Summary: A Genealogy Of Modern Racism

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Summary: A Genealogy Of Modern Racism

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The system and ideology of the limpieza de sangre ostracized false Christian converts from society in order to protect it against treason. In Portugal , the legal distinction between New and Old Christian was only ended through a legal decree issued by the Marquis of Pombal in , almost three centuries after the implementation of the racist discrimination. The limpieza de sangre legislation was common also during the colonization of the Americas , where it led to the racial and feudal separation of peoples and social strata in the colonies. It was however often ignored in practice, as the new colonies needed skilled people. The latter argued that the Indians practiced human sacrifice of innocents, cannibalism , and other such "crimes against nature"; they were unacceptable and should be suppressed by any means possible including war, [] thus reducing them to slavery or serfdom was in accordance with Catholic theology and natural law.

It was one of the many controversies concerning racism, slavery, religion, and European morality that would arise in the following centuries and which resulted in the legislation protecting the natives. Augustine Spanish Florida , is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in the continental United States. In the Spanish colonies, Spaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, which was used for social control, and which also determined a person's importance in society. Although antisemitism has a long history, related to Christianity and native Egyptian or Greek religions [] anti-Judaism , racism itself is sometimes described as a modern phenomenon. In the view of the French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault , the first formulation of racism emerged in the Early Modern period as the " discourse of race struggle", and a historical and political discourse, which Foucault opposed to the philosophical and juridical discourse of sovereignty.

Chinese self-identification as a "yellow race" predated such European racial concepts. Boulainvilliers, who created the matrix of such racist discourse in medieval France , conceived of the "race" as being something closer to the sense of a "nation", that is, in his time, the "race" meant the "people". He conceived of France as being divided between various nations — the unified nation-state is an anachronism here — which themselves formed different "races". Boulainvilliers opposed the absolute monarchy , which tried to bypass the aristocracy by establishing a direct relationship to the Third Estate.

Thus, he developed the theory that the French aristocrats were the descendants of foreign invaders, whom he called the " Franks ", while according to him, the Third Estate constituted the autochthonous, vanquished Gallo-Romans , who were dominated by the Frankish aristocracy as a consequence of the right of conquest. Early modern racism was opposed to nationalism and the nation-state: the Comte de Montlosier , in exile during the French Revolution , who borrowed Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", thus showed his contempt for the Third Estate, calling it "this new people born of slaves While 19th-century racism became closely intertwined with nationalism, [] leading to the ethnic nationalist discourse that identified the "race" with the " folk ", leading to such movements as pan-Germanism , pan-Turkism , pan-Arabism , and pan-Slavism , medieval racism precisely divided the nation into various non-biological "races", which were thought to be the consequence of historical conquests and social conflicts.

Michel Foucault traced the genealogy of modern racism to this medieval "historical and political discourse of race struggle". According to him, it divided itself in the 19th century according to two rival lines: on one hand, it was incorporated by racists, biologists and eugenicists , who gave it the modern sense of "race", and they also transformed this popular discourse into a " state racism " e. On the other hand, Marxism also seized this discourse founded on the assumption of a political struggle that provided the real engine of history and continued to act underneath the apparent peace.

Thus, Marxists transformed the essentialist notion of "race" into the historical notion of " class struggle ", defined by socially structured positions: capitalist or proletarian. In The Will to Knowledge , Foucault analyzed another opponent of the "race struggle" discourse: Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalysis , which opposed the concept of "blood heredity ", prevalent in the 19th century racist discourse. Authors such as Hannah Arendt , in her book The Origins of Totalitarianism , have said that the racist ideology popular racism which developed at the end of the 19th century helped legitimize the imperialist conquests of foreign territories and the atrocities that sometimes accompanied them such as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide of — or the Armenian genocide of — Rudyard Kipling 's poem, The White Man's Burden , is one of the more famous illustrations of the belief in the inherent superiority of the European culture over the rest of the world, though it is also thought to be a satirical appraisal of such imperialism.

Racist ideology thus helped legitimize the conquest and incorporation of foreign territories into an empire, which were regarded as a humanitarian obligation partially as a result of these racist beliefs. However, during the 19th century, Western European colonial powers were involved in the suppression of the Arab slave trade in Africa, [] as well as in the suppression of the slave trade in West Africa. Thus, when the Hottentot Venus was displayed in England in the beginning of the 19th century, the African Association publicly opposed itself to the exhibition.

Examples of racial theories used include the creation of the Hamitic ethno-linguistic group during the European exploration of Africa. The term Hamite was applied to different populations within North Africa, mainly comprising Ethiopians , Eritreans , Somalis , Berbers , and the ancient Egyptians. Hamites were regarded as Caucasoid peoples who probably originated in either Arabia or Asia on the basis of their cultural, physical and linguistic similarities with the peoples of those areas. However, the Hamitic peoples themselves were often deemed to have failed as rulers, which was usually ascribed to interbreeding with Negroes. In the midth century, the German scholar Carl Meinhof — claimed that the Bantu race was formed by a merger of Hamitic and Negro races.

In the United States in the early 19th century, the American Colonization Society was established as the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off". Whitecapping , which started in Indiana in the late 19th century, soon spread throughout all of North America, causing many African laborers to flee from the land they worked on. In the US, during the s, racist posters were used during election campaigns.

In one of these racist posters see above , a black man is depicted lounging idly in the foreground as one white man ploughs his field and another chops wood. Accompanying labels are: "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread", and "The white man must work to keep his children and pay his taxes. Negro Estimate of Freedom! Capitol and is inscribed "Freedom and No Work".

My proposal is to make the encouragement of Chinese settlements of Africa a part of our national policy, in the belief that the Chinese immigrants would not only maintain their position, but that they would multiply and their descendants supplant the inferior Negro race I should expect that the African seaboard, now sparsely occupied by lazy, palavering savages, might in a few years be tenanted by industrious, order-loving Chinese, living either as a semidetached dependency of China, or else in perfect freedom under their own law. The Nazi party, which seized power in the German elections and maintained a dictatorship over much of Europe until the End of World War II on the European continent , deemed the Germans to be part of an Aryan " master race " Herrenvolk , who therefore had the right to expand their territory and enslave or kill members of other races deemed inferior.

The racial ideology conceived by the Nazis graded humans on a scale of pure Aryan to non-Aryan, with the latter viewed as subhuman. At the top of the scale of pure Aryans were Germans and other Germanic peoples including the Dutch , Scandinavians , and the English as well as other peoples such as some northern Italians and the French, who were said to have a suitable admixture of Germanic blood. The Nazis considered most Slavs to be non-Aryan Untermenschen. Between June and January , the Nazis killed an estimated 2. In the years —, around , Polish people, mostly women and children, became the victims of ethnicity-based massacres by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army , which was then operating in the territory of occupied Poland.

German praise for America's institutional racism was continuous throughout the early s, and Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models. White supremacy was dominant in the U. Bhagat Singh Thind , the Supreme Court ruled that high caste Hindus were not "white persons" and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship. Serious race riots in Durban between Indians and Zulus erupted in Between and , the apartheid regime took place. This regime based its ideology on the racial separation of whites and non-whites, including the unequal rights of non-whites. Several protests and violence occurred during the struggle against apartheid , the most famous of these include the Sharpeville Massacre in , the Soweto uprising in , the Church Street bombing of , and the Cape Town peace march of During the Congo Civil War — , Pygmy people were hunted down like game animals and eaten.

Both sides in the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. UN human rights activists reported in that rebels had carried out acts of cannibalism. Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of the Mbuti pygmies, has asked the UN Security Council to recognise cannibalism as both a crime against humanity and an act of genocide. The mass demonstrations and riots against African students in Nanjing , China , lasted from December to January Some 70, black African Mauritanians were expelled from Mauritania in the late s. The Jakarta riots of May targeted many Chinese Indonesians. Resentment against Chinese workers has led to violent confrontations in Africa [] [] [] and Oceania.

Peter Bouckaert, the Human Rights Watch 's emergencies director, said in an interview that "racist hatred" is the chief motivation behind the violence against Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. One form of racism in the United States was enforced racial segregation , which existed until the s, when it was outlawed in the Civil Rights Act of It has been argued that this separation of races continues to exist de facto today in different forms, such as lack of access to loans and resources or discrimination by police and other government officials. The modern biological definition of race developed in the 19th century with scientific racist theories.

The term scientific racism refers to the use of science to justify and support racist beliefs, which goes back to the early 18th century, though it gained most of its influence in the midth century, during the New Imperialism period. Also known as academic racism, such theories first needed to overcome the Church 's resistance to positivist accounts of history and its support of monogenism , the concept that all human beings were originated from the same ancestors, in accordance with creationist accounts of history.

These racist theories put forth on scientific hypothesis were combined with unilineal theories of social progress , which postulated the superiority of the European civilization over the rest of the world. Furthermore, they frequently made use of the idea of " survival of the fittest ", a term coined by Herbert Spencer in , associated with ideas of competition, which were named social Darwinism in the s.

Charles Darwin himself opposed the idea of rigid racial differences in The Descent of Man , in which he argued that humans were all of one species, sharing common descent. He recognised racial differences as varieties of humanity, and emphasised the close similarities between people of all races in mental faculties, tastes, dispositions and habits, while still contrasting the culture of the "lowest savages" with European civilization.

At the end of the 19th century, proponents of scientific racism intertwined themselves with eugenics discourses of " degeneration of the race" and "blood heredity ". They found their scientific legitimacy on physical anthropology , anthropometry , craniometry , phrenology , physiognomy , and others now discredited disciplines in order to formulate racist prejudices. Before being disqualified in the 20th century by the American school of cultural anthropology Franz Boas , etc. The neo-Darwinian synthesis, first developed in the s, eventually led to a gene-centered view of evolution in the s. According to the Human Genome Project , the most complete mapping of human DNA to date indicates that there is no clear genetic basis to racial groups.

While some genes are more common in certain populations, there are no genes that exist in all members of one population and no members of any other. The first theory of eugenics was developed in by Francis Galton — , who used the then-popular concept of degeneration. He applied statistics to study human differences and the alleged " inheritance of intelligence ", foreshadowing future uses of " intelligence testing " by the anthropometry school. During the rise of Nazism in Germany , some scientists in Western nations worked to debunk the regime's racial theories. A few argued against racist ideologies and discrimination, even if they believed in the alleged existence of biological races.

However, in the fields of anthropology and biology, these were minority positions until the midth century. However, this project had been abandoned. The race question had become one of the pivots of Nazi ideology and policy. Nazi propaganda was able to continue its baleful work unopposed by the authority of an international organisation. The Third Reich's racial policies , its eugenics programs and the extermination of Jews in the Holocaust , as well as the Romani people in the Porrajmos the Romani Holocaust and others minorities led to a change in opinions about scientific research into race after the war. Works such as Arthur de Gobineau 's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races — may be considered one of the first theorizations of this new racism, founded on an essentialist notion of race, which opposed the former racial discourse, of Boulainvilliers for example, which saw in races a fundamentally historical reality, which changed over time.

Gobineau, thus, attempted to frame racism within the terms of biological differences among humans, giving it the legitimacy of biology. Gobineau's theories would be expanded in France by Georges Vacher de Lapouge — 's typology of races , who published in The Aryan and his Social Role , in which he claimed that the white " Aryan race" " dolichocephalic ", was opposed to the "brachycephalic" race, of whom the " Jew " was the archetype. Vacher de Lapouge thus created a hierarchical classification of races, in which he identified the " Homo europaeus Teutonic, Protestant, etc.

He assimilated races and social classes , considering that the French upper class was a representation of the Homo europaeus , while the lower class represented the Homo alpinus. Applying Galton's eugenics to his theory of races, Vacher de Lapouge's "selectionism" aimed first at achieving the annihilation of trade unionists , considered to be a "degenerate"; second, creating types of man each destined to one end, in order to prevent any contestation of labour conditions.

His "anthroposociology" thus aimed at blocking social conflict by establishing a fixed, hierarchical social order. The same year, William Z. Ripley used identical racial classification in The Races of Europe , which would have a great influence in the United States. Other scientific authors include H. Chamberlain at the end of the 19th century a British citizen who naturalized himself as German because of his admiration for the "Aryan race" and Madison Grant , a eugenicist and author of The Passing of the Great Race Madison Grant provided statistics for the Immigration Act of , which severely restricted immigration of Jews, Slavs , and Southern Europeans, who were subsequently hindered in seeking to escape Nazi Germany.

Human zoos called "People Shows" , were an important means of bolstering popular racism by connecting it to scientific racism: they were both objects of public curiosity and of anthropology and anthropometry. Barnum in , a few years after the exhibition of Saartjie Baartman , the "Hottentot Venus", in England. Carl Hagenbeck , inventor of the modern zoos, exhibited animals beside humans who were considered "savages". Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was displayed in by eugenicist Madison Grant , head of the Bronx Zoo , as an attempt to illustrate the "missing link" between humans and orangutans : thus, racism was tied to Darwinism , creating a social Darwinist ideology that tried to ground itself in Darwin 's scientific discoveries.

Evolutionary psychologists John Tooby and Leda Cosmides were puzzled by the fact that in the US, race is one of the three characteristics most often used in brief descriptions of individuals the others are age and sex. They reasoned that natural selection would not have favoured the evolution of an instinct for using race as a classification, because for most of human history, humans almost never encountered members of other races. Tooby and Cosmides hypothesized that modern people use race as a proxy rough-and-ready indicator for coalition membership, since a better-than-random guess about "which side" another person is on will be helpful if one does not actually know in advance.

Their colleague Robert Kurzban designed an experiment whose results appeared to support this hypothesis. Using the memory confusion protocol , they presented subjects with pictures of individuals and sentences, allegedly spoken by these individuals, which presented two sides of a debate. The errors that the subjects made in recalling who said what indicated that they sometimes mis-attributed a statement to a speaker of the same race as the "correct" speaker, although they also sometimes mis-attributed a statement to a speaker "on the same side" as the "correct" speaker. In a second run of the experiment, the team also distinguished the "sides" in the debate by clothing of similar colors; and in this case the effect of racial similarity in causing mistakes almost vanished, being replaced by the color of their clothing.

In other words, the first group of subjects, with no clues from clothing, used race as a visual guide to guessing who was on which side of the debate; the second group of subjects used the clothing color as their main visual clue, and the effect of race became very small. Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually contributed to the development of cooperation. Political scientists Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod created a computer simulation wherein virtual individuals were randomly assigned one of a variety of skin colors, and then one of a variety of trading strategies: be color-blind, favor those of your own color, or favor those of other colors.

They found that the ethnocentric individuals clustered together, then grew, until all the non-ethnocentric individuals were wiped out. In The Selfish Gene , evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins writes that "Blood-feuds and inter-clan warfare are easily interpretable in terms of Hamilton 's genetic theory. Despite support for evolutionary theories relating to an innate origin of racism, various studies have suggested racism is associated with lower intelligence and less diverse peer groups during childhood. A neuroimaging study on amygdala activity during racial matching activities found increased activity to be associated with adolescent age as well as less racially diverse peer groups, which the author conclude suggest a learned aspect of racism.

It was also argued amygdala activity in response to racial stimuli represents increased threat perception rather than the traditional theory of the amygdala activity represented ingroup-outgroup processing. State racism — that is, the institutions and practices of a nation-state that are grounded in racist ideology — has played a major role in all instances of settler colonialism , from the United States to Australia. These governments advocated and implemented ideologies and policies that were racist, xenophobic, and, in the case of Nazism , genocidal. The Nuremberg Race Laws of prohibited sexual relations between any Aryan and Jew, considering it Rassenschande , "racial pollution". The Nuremberg Laws stripped all Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews second and first degree Mischlings , of their German citizenship.

This meant that they had no basic citizens' rights, e. In , Jews were banned from all professional jobs, effectively preventing them from having any influence in education, politics, higher education, and industry. On 15 November , Jewish children were banned from going to normal schools. By April , nearly all Jewish companies had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been persuaded to sell out to the Nazi government. This further reduced their rights as human beings; they were in many ways officially separated from the German populace. Legislative state racism is known to have been enforced by the National Party of South Africa during its Apartheid regime between and Here, a series of Apartheid legislation was passed through the legal systems to make it legal for white South Africans to have rights which were superior to those of non-white South Africans.

Non-white South Africans were not allowed involvement in any governing matters, including voting; access to quality healthcare; the provision of basic services, including clean water; electricity; as well as access to adequate schooling. Non-white South Africans were also prevented from accessing certain public areas, from using certain public transportation, and were required to live only in certain designated areas. Non-white South Africans were taxed differently than white South Africans and they were also required to carry on them at all times additional documentation, which later became known as "dom passes", to certify their non-white South African citizenship.

All of these legislative racial laws were abolished through a series of equal human rights laws which were passed at the end of the Apartheid era in the early s. Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies which are adopted or developed in order to oppose racism. In general, it promotes an egalitarian society in which people are not discriminated against on the basis of race. Examples of anti-racist movements include the civil rights movement , the Anti-Apartheid Movement and Black Lives Matter.

Nonviolent resistance is sometimes embraced as an element of anti-racist movements, although this was not always the case. Hate crime laws, affirmative action , and bans on racist speech are also examples of government policy which is intended to suppress racism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Race or ethnic-based discrimination.

Not to be confused with Discrimination based on skin color. General forms. Related topics. Allophilia Amatonormativity Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege Woke.

Race and ethnicity in Brazil in the United States. Racism in the United States. Racial bias in criminal news. Main article: Sociology of race and ethnic relations. Main article: Aversive racism. Main article: Color blindness race. See also: Cultural racism and Xenophobia. Further information: Institutional racism , State racism , Racial profiling , and Racism by country. Main article: Othering. Main article: Racial discrimination. Main article: Racial segregation. Main article: Supremacism. Main article: Symbolic racism. Further information: Ethnicity. Further information: Ethnic nationalism , Racial nationalism , and Romantic nationalism.

Further information: Medieval Arab attitudes to Black people. Further information: Limpieza de sangre. Main article: Scientific racism. Further information: Unilineal evolution. Further information: Eugenics. Further information: Polygenism , Typology anthropology , and Nordicism. See also: Ethnocentrism and Tribalism. Main article: Anti-racism. In Kuper, A. The Social Science Encyclopedia, Volume 2 3rd ed. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN Racism [is] the idea that there is a direct correspondence between a group's values, behavior and attitudes, and its physical features [ In Schaefer, Richard T.

Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. Sociology: exploring the architecture of everyday life 9th ed. Los Angeles: Sage. Retrieved December 23, American Anthropological Association. In the period since , European overseas empires and colonies were established The establishment of mines and plantations enriched Europe while impoverishing and decimating the conquered and enslaved peoples in Africa and the New World. The race concept helped to give all this the appearance of scientific justification. The arrogance of race: historical perspectives on slavery, racism, and social inequality. Racism : a global reader. Armonk, N. The Journal of Modern History.

JSTOR Merriam-Webster, Inc. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 February Racisms: An Introduction. Archived from the original on Retrieved The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 8 June European Union. Retrieved 3 February UN Treaty Series. United Nations. Archived from the original on 4 August Olson December Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. PMID If races are defined as genetically discrete groups, no. Researchers can, however, use some genetic information to group individuals into clusters with medical relevance. Nature Genetics. Kittles American Anthropologist. Archived from the original PDF on Smedley American Psychologist. CiteSeerX September Oxford University Press.

Accessed December 03, OED Online. Accessed December 3, Racism: A Short History. Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century. Retrieved 22 February Adopted December , entered into force January The CPS. Race: The History of an Idea in America. New York: Oxford University Press, The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Bantam Classic. Portraits of White Racism. New York: Cambridge University Press. Denton Theories of Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton about color and light via optical dispersion in physics were also extended by Robert Boyle into discourses of polygenesis , [13] speculating that maybe these differences were due to "seminal impressions".

However, Boyle's writings mention that at his time, for "European Eyes", beauty was not measured so much in colour, but in "stature, comely symmetry of the parts of the body, and good features in the face". On the other hand, historian Henri de Boulainvilliers — divided the French as two races: i the aristocratic "French race" descended from the invader Germanic Franks , and ii the indigenous Gallo-Roman race the political Third Estate populace. The Frankish aristocracy dominated the Gauls by innate right of conquest.

In his time, Henri de Boulainvilliers , a believer in the "right of conquest", did not understand "race" as biologically immutable, but as a contemporary cultural construct. His theory of race was distinct from the biological facts manipulated in 19th-century scientific racism [ citation needed ] cf. Cultural relativism. Richard Bradley — was an English naturalist. In his book "Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature" , he claimed there to be "five sorts of men" based on their skin colour and other physical characteristics: white Europeans with beards; white men in America without beards meaning Native Americans ; men with copper colour skin, small eyes and straight black hair; Blacks with straight black hair; and Blacks with curly hair.

It has been speculated that his account inspired Linnaeus' later categorisation. The Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames — was a polygenist ; he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his book Sketches on the History of Man , Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks. Carl Linnaeus — , the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist, modified the established taxonomic bases of binomial nomenclature for fauna and flora, and also made a classification of humans into different subgroups. In the twelfth edition of Systema Naturae , he labeled five [22] " varieties " [23] [24] of human species.

Each one was described as possessing the following physiognomic characteristics "varying by culture and place" : [25]. There are disagreements about the basis for Linnaeus' human taxa. On the one hand, his harshest critics say the classification was not only ethnocentric but seemed to be based upon skin-color. Kennedy , Linnaeus certainly considered his own culture better, but his motives for classification of human varieties were not race-centered. In a essay published by the Linnean Society of London , Marie-Christine Skuncke interpreted Linnaeus' statements as reflecting a view that "Europeans' superiority resides in "culture" , and that the decisive factor in Linnaeus' taxa was "culture", not race.

Thus, regarding this topic, they consider Linnaeus' view as merely " eurocentric ", arguing that Linnaeus never called for racist action, and did not use the word "race", which was only introduced later "by his French opponent Buffon ". Scholar Stanley A. Rice agrees that Linnaeus' classification was not meant to "imply a hierarchy of humanness or superiority"; [40] although modern critics see that his classification was obviously stereotyped , and erroneous for having included anthropological , non-biological features such as customs or traditions. John Hunter — , a Scottish surgeon, said that originally the Negroid race was white at birth.

He thought that over time because of the sun, the people turned dark skinned, or "black". Hunter also said that blisters and burns would likely turn white on a Negro, which he believed was evidence that their ancestors were originally white. Charles White — , an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the " Great Chain of Being ", and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that whites and Negroes were two different species.

White was a believer in polygeny , the idea that different races had been created separately. His Account of the Regular Gradation in Man provided an empirical basis for this idea. White defended the theory of polygeny by rebutting French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon 's interfertility argument, which said that only the same species can interbreed. White pointed to species hybrids such as foxes, wolves , and jackals , which were separate groups that were still able to interbreed. For White, each race was a separate species, divinely created for its own geographical region. The French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon — and the German anatomist Johann Blumenbach — were proponents of monogenism , the concept that all races have a single origin.

According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian , Mongolian , Negroid , American , and the Malay race. Blumenbach said: "I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian for the reasons given below which make me esteem it the primeval one. Before James Hutton and the emergence of scientific geology, many believed the earth was only 6, years old. Buffon had conducted experiments with heated balls of iron which he believed were a model for the earth's core and concluded that the earth was 75, years old, but did not extend the time since Adam and the origin of humanity back more than 8, years — not much further than the 6, years of the prevailing Ussher chronology subscribed to by most of the monogenists.

Benjamin Rush — , a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism", and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were really white underneath but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder' Christoph Meiners — was a German polygenist and believed that each race had a separate origin.

Meiner studied the physical, mental and moral characteristics of each race, and built a race hierarchy based on his findings. Meiners split mankind into two divisions, which he labelled the "beautiful white race " and the "ugly black race ". In Meiners's book The Outline of History of Mankind , he said that a main characteristic of race is either beauty or ugliness. He thought only the white race to be beautiful. He considered ugly races to be inferior, immoral and animal-like. He said that the dark, ugly peoples were distinct from the white, beautiful peoples by their "sad" lack of virtue and their "terrible vices". The more intelligent and noble people are by nature, the more adaptable, sensitive, delicate, and soft is their body; on the other hand, the less they possess the capacity and disposition towards virtue, the more they lack adaptability; and not only that, but the less sensitive are their bodies, the more can they tolerate extreme pain or the rapid alteration of heat and cold; when they are exposed to illnesses, the more rapid their recovery from wounds that would be fatal for more sensitive peoples, and the more they can partake of the worst and most indigestible foods Meiners said the Negro felt less pain than any other race and lacked in emotions.

Meiners wrote that the Negro had thick nerves and thus was not sensitive like the other races. He went as far as to say that the Negro has "no human, barely any animal, feeling". He described a story where a Negro was condemned to death by being burned alive. Halfway through the burning, the Negro asked to smoke a pipe and smoked it like nothing was happening while he continued to be burned alive. Meiners studied the anatomy of the Negro and came to the conclusion that Negroes have bigger teeth and jaws than any other race, as Negroes are all carnivores. Meiners claimed the skull of the Negro was larger but the brain of the Negro was smaller than any other race. Meiners claimed the Negro was the most unhealthy race on Earth because of its poor diet, mode of living and lack of morals.

Meiners also claimed the " Americans " were an inferior stock of people. He said they could not adapt to different climates, types of food, or modes of life, and that when exposed to such new conditions, they lapse into a "deadly melancholy". Meiners studied the diet of the Americans and said they fed off any kind of "foul offal". He thought they consumed very much alcohol. He believed their skulls were so thick that the blades of Spanish swords shattered on them.

Meiners also claimed the skin of an American is thicker than that of an ox. Meiners wrote that the noblest race was the Celts. They were able to conquer various parts of the world, they were more sensitive to heat and cold, and their delicacy is shown by the way they are selective about what they eat. Meiners claimed that Slavs are an inferior race, "less sensitive and content with eating rough food". He described stories of Slavs allegedly eating poisonous fungi without coming to any harm. He claimed that their medical techniques were also backward: he used as an example their heating sick people in ovens, then making them roll in the snow.

In Meiners's large work entitled Researches on the Variations in Human Nature , he studied also the sexology of each race. He claimed that the African Negroids have unduly strong and perverted sex drives, whilst only the white Europeans have it just right. Thomas Jefferson — was an American politician, scientist, [47] [48] and slave owner. His contributions to scientific racism have been noted by many historians, scientists and scholars. According to an article published in the McGill Journal of Medicine: "One of the most influential pre-Darwinian racial theorists, Jefferson's call for science to determine the obvious "inferiority" of African Americans is an extremely important stage in the evolution of scientific racism.

They seem to require less sleep. A black, after hard labor through the day, will be induced by the slightest amusements to sit up till midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out with the first dawn of the morning. They are at least as brave, and more adventuresome. But this may perhaps proceed from a want of forethought, which prevents their seeing a danger till it be present. When present, they do not go through it with more coolness or steadiness than the whites. They are more ardent after their female: but love seems with them to be more an eager desire, than a tender delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation. Their griefs are transient.

Those numberless afflictions, which render it doubtful whether heaven has given life to us in mercy or in wrath, are less felt, and sooner forgotten with them. In general, their existence appears to participate more of sensation than reflection Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the whites; in reason much inferior, as I think one [black] could scarcely be found capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid; and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous I advance it therefore as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.

However, by , Jefferson had to reassess his earlier suspicions of whether blacks were capable of intelligence when he was presented with a letter and almanac from Benjamin Banneker , an educated black mathematician. Delighted to have discovered scientific proof for the existence of black intelligence, Jefferson wrote to Banneker: [52]. Smith claimed that Negro pigmentation was nothing more than a huge freckle that covered the whole body as a result of an oversupply of bile, which was caused by tropical climates. Racial studies by Georges Cuvier — , the French naturalist and zoologist , influenced scientific polygenism and scientific racism.

Cuvier believed there were three distinct races: the Caucasian white , Mongolian yellow and the Ethiopian black. He rated each for the beauty or ugliness of the skull and quality of their civilizations. Cuvier wrote about Caucasians: "The white race, with oval face, straight hair and nose, to which the civilised people of Europe belong and which appear to us the most beautiful of all, is also superior to others by its genius, courage and activity". Regarding Negroes, Cuvier wrote: [55].

The Negro race The projection of the lower parts of the face, and the thick lips, evidently approximate it to the monkey tribe: the hordes of which it consists have always remained in the most complete state of barbarism. He thought Adam and Eve were Caucasian and hence the original race of mankind. The other two races arose by survivors' escaping in different directions after a major catastrophe hit the earth 5, years ago. He theorized that the survivors lived in complete isolation from each other and developed separately. One of Cuvier's pupils, Friedrich Tiedemann , was one of the first to make a scientific contestation of racism. He argued based on craniometric and brain measurements taken by him from Europeans and black people from different parts of the world that the then-common European belief that Negroes have smaller brains, and are thus intellectually inferior, is scientifically unfounded and based merely on the prejudice of travellers and explorers.

The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer — attributed civilizational primacy to the white races, who gained sensitivity and intelligence via the refinement caused by living in the rigorous Northern climate: [59]. The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians , are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste, or race, is fairer in colour than the rest, and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmins , the Inca , and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention, because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers, and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want, and misery, which, in their many forms, were brought about by the climate.

This they had to do to make up for the parsimony of nature, and out of it all came their high civilization. Franz Ignaz Pruner — was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He published a monograph on Negroes in He claimed that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism , which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also claimed that Negroes had brains very similar to those of apes and that Negroes have a shortened big toe, a characteristic, he said, that connected Negroes closely to apes.

The scientific classification established by Carl Linnaeus is requisite to any human racial classification scheme. In the 19th century, unilineal evolution , or classical social evolution, was a conflation of competing sociologic and anthropologic theories proposing that Western European culture was the acme of human socio-cultural evolution. The proposal that social status is unilineal—from primitive to civilized, from agricultural to industrial—became popular among philosophers, including Friedrich Hegel , Immanuel Kant , and Auguste Comte.

The Christian Bible was interpreted to sanction slavery and from the s to the s was often used in the antebellum Southern United States, by writers such as the Rev. Richard Furman and Thomas R. Cobb , to enforce the idea that Negroes had been created inferior, and thus suited to slavery. The French aristocrat and writer Arthur de Gobineau — , is best known for his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races —55 which proposed three human races black, white and yellow were natural barriers and claimed that race mixing would lead to the collapse of culture and civilization.

He claimed that "The white race originally possessed the monopoly of beauty, intelligence and strength" and that any positive accomplishments or thinking of blacks and Asians were due to an admixture with whites. His works were praised by many white supremacist American pro-slavery thinkers such as Josiah C. Nott and Henry Hotze. Gobineau believed that the different races originated in different areas, the white race had originated somewhere in Siberia, the Asians in the Americas and the blacks in Africa. He believed that the white race was superior, writing:.

I will not wait for the friends of equality to show me such and such passages in books written by missionaries or sea captains, who declare some Wolof is a fine carpenter, some Hottentot a good servant, that a Kaffir dances and plays the violin, that some Bambara knows arithmetic… Let us leave aside these puerilities and compare together not men, but groups. Gobineau later used the term " Aryans " to describe the Germanic peoples la race germanique.

Gobineau's works were also influential to the Nazi Party , which published his works in German. They played a key role in the master race theory of Nazism. Another polygenist evolutionist was Carl Vogt — who believed that the Negro race was related to the ape. He wrote the white race was a separate species to Negroes. The difference between them, he claimed are greater than those between two species of ape; and this proves that Negroes are a separate species from the whites.

Charles Darwin 's views on race have been a topic of much discussion and debate. According to Jackson and Weidman, Darwin was a moderate in the 19th century debates about race. Darwin's influential book On the Origin of Species did not discuss human origins. The extended wording on the title page, which adds by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life , uses the general terminology of biological races as an alternative for " varieties " and does not carry the modern connotation of human races.

In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex , Darwin examined the question of "Arguments in favour of, and opposed to, ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species" and reported no racial distinctions that would indicate that human races are discrete species. Although Darwinism was not the primary source of the belligerent ideology and dogmatic racism of the late nineteenth century, it did become a new instrument in the hands of the theorists of race and struggle The Darwinist mood sustained the belief in Anglo-Saxon racial superiority which obsessed many American thinkers in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

The measure of world domination already achieved by the 'race' seemed to prove it the fittest. Darwin himself, in spite of his aversion to slavery, was not averse to the idea that some races were more fit than others. On the other hand, Robert Bannister defended Darwin on the issue of race, writing that "Upon closer inspection, the case against Darwin himself quickly unravels. An ardent opponent of slavery, he consistently opposed the oppression of nonwhites Although by modern standards The Descent of Man is frustratingly inconclusive on the critical issues of human equality, it was a model of moderation and scientific caution in the context of midcentury racism.

As an exponent of "race science", colonial administrator Herbert Hope Risley — used the ratio of the width of a nose to its height to divide Indian people into Aryan and Dravidian races, as well as seven castes. Like most of Darwin's supporters, [ citation needed ] Ernst Haeckel — put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist and polygenist August Schleicher , in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen German for "original humans" , which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors. These separate languages had completed the transition from animals to man, and, under the influence of each main branch of languages, humans had evolved as separate species, which could be subdivided into races.

Haeckel divided human beings into ten races, of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction. Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. Haeckel also wrote that Negroes have stronger and more freely movable toes than any other race which is evidence that Negroes are related to apes because when apes stop climbing in trees they hold on to the trees with their toes. Haeckel compared Negroes to "four-handed" apes. Haeckel also believed Negroes were savages and that whites were the most civilised.

At the 19th century's end, scientific racism conflated Greco-Roman eugenicism with Francis Galton 's concept of voluntary eugenics to produce a form of coercive, anti-immigrant government programs influenced by other socio-political discourses and events. Such institutional racism was effected via Phrenology , telling character from physiognomy; craniometric skull and skeleton studies; thus skulls and skeletons of black people and other colored volk , were displayed between apes and white men.

The most influential theorists included the anthropologist Georges Vacher de Lapouge — who proposed "anthroposociology"; and Johann Gottfried Herder — , who applied "race" to nationalist theory, thereby developing the first conception of ethnic nationalism. In , Ernest Renan contradicted Herder with a nationalism based upon the "will to live together", not founded upon ethnic or racial prerequisites see Civic nationalism.

Scientific racist discourse posited the historical existence of "national races" such as the Deutsche Volk in Germany, and the "French race" being a branch of the basal " Aryan race " extant for millennia, to advocate for geopolitical borders parallel to the racial ones. The Dutch scholar Pieter Camper —89 , an early craniometric theoretician, used "craniometry" interior skull-volume measurement to scientifically justify racial differences.

In , he conceived of the facial angle to measure intelligence among species of men. The facial angle was formed by drawing two lines: a horizontal line from nostril to ear; and a vertical line from the upper-jawbone prominence to the forehead prominence. Camper's craniometry reported that antique statues the Greco-Roman ideal had a degree facial angle, whites an degree angle, blacks a degree angle, and the orangutan a degree facial angle—thus he established a racist biological hierarchy for mankind, per the Decadent conception of history.

In the 19th century, an early American physical anthropologist , physician and polygenist Samuel George Morton — , collected human skulls from worldwide, and attempted a logical classification scheme. Influenced by contemporary racialist theory, Dr Morton said he could judge racial intellectual capacity by measuring the interior cranial capacity , hence a large skull denoted a large brain, thus high intellectual capacity.

Conversely, a small skull denoted a small brain, thus low intellectual capacity; superior and inferior established. After inspecting three mummies from ancient Egyptian catacombs, Morton concluded that Caucasians and Negroes were already distinct three thousand years ago. Since interpretations of the bible indicated that Noah's Ark had washed up on Mount Ararat only a thousand years earlier, Morton claimed that Noah's sons could not possibly account for every race on earth. According to Morton's theory of polygenesis, races have been separate since the start.

In Morton's Crania Americana , his claims were based on Craniometry data, that the Caucasians had the biggest brains, averaging 87 cubic inches, Native Americans were in the middle with an average of 82 cubic inches and Negroes had the smallest brains with an average of 78 cubic inches. In The Mismeasure of Man , the evolutionary biologist and historian of science Stephen Jay Gould argued that Samuel Morton had falsified the craniometric data, perhaps inadvertently over-packing some skulls, to so produce results that would legitimize the racist presumptions he was attempting to prove. A subsequent study by the anthropologist John Michael found Morton's original data to be more accurate than Gould describes, concluding that "[c]ontrary to Gould's interpretation Morton's research was conducted with integrity".

In , Paul Broca, founder of the Anthropological Society of Paris , found the same pattern of measures—that Crania Americana reported—by weighing specimen brains at autopsy. Other historical studies, proposing a black race—white race, intelligence—brain size difference, include those by Bean , Mall , Pearl , and Vint After the War of the Pacific —83 there was a rise of racial and national superiority ideas among the Chilean ruling class. Palacios argued on medical grounds against immigration to Chile from southern Europe claiming that Mestizos who are of south European stock lack "cerebral control" and are a social burden.

Samuel Morton's followers, especially Dr Josiah C. Nott — and George Gliddon — , extended Dr Morton's ideas in Types of Mankind , claiming that Morton's findings supported the notion of polygenism mankind has discrete genetic ancestries; the races are evolutionarily unrelated , which is a predecessor of the modern human multiregional origin hypothesis. Moreover, Morton himself had been reluctant to espouse polygenism, because it theologically challenged the Christian creation myth espoused in the Bible.

In this book, he classified humanity into various, hierarchized races, spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic", to the "brachycephalic", "mediocre and inert" race, best represented by Southern European, Catholic peasants". Jews were brachycephalic like the Aryans, according to Lapouge; but exactly for this reason he considered them to be dangerous; they were the only group, he thought, threatening to displace the Aryan aristocracy. Vacher de Lapouge's classification was mirrored in William Z. Ripley in The Races of Europe , a book which had a large influence on American white supremacism. Ripley even made a map of Europe according to the alleged cephalic index of its inhabitants. He was an important influence of the American eugenist Madison Grant.

Furthermore, according to John Efron of Indiana University , the late 19th century also witnessed "the scientizing of anti-Jewish prejudice ", stigmatizing Jews with male menstruation , pathological hysteria , and nymphomania. Joseph Deniker — was one of William Z. Ripley 's principal opponents; whereas Ripley maintained, as did Vacher de Lapouge, that the European populace comprised three races, Joseph Deniker proposed that the European populace comprised ten races six primary and four sub-races.

Furthermore, he proposed that the concept of "race" was ambiguous, and in its stead proposed the compound word " ethnic group ", which later prominently featured in the works of Julian Huxley and Alfred C. Moreover, Ripley argued that Deniker's "race" idea should be denoted a "type", because it was less biologically rigid than most racial classifications. Joseph Deniker's contribution to racist theory was La Race nordique the Nordic race , a generic, racial-stock descriptor, which the American eugenicist Madison Grant — presented as the white racial engine of world civilization. Having adopted Ripley's three-race European populace model, but disliking the "Teuton" race name, he transliterated la race nordique into "The Nordic race", the acme of the concocted racial hierarchy, based upon his racial classification theory, popular in the s and s.

Furthermore, much of early research on Ural-Altaic languages was coloured by attempts at justifying the view that European peoples east of Sweden were Asian and thus of inferior race, justifying colonialism, eugenics and racial hygiene. Though influential, the book was largely ignored when it first appeared, and it went through several revisions and editions. Nevertheless, the book was used by people who advocated restricted immigration as justification for what became known as scientific racism. In the United States, scientific racism justified Black African slavery to assuage moral opposition to the Atlantic slave trade.

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