Seven Day Terror Analysis

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Seven Day Terror Analysis



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Mark Hilliard. More from The Irish Times Environment. Irish Times News. Follow IrishTimesNews. Latest Ireland. Wicklow GAA to investigate brawl filmed at under 15s match Reform of Irish Water treatment plants to follow unsafe discharges The Cheka mercilessly suppressed all strikes, using arrests and executions. In the city of Astrakhan, a revolt led by the White Guard forces broke out. In preparing this revolt, the Whites managed to smuggle more than rifles and machine guns into the city. The leaders of the plot decided to act on the night March The rebels were joined by wealthy peasants from the villages, which suppressed the Committees of the Poor, and committed massacres against rural activists.

Eyewitnesses reported atrocities in villages such as Ivanchug, Chagan, Karalat. In response, Soviet forces led by Kirov undertook to suppress this revolt in the villages, and together with the Committees of the Poor restored Soviet power. The revolt in Astrakhan was brought under control by 10 March, and completely defeated by the 12th. More than were sentenced to death, including monarchists, and representatives of the Kadets, Left-Socialist Revolutionaries, repeat offenders, and persons shown to have links with British and American intelligence services. However, strikes continued. Lenin had concerns about the tense situation regarding workers in the Ural region. On 29 January , he sent a telegram to Vladimir Smirnov stating "I am surprised that you are taking the matter so lightly, and are not immediately executing large numbers of strikers for the crime of sabotage".

At these times, there were numerous reports that Cheka interrogators used torture. At Odessa the Cheka tied White officers to planks and slowly fed them into furnaces or tanks of boiling water; in Kharkiv , scalpings and hand-flayings were commonplace: the skin was peeled off victims' hands to produce "gloves"; the Voronezh Cheka rolled naked people around in barrels studded internally with nails; victims were crucified or stoned to death at Dnipropetrovsk ; the Cheka at Kremenchuk impaled members of the clergy and buried alive rebelling peasants; in Oryol , water was poured on naked prisoners bound in the winter streets until they became living ice statues; in Kiev , Chinese Cheka detachments placed rats in iron tubes sealed at one end with wire netting and the other placed against the body of a prisoner, with the tubes being heated until the rats gnawed through the victim's body in an effort to escape.

Executions took place in prison cellars or courtyards, or occasionally on the outskirts of town, during the Red Terror and Russian Civil War. After the condemned were stripped of their clothing and other belongings, which were shared among the Cheka executioners, they were either machine-gunned in batches or dispatched individually with a revolver. Those killed in prison were usually shot in the back of the neck as they entered the execution cellar, which became littered with corpses and soaked with blood. Victims killed outside the town were moved by truck, bound and gagged, to their place of execution, where they sometimes were made to dig their own graves. According to Edvard Radzinsky , "it became a common practice to take a husband hostage and wait for his wife to come and purchase his life with her body".

The Pyatigorsk Cheka organized a "day of Red Terror" to execute people in one day, and took quotas from each part of town. According to the Chekist Karl Lander [ ru ] , the Cheka in Kislovodsk , "for lack of a better idea", killed all the patients in the hospital. In October alone more than 6, people were executed. Gellately adds that Communist leaders "sought to justify their ethnic-based massacres by incorporating them into the rubric of the 'class struggle ' ".

Members of the clergy were subjected to particularly brutal abuse. The Constituent Assembly elections predated the split between the Right SRs , who had opposed the Bolsheviks, and the Left SRs , who were their coalition partners, consequentially many peasant votes intended for the latter went to the SRs. According to Richard Pipes , terror was inevitably justified by Lenin's belief that human lives were expendable in the cause of building the new order of communism.

Pipes has quoted Marx's observation of the class struggles in 19th century France: "The present generation resembles the Jews whom Moses led through the wilderness. It must not only conquer a new world, it must also perish in order to make room for the people who are fit for a new world", but noted that neither Karl Marx nor Friedrich Engels encouraged mass murder. Orlando Figes ' view was that Red Terror was implicit, not so much in Marxism itself, but in the tumultuous violence of the Russian Revolution. He noted that there were a number of Bolsheviks, led by Lev Kamenev , Nikolai Bukharin and Mikhail Olminsky , who criticized the actions and warned that thanks to "Lenin's violent seizure of power and his rejection of democracy," the Bolsheviks would be "forced to turn increasingly to terror to silence their political critics and subjugate a society they could not control by other means.

It was an integral element of the social revolution from the start. The Bolsheviks encouraged but did not create this mass terror. The main institutions of the Terror were all shaped, at least in part, in response to these pressures from below. The German Marxist Karl Kautsky pleaded with Lenin against using violence as a form of terrorism because it was indiscriminate, intended to frighten the civilian population and included the taking and executing hostages: "Among the phenomena for which Bolshevism has been responsible, terrorism, which begins with the abolition of every form of freedom of the Press, and ends in a system of wholesale execution, is certainly the most striking and the most repellent of all.

The Bolshevik policy of terror was more systematic, better organized, and targeted at whole social classes. Moreover, it had been thought out and put into practice before the outbreak of the civil war. The White Terror was never systematized in such a fashion. It was almost invariably the work of detachments that were out of control, and taking measures not officially authorized by the military command that was attempting, without much success, to act as a government. If one discounts the pogroms, which Denikin himself condemned, the White Terror most often was a series of reprisals by the police acting as a sort of military counterespionage force.

The Cheka and the Troops for the Internal Defense of the Republic were a structured and powerful instrument of repression of a completely different order, which had support at the highest level from the Bolshevik regime. James Ryan points out that Lenin never advocated for the physical extermination of the entire bourgeoisie as a class, just the execution of those who were actively involved in opposing and undermining Bolshevik rule. Voices such as Kautsky calling for moderate use of violence met "furious reply" from Lenin in The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky Another theoretical and systematic argument in favor of organized terror in response to Kautsky's reservations was written by Trotsky in The Defense of Terrorism Trotsky argued that in the light of historical materialism, it is sufficient that the "violence is successful" for it to justify its "rightness".

Trotsky also introduced and provided ideological justification for many of the future features characterizing the Bolshevik system such as "militarization of labor" and concentration camps. The Red Terror was significant because it was the first of numerous Communist terror campaigns which were waged in Soviet Russia and many other countries. The beast has licked hot human blood. The man-killing machine is brought into motion But blood breeds blood We witness the growth of the bitterness of the civil war , the growing bestiality of men engaged in it.

The term 'Red Terror' was later used in reference to other campaigns of violence which were waged by communist or communist-affiliated groups. Some other events which were also called "Red Terrors" include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Red Terror Russia. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Campaign of political repression and executions in Russia by the Bolsheviks — This article is about the Red Terror in Russia. For other uses, see Red Terror disambiguation. Not to be confused with Great Terror or Red Scare. Kursky , People's Commissar of Interior G.

Bonch-Bruyevich , SU, 19, department 1, art. Soviet Union portal. Russian Revolution. Alpha History. Retrieved 4 August ISBN Inside Soviet Military Intelligence. New York: Macmillan. National Geographic. Retrieved 13 July The poet was just one of many victims of the Red Terror, a state-sponsored wave of violence that was decreed in Russia on September 5, , and lasted until Current History. Such was the Red Terror in its first period, within which we include the years Retrieved March 24, The Red Terror in Russia.

ISBN X. Campus Verlag. Cambridge University Press. The Russian Revolution. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Bruce Retrieved The Anarchist Library. Gardners Books. ISBN , page Kiev Random House. See also Stalin and His Hangmen. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press , Main currents of Marxism.

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