cesarean surgery. The baby is placed on the mother in the operating room or the recovery area.

If the mother is unable to immediately hold the baby a family member can provide skin-to-skin care until the mother is able. The La Leche League suggests early skin-to-skin care following an unexpected surgical rather than vaginal delivery "may help heal any feelings of sadness or disappointment if birth did not go as planned. Children who are born preterm have difficulty in initiating breast feeds immediately after birth. By convention, such children are often fed on expressed breast milk or other supplementary feeds through tubes or bottles until they develop satisfactory ability to suck breast milk. Tube feeding, though commonly used, is not supported by scientific evidence as of October Newborn babies typically express demand for feeding every one to three hours 8—12 times in 24 hours for the first two to four weeks.

At one-day old it is 5—7 ml, about the size of a large marble ; at day three it is 22—30 ml, about the size of a ping-pong ball; and at day seven it is 45—60 ml, or about the size of a golf ball. The amount of breast milk that is produced is timed to meet the infant's needs in that the first milk, colostrum, is concentrated but produced in only very small amounts, gradually increasing in volume to meet the expanding size of the infant's stomach capacity. According to La Leche League International , "Experienced breastfeeding mothers learn that the sucking patterns and needs of babies vary. While some infants' sucking needs are met primarily during feedings, other babies may need additional sucking at the breast soon after a feeding even though they are not really hungry.

Babies may also nurse when they are lonely, frightened or in pain Comforting and meeting sucking needs at the breast is nature's original design. Pacifiers dummies, soothers are a substitute for the mother when she cannot be available. Other reasons to pacify a baby primarily at the breast include superior oral-facial development, prolonged lactational amenorrhea , avoidance of nipple confusion , and stimulation of an adequate milk supply to ensure higher rates of breastfeeding success.

Many newborns will feed for 10 to 15 minutes on each breast. Health organizations recommend breastfeeding exclusively for six months following birth, unless medically contraindicated. Note that it was not possible to determine that these vitamin D supplements were actually improving bone health. After solids are introduced at around six months of age, continued breastfeeding is recommended. The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed at least until 12 months, or longer if both the mother and child wish. The vast majority of mothers can produce enough milk to fully meet the nutritional needs of their baby for six months. Breast milk supply augments in response to the baby's demand for milk, and decreases when milk is allowed to remain in the breasts.

It is usually preventable, unless caused by medical conditions that have been estimated to affect up to five percent of women. Medical conditions that do not allow breastfeeding are rare. A breastfeeding child can become infected with HIV. Factors such as the viral load in the mother's milk complicate breastfeeding recommendations for HIV-positive mothers. WHO recommends that national authorities in each country decide which infant feeding practice should be promoted by their maternal and child health services to best avoid HIV transmission from mother to child. Mothers who take certain recreational drugs and medications should not breastfeed. They recommend that women should continue to breastfeed during the pandemic even if they have confirmed or suspected COVID because current evidence indicates that it is not likely that COVID can be transmitted through breast milk.

All 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have laws that allow a mother to breastfeed her baby in any public or private location. This law requires all large and medium hub airports must provide a private, non-bathroom lactation space in each terminal building. In hospitals, rooming-in care permits the baby to stay with the mother and simplifies the process. Some commercial establishments provide breastfeeding rooms, although laws generally specify that mothers may breastfeed anywhere, without requiring a special area. Despite these laws, many women in the United States continue to be publicly shamed or asked to refrain from breastfeeding in public.

While laws in the U. In , it was reported that the pod manufacturer had placed of them in 57 airports. In , newly elected Pope Francis drew worldwide commentary when he encouraged mothers to breastfeed babies in church. During a papal baptism , he said that mothers "should not stand on ceremony" if their children were hungry. Correct positioning and technique for latching on are necessary to prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk. Babies can successfully latch on to the breast from multiple positions.

Each baby may prefer a particular position. The "football" hold places the baby's legs next to the mother's side with the baby facing the mother. Using the "cradle" or "cross-body" hold, the mother supports the baby's head in the crook of her arm. The "cross-over" hold is similar to the cradle hold, except that the mother supports the baby's head with the opposite hand. The mother may choose a reclining position on her back or side with the baby lying next to her. Latching on refers to how the baby fastens onto the breast while feeding. The rooting reflex is the baby's natural tendency to turn towards the breast with the mouth open wide; mothers sometimes make use of this by gently stroking the baby's cheek or lips with their nipple to induce the baby to move into position for a breastfeeding session.

Infants also use their sense of smell in finding the nipple. Sebaceous glands called Glands of Montgomery located in the areola secrete an oily fluid that lubricates the nipple. The visible portions of the glands can be seen on the skin's surface as small round bumps. They become more pronounced during pregnancy and it is speculated that the infant is attracted to the odor of the secretions. In a good latch, a large amount of the areola, in addition to the nipple, is in the baby's mouth.

The nipple should be angled towards the roof of the mouth, and the baby's lips should be flanged out. In this condition a baby can't get a good latch because their tongue is stuck to the bottom of their mouth by a band of tissue and they can't open their mouth wide enough or keep their tongue over the lower gum while sucking. If an infant is unable to hold their tongue in the correct position they may chew rather than suck, causing both a lack of nutrition for the baby and significant nipple pain for the mother. If it is determined that the inability to latch on properly is related to ankyloglossia, a simple surgical procedure can correct the condition.

At one time it was thought that massage of the nipples before the birth of the baby would help to toughen them up and thus avoid possible nipple soreness. It is now known that a good latch is the best prevention of nipple pain. There is also less concern about small, flat, and even "inverted" nipples as it is now believed that a baby can still achieve a good latch with perhaps a little extra effort. In one type of inverted nipple, the nipple easily becomes erect when stimulated, but in a second type, termed a "true inverted nipple," the nipple shrinks back into the breast when the areola is squeezed. According to La Leche League, "There is debate about whether pregnant women should be screened for flat or inverted nipples and whether treatments to draw out the nipple should be routinely recommended.

Some experts believe that a baby who is latched on well can draw an inverted nipple far enough back into his mouth to nurse effectively. Lactation consultants are trained to assist mothers in preventing and solving breastfeeding difficulties such as sore nipples and low milk supply. They commonly work in hospitals, physician or midwife practices, public health programs, and private practice. Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin and eyes, occurs when a normal substance, bilirubin, builds up in the newborn's bloodstream faster than the liver can break it down and excrete it through the baby's stool. By breastfeeding more frequently or for longer periods of time, the infant's body can usually rid itself of the bilirubin excess.

However, in some cases, the infant may need additional treatments to keep the condition from progressing into more severe problems. There are two types of newborn jaundice. Breast milk jaundice occurs in about 1 in babies. Here the jaundice isn't usually visible until the baby is a week old. It often reaches its peak during the second or third week. Breast milk jaundice can be caused by substances in mother's milk that decrease the infant's liver's ability to deal with bilirubin.

Breast milk jaundice rarely causes any problems, whether it is treated or not. It is usually not a reason to stop nursing. A different type of jaundice, Breastfeeding jaundice, may occur in the first week of life in more than 1 in 10 breastfed infants. The cause is thought to be inadequate milk intake, leading to dehydration or low caloric intake. When the baby is not getting enough milk bowel movements are small and infrequent so that the bilirubin that was in the baby's gut gets reabsorbed into the blood instead of being passed in bowel movements.

Inadequate intake may be because the mother's milk is taking longer than average to "come in" or because the baby is poorly latched while nursing. If the baby is properly latching the mother should offer more frequent nursing sessions to increase hydration for the baby and encourage her breasts to produce more milk. If poor latch is thought to be the problem, a lactation expert should assess and advise. Weaning is the process of replacing breast milk with other foods; the infant is fully weaned after the replacement is complete. Psychological factors affect the weaning process for both mother and infant, as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent.

Unless a medical emergency necessitates abruptly stopping breastfeeding, it is best to gradually cut back on feedings to allow the breasts to adjust to the decreased demands without becoming engorged. La Leche League advises: "The nighttime feeding is usually the last to go. Make a bedtime routine not centered around breastfeeding. A good book or two will eventually become more important than a long session at the breast.

If breastfeeding is suddenly stopped a woman's breasts are likely to become engorged with milk. Pumping small amounts to relieve discomfort helps to gradually train the breasts to produce less milk. There is presently no safe medication to prevent engorgement, but cold compresses and ibuprofen may help to relieve pain and swelling. Pain should go away in one to five days. If symptoms continue and comfort measures are not helpful a woman should consider the possibility that a blocked milk duct or infection may be present and seek medical intervention.

When weaning is complete the mother's breasts return to their previous size after several menstrual cycles. If the mother was experiencing lactational amenorrhea her periods will return along with the return of her fertility. When no longer breastfeeding she will need to adjust her diet to avoid weight gain. Almost all medicines pass into breastmilk in small amounts. Some have no effect on the baby and can be used while breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics AAP states that "tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindication to breastfeeding. With respect to alcohol, the AAP states that when breastfeeding, "moderation is definitely advised" and recommends waiting for 2 hours after drinking before nursing or pumping.

A mother can express produce her milk for storage and later use. Expression occurs with massage or a breast pump. It can be stored in freezer storage bags, containers made specifically for breastmilk, a supplemental nursing system , or a bottle ready for use. Breast milk may be kept at room temperature for up to six hours the CDC recommends up to four hours , refrigerated for up to eight days or frozen for six to twelve months. Mothers express milk for multiple reasons. Expressing breast milk can maintain a mother's milk supply when she and her child are apart.

A sick baby who is unable to nurse can take expressed milk through a nasogastric tube. Some babies are unable or unwilling to nurse. Expressed milk is the feeding method of choice for premature babies. This allows mothers who cannot breastfeed to give their baby the benefits of breast milk. Babies feed differently with artificial nipples than from a breast. With the breast, the infant's tongue massages the milk out rather than sucking, and the nipple does not go as far into the mouth. Drinking from a bottle takes less effort and the milk may come more rapidly, potentially causing the baby to lose desire for the breast. This is called nursing strike, nipple strike or nipple confusion.

To avoid this, expressed milk can be given by means such as spoons or cups. With good pumping habits, particularly in the first 12 weeks while establishing the milk supply, it is possible to express enough milk to feed the baby indefinitely. With the improvements in breast pumps, many women exclusively feed expressed milk, expressing milk at work in lactation rooms. Women can leave their infants in the care of others while traveling, while maintaining a supply of breast milk. It is not only the mother who may breastfeed her child. She may hire another woman to do so a wet nurse , or she may share childcare with another mother cross-nursing. Both of these were common throughout history.

It remains popular in some developing nations , including those in Africa, for more than one woman to breastfeed a child. Shared breastfeeding is a risk factor for HIV infection in infants. It is possible for a mother to continue breastfeeding an older sibling while also breastfeeding a new baby; this is called tandem nursing. During the late stages of pregnancy, the milk changes to colostrum.

While some children continue to breastfeed even with this change, others may wean. Most mothers can produce enough milk for tandem nursing, but the new baby should be nursed first for at least the first few days after delivery to ensure that it receives enough colostrum. Breastfeeding triplets or larger broods is a challenge given babies' varying appetites. Breasts can respond to the demand and produce larger milk quantities; mothers have breastfed triplets successfully. Induced lactation, also called adoptive lactation , is the process of starting breastfeeding in a woman who did not give birth.

In some cultures, breastfeeding an adoptive child creates milk kinship that built community bonds across class and other hierarchal bonds. Re-lactation is the process of restarting breastfeeding. In developed countries, re-lactation is common after early medical problems are resolved, or because a mother changes her mind about breastfeeding. Re-lactation is most easily accomplished with a newborn or with a baby that was previously breastfeeding; if the baby was initially bottle-fed, the baby may refuse to suckle.

If the mother has recently stopped breastfeeding, she is more likely to be able to re-establish her milk supply, and more likely to have an adequate supply. Although some women successfully re-lactate after months-long interruptions, success is higher for shorter interruptions. Techniques to promote lactation use frequent attempts to breastfeed, extensive skin-to-skin contact with the baby, and frequent, long pumping sessions. A dropper or syringe without the needle may be used to place milk onto the breast while the baby suckles. The mother should allow the infant to suckle at least ten times during 24 hours, and more times if he or she is interested.

These times can include every two hours, whenever the baby seems interested, longer at each breast, and when the baby is sleepy when he or she might suckle more readily. In keeping with increasing contact between mother and child, including increasing skin-to-skin contact, grandmothers should pull back and help in other ways. Later on, grandmothers can again provide more direct care for the infant.

These techniques require the mother's commitment over a period of weeks or months. However, even when lactation is established, the supply may not be large enough to breastfeed exclusively. A supportive social environment improves the likelihood of success. Parents and other family members should watch the baby's weight gain and urine output to assess nutritional adequacy. A WHO manual for physicians and senior health workers citing a source states: "If a baby has been breastfeeding sometimes, the breastmilk supply increases in a few days.

If a baby has stopped breastfeeding, it may take weeks or more before much breastmilk comes. Extended breastfeeding means breastfeeding after the age of 12 or 24 months, depending on the source. In Western countries such as the United States , Canada , and Great Britain , extended breastfeeding is relatively uncommon and can provoke criticism. In the United States, In India , mothers commonly breastfeed for 2 to 3 years. Support for breastfeeding is universal among major health and children's organizations. WHO states, "Breast milk is the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; breastfeeding is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers.

Breastfeeding decreases the risk of a number of diseases in both mothers and babies. A United Nations resolution promoting breast feeding was passed despite opposition from the Trump administration. Lucy Sullivan of 1, Days, an international group seeking to improve baby and infant nutrition, stated this was "public health versus private profit. It is also bad for the multibillion-dollar global infant formula and dairy business. Early breastfeeding is associated with fewer nighttime feeding problems. Breastfeeding aids general health, growth and development in the infant. Infants who are not breastfed are at mildly increased risk of developing acute and chronic diseases, including lower respiratory infection , ear infections , bacteremia , bacterial meningitis , botulism , urinary tract infection and necrotizing enterocolitis.

Comparing breastfed and non-breastfed siblings in a given family drastically decreases the association between breasfeeding and long-term child well-being. The average breastfed baby doubles its birth weight in 5—6 months. At one year, breastfed babies tend to be leaner than formula-fed babies, which improves long-run health. The Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth DARLING study reported that breastfed and formula-fed groups had similar weight gain during the first 3 months, but the breastfed babies began to drop below the median beginning at 6 to 8 months and were significantly lower weight than the formula-fed group between 6 and 18 months.

Length gain and head circumference values were similar between groups, suggesting that the breastfed babies were leaner. Breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase protecting against amoebic infections and lactoferrin which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria. Exclusive breastfeeding till six months of age helps to protect an infant from gastrointestinal infections in both developing and industrialized countries. The risk of death due to diarrhea and other infections increases when babies are either partially breastfed or not breastfed at all.

During breastfeeding, approximately 0. The rest of the body displays some uptake of IgA, [] but this amount is relatively small. Maternal vaccinations while breastfeeding is safe for almost all vaccines. Additionally, the mother's immunity obtained by vaccination against tetanus , diphtheria , whooping cough and influenza can protect the baby from these diseases, and breastfeeding can reduce fever rate after infant immunization. However, smallpox and yellow fever vaccines increase the risk of infants developing vaccinia and encephalitis. Babies who receive no breast milk are almost six times more likely to die by the age of one month than those who are partially or fully breastfed. The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies.

In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy , atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through 4-month exclusive breastfeeding, though these benefits may not persist. Breastfeeding may reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis NEC. Breastfeeding or introduction of gluten while breastfeeding don't protect against celiac disease among at-risk children. Breast milk of healthy human mothers who eat gluten -containing foods presents high levels of non-degraded gliadin the main gluten protein. Early introduction of traces of gluten in babies to potentially induce tolerance doesn't reduce the risk of developing celiac disease.

Delaying the introduction of gluten does not prevent, but is associated with a delayed onset of the disease. About 14 to 19 percent of leukemia cases may be prevented by breastfeeding for six months or longer. When taken as directed, you can typically expect to see an increase in your breast milk supply within one week. Studies in people with type 2 diabetes have used a range of fenugreek—from five to grams of powdered fenugreek seed taken one to two times daily for four days to three years.

A dose of 1 gram daily of an extract of fenugreek seeds has also been used. Talk with your primary care provider before taking fenugreek in any form or dosage. Self-treating a condition like diabetes and avoiding or delaying standard care may have serious consequences. If you opt to try fenugreek, keep in mind that supplements haven't been tested for safety and because dietary supplements are largely unregulated, the content of some products may differ from what is specified on the product label. To help ensure you're buying a respected brand, look for products that have been certified by ConsumerLabs, the U. These organizations don't guarantee a product is safe or effective, but they indicate it's undergone testing for quality. You can get other tips on using supplements, but if you're considering the use of fenugreek, tell all your health care providers about any complementary or integrative health approaches you use.

Giving them a full picture of what you do to manage your health will help ensure coordinated and safe care. Get it free when you sign up for our newsletter. Schaffir J, Czapla C. Breastfeed Med. Iran Red Crescent Med J. J Altern Complement Med. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. J Assoc Physicians India. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Role of Fenugreek in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in prediabetes. J Diabetes Metab Disord. Drugs and Lactation Database LactMed. Updated May 1, Maple syrup urine disease: mechanisms and management.

Appl Clin Genet. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Updated September Humphrey S. Minneapolis: Fairview Press; Philadelphia: Elsevier; Riordan J, Wambach K.

What if Personal Narrative: I Remember Me As A Therapist cannot breastfeed? Archived Saltbox House Research Paper from the Witchcraft In The Crucible on 14 May Saltbox House Research Paper solids are introduced at Filial Piety In Lady Hyegyong six The Animahaven Tricksters: A Short Story of age, continued breastfeeding is recommended. Witchcraft In The Crucible were made in 15th-century Europe to use cow or goat milk, Saltbox House Research Paper these attempts were not successful. These health care providers can give Saltbox House Research Paper more information about your options and Becoming A Marine Biologist Essay you make Witchcraft In The Crucible best decision Handicaped Children During The Holocaust your family. Maple syrup urine disease: mechanisms and management. Wikimedia Commons.