The Black Death: The Hundred Years War

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The Black Death: The Hundred Years War

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100 Years War and Black Death

Had the Franch lost the remnants of their army in this manner, it is unlikely that they would have been able to recruit and train sufficient new military forces in time to to resist a renewed English invasion, especially as they seemed devoted to the old tactics. Had the English lost their army, they might have been compelled to settle for what they had already gained or might possibly have lost all, including Aquitaine Guyenne and Gascony , much earlier. In , after the last of the dead had been buried, the military situation had not changed significantly.

Both sides possessed the same advantages and disadvantages. While the armies that would clash over the next century were smaller, their sizes relative to one another remained the same. The elements of the formula that had allowed England to achieve the upper hand --better leadership, better access to resources, better tactics-- remained. In France, the inept Philip VI died and was replaced by the even more inept John the Good, continuing the tradition of Valois incapcaity and inability to learn from the failures of Crecy and Calais. France was, as it had been in the summer of , in turmoil and unable for the next half century to do anything to stop the systematic plunder of the country.

The Battle of Poitiers in saw the French king captured and his army smashed. The war for the next dozen years revolved around the English trying to collect the French king's ransom, while the rest of the Franch learned how to cope with English armies. Eventually, the greater French resources prevailed, leading to the peace of Bretigny in , a temporary pause in the war.. The major long term effect of the plague was to hasten social change in France and make an efficient central government possible. The feudal system was loosened up and a more democratic by the standards of the times system developed. The War was a series of short conflicts, broken intermittently by a number of truces and peace treaties.

It resulted from disputes between the ruling families of the two countries, the French Capetians and the English Plantagenets, over territories in France and the succession to the French throne. These battles were largely won by English Yeomen. These wars generated the feeling of patriotism and nationalism. Black Death: In the middle ages, people did not bother much about sanitation and cleanliness, so leprosy and other diseases which breed in dirt were very common. England was often visited by epidemics; especially plague. Black Death, outbreak of bubonic plague that struck Europe and the Mediterranean area during later half of the 14th century. The severest attack of this dreadful epidemic came in It was called the Black Death.

The epidemic swept away of the total population of the England at that time and left the country totally disorganized price, rose and the value of money declined. They revolts in because , the poll taxes imposed in , and were oppressive , Watt Taylor, Jack Straw and John Bull led the peasants revolt. The mob stormed Landon, but Richard II handled the situation very cunningly and got the leaders arrested and then beheaded. Revolutionized Language: Latin and French were the dominant languages in the 14th century in England. However, in lateral half of 14th century English came to its own because of the great works done by Chaucer, Langland and Wycliffe, who wrote in English. Extending from to , this period is noted for the extensive influence of French literature on native English forms and themes.

From the Norman-French conquest of England in until the 14th century, French largely replaced English in ordinary literary composition, and Latin maintained its role as the language of learned works. By the 14th century, when English again became the chosen language of the ruling classes, it had lost much of the Old English inflectional system, had undergone certain sound changes, and had acquired the characteristic it still possesses of freely taking into the native stock numbers of foreign words, in this case French and Latin ones. Thus, the various dialects of Middle English spoken in the 14th century were similar to Modern English and can be read without great difficulty today.

The widespread image of the "dance of death" showed death a skeleton choosing victims at random. Many of the most graphic depictions come from writers such as Boccaccio and Petrarch. They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug. And I, Agnolo di Tura And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world. How many valiant men, how many fair ladies, breakfast with their kinfolk and the same night supped with their ancestors in the next world! The condition of the people was pitiable to behold. They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help.

Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies. Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, like goods in a ship's hold and covered with a little earth. Although the Black Death highlighted the shortcomings of medical science in the medieval era, it also led to positive changes in the field of medicine. Further, at this time, the importance of surgeons became more evident. The gene affects T cell function, and provides protection against HIV , smallpox , and possibly plague, [47] though for the last, no explanation as to how it would do that, exists.

The Black Death also inspired European architecture to move in two different directions: 1 a revival of Greco-Roman styles, and 2 a further elaboration of the Gothic style. The basic Gothic style was revamped with elaborate decoration in the late medieval period. Sculptors in Italian city-states emulated the work of their Roman forefathers while sculptors in northern Europe, no doubt inspired by the devastation they had witnessed, gave way to a heightened expression of emotion and an emphasis on individual differences.

Images of intense sorrow, decaying corpses, and individuals with faults as well as virtues emerged. North of the Alps, painting reached a pinnacle of precise realism with Early Dutch painting by artists such as Jan van Eyck c. The natural world was reproduced in these works with meticulous detail whose realism was not unlike photography. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. One of the most devastating pandemics in human history. See also: Medieval demography. See also: Black Death Jewish persecutions. Main article: Black Death in medieval culture. Constructs such as ibid. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.

March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Princeton University Press. ISBN Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 November BBC News. There is a fair amount of geographic variation. Daileader, as above; Barry and Gualde, as above, Gottfried, as above. Norwegian historian Ole J. Geoffrey Brereton, Penguin, , corrections , p. The Black Death. ISBN , p. The influx of new citizens facilitated the movement of the plague between communities and contributed to the longevity of the plague within larger communities.

Kelly, John. NY: HarperCollins, , p. Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 3 January The Guardian. Retrieved 18 August October Comparative Studies in Society and History. JSTOR MadSci Network. ID: The Sydney Morning Herald. Bennett; C. Warren Hollister Medieval Europe: A Short History. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC Virginia Tech. Archived from the original on 6 February University of California Press. Spartacus Educational. The Economic History Review. Retrieved 5 August The black death: natural and human disaster in Medieval Europe 1. Free Press paperback ed. New York: Free Press. The Economist. Pasachoff, Robert J. Consequently, when the rat and the flea brought the Black Death, Jews, with better hygiene, suffered less severely Their attention to personal hygiene and diet, their forms of worship, and cycles of holidays were off-puttingly different.

Levy Antisemitism p. In areas where Jews appeared to die of the plague in fewer numbers than Christians, possibly because of better hygiene and greater isolation, lower mortality rates provided evidence of Jewish guilt.

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